Results for 'Analogy'

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  1.  10
    Reply to Devolder.On Reasoning Analogy - 2014 - In Arthur L. Caplan & Robert Arp (eds.), Contemporary debates in bioethics. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 101.
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  2.  43
    Should we agree to disagree? Pragmatism and peer disagreement.Susan Dieleman & Steven W. Visual Analogies and Arguments - unknown
    In this paper, I take up the conciliatory-steadfast debate occurring within social epistemology in regards to the phenomenon of peer disagreement. I will argue, because the conciliatory perspective al-lows us to understand argumentation pragmatically—as a method of problem-solving within a community rather than as a method for obtaining the truth—that in most cases, we should not simply agree to disagree.
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  3. Marie-laure Ryan.Creative Analogies - 1998 - Semiotica 118 (1/2):147-164.
     
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  4. Sam Shpall, University of Sydney.Dworkin'S. Literary Analogy - 2019 - In Toh Kevin, Plunkett David & Shapiro Scott (eds.), Dimensions of Normativity: New Essays on Metaethics and Jurisprudence. New York: Oxford University Press.
     
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  5. Donald L. Martin.Democracy Analogy Falters - forthcoming - Contemporary Issues in Business Ethics.
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  6.  20
    Analogy and Communication.Enrique Dussel - 2019 - Philosophies 4 (2):31.
    Analogy makes possible the dialogue between people. This dialogue, at the intercultural level and from distinct ontological comprehensions of life, cannot be achieved from a univocal pretension of meaning. Analogy permits, especially at the rhetoric level of Political Philosophy, an adequate interpretation of such complex concepts as people, state or rights. A semantics of these concepts by similarity allows us to advance in the process towards a better interpretation of the other interlocutor’s expression though never reaching identity.
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  7.  51
    The analogy of religion.Joseph Butler - 1736 - Wentworth Press.
    This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in our most important libraries around the world), and other notations in the work. This work is in the public domain (...)
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  8.  29
    Analogy in Terms of Identity, Equivalence, Similarity, and Their Cryptomorphs.Marcin J. Schroeder - 2019 - Philosophies 4 (2):32.
    Analogy belongs to the class of concepts notorious for a variety of definitions generating continuing disputes about their preferred understanding. Analogy is typically defined by or at least associated with similarity, but as long as similarity remains undefined this association does not eliminate ambiguity. In this paper, analogy is considered synonymous with a slightly generalized mathematical concept of similarity which under the name of tolerance relation has been the subject of extensive studies over several decades. In this (...)
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  9.  39
    Analogy and Visual Content: The Logica memorativa of Thomas Murner.Juan Manuel Campos Benítez - 2018 - Philosophies 4 (1):2.
    In this article, after some thoughts on medieval logic and teaching, we present Thomas Murner’s text, Logica memorativa, showing some of his mnemonic strategies for the student to learn logic quickly. Murner offers a type of “flash cards” that illustrate much of the teaching of logic at the beginning of the sixteenth century. The first impression is visual, because the cards do not contain words that illustrate their content. Murner’s exposition rests on analogies between logic themes that are explained and (...)
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  10.  7
    De Analogía..Santiago María Ramírez - 1970 - Madrid,: Instituto de Filosofía "Luis Vives,".
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  11.  9
    Surfaces and essences: analogy as the fuel and fire of thinking.Douglas R. Hofstadter - 2013 - New York: Basic Books. Edited by Emmanuel Sander.
    Shows how analogy-making pervades human thought at all levels, influencing the choice of words and phrases in speech, providing guidance in unfamiliar situations, and giving rise to great acts of imagination.
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  12. A Return to the Analogy of Being.Kris Mcdaniel - 2010 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 81 (3):688 - 717.
    Recently, I’ve championed the doctrine that fundamentally different sorts of things exist in fundamentally different ways.1 On this view, what it is for an entity to be can differ across ontological categories.2 Although historically this doctrine was very popular, and several important challenges to this doctrine have been dealt with, I suspect that contemporary metaphysicians will continue to treat this view with suspicion until it is made clearer when one is warranted in positing different modes of existence.3 I address this (...)
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  13. The analogy of names.Tommaso de Vio Cajetan - 1953 - Pittsburgh,: Duquesne University. Edited by Tommaso de Vio Cajetan.
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  14.  3
    The analogy of faith: the quest for God's speakability.Archie J. Spencer - 2015 - Downers Grove, Illinois: IVP Academic, an imprint of InterVarsity Press.
    If God is transcendent, how can human beings speak meaningfully about him? The answer lies in analogy, which recognizes both similarity and dissimilarity between God and our God-talk. In his erudite study, Archie Spencer argues for a christological account of analogy as the answer to the problem of God's speakability.
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  15.  4
    Weak Analogy.Bertha Alvarez Manninen - 2018-05-09 - In Robert Arp, Steven Barbone & Michael Bruce (eds.), Bad Arguments. Wiley. pp. 234–237.
    This chapter focuses on one of the common fallacies in Western philosophy called ' weak analogy'. As Patrick Hurley writes, the weak analogy fallacy “occurs when the conditions of an argument depend on an analogy (or similarity) that is not strong enough to support the conclusion”. Often, vegetarians and vegans will hear the following argument from analogy in defense of carnivorism: “Animals eat each other in nature, so it's permissible for us to eat them as well”. (...)
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  16.  7
    Analogical Symbols: The Role of Visual Cues in Long-Term Transfer.Zhe Chen, Lei Mo, Ryan Honomichl & Myeong-Ho Sohn - 2010 - Metaphor and Symbol 25 (2):93-113.
    We are reminded of relevant stories, tales, or symbols from long-term memory when facing a novel problem our daily lives. Visual cues are 1 tool known to facilitate reminding. In 2 experiments, Chinese students, who had experienced a folk tale many years ago during childhood, were asked to solve an analogous problem. We tested the hypothesis that a visual cue can help bridge the gap between a novel problem and a source analogy experienced in the distant past. Different types (...)
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  17.  32
    Asymmetrical Analogical Arguments.J. E. Adler - 2007 - Argumentation 21 (1):83-92.
    Analogies must be symmetric. If a is like b, then b is like a. So if a has property R, and if R is within the scope of the analogy, then b (probably) has R. However, analogical arguments generally single out, or depend upon, only one of a or b to serve as the basis for the inference. In this respect, analogical arguments are directed by an asymmetry. I defend the importance of this neglected – even when explicitly mentioned (...)
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  18.  7
    Analogy after Aquinas: logical problems, Thomistic answers.Domenic D'Ettore - 2019 - Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press.
    Since the first decade of the 14th Century, Thomas Aquinas’s disciples have struggled to explain and defend his doctrine of analogy. Analogy after Aquinas: Logical Problems, Thomistic Answers relates a history of prominent Medieval and Renaissance Thomists’ efforts to solve three distinct but interrelated problems arising from their reading both of Aquinas’s own texts on analogy, and from John Duns Scotus’s arguments against analogy and in favor of univocity in Metaphysics and Natural Theology. The first of (...)
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  19.  12
    Analogical Investigations: Historical and Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Human Reasoning.G. E. R. Lloyd - 2015 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Western philosophy and science are responsible for constructing some powerful tools of investigation, aiming at discovering the truth, delivering robust explanations, verifying conjectures, showing that inferences are sound and demonstrating results conclusively. By contrast reasoning that depends on analogies has often been viewed with suspicion. Professor Lloyd first explores the origins of those Western ideals, criticises some of their excesses and redresses the balance in favour of looser, admittedly non-demonstrative analogical reasoning. For this he takes examples both from ancient Greek (...)
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  20.  5
    The analogical reader: a cognitive approach to literary perspective taking.Peter Dixon - 2024 - New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Edited by Marisa Bortolussi.
    Using new empirical evidence, this book weaves together insights from a multidisciplinary review into a comprehensive theory on perspective taking. It is written for anyone interested in the phenomenon of perspective taking, including psychologists, literary scholars, linguists, philosophers, and educators.
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  21. Analogies, Moral Intuitions, and the Expertise Defence.Regina A. Rini - 2014 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 5 (2):169-181.
    The evidential value of moral intuitions has been challenged by psychological work showing that the intuitions of ordinary people are affected by distorting factors. One reply to this challenge, the expertise defence, claims that training in philosophical thinking confers enhanced reliability on the intuitions of professional philosophers. This defence is often expressed through analogy: since we do not allow doubts about folk judgments in domains like mathematics or physics to undermine the plausibility of judgments by experts in these domains, (...)
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  22. Hybrid Expressivism and the Analogy between Pejoratives and Moral Language.Ryan J. Hay - 2013 - European Journal of Philosophy 21 (3):450-474.
    : In recent literature supporting a hybrid view between metaethical cognitivism and noncognitivist expressivism, much has been made of an analogy between moral terms and pejoratives. The analogy is based on the plausible idea that pejorative slurs are used to express both a descriptive belief and a negative attitude. The analogy looks promising insofar as it encourages the kinds of features we should want from a hybrid expressivist view for moral language. But the analogy between moral (...)
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  23.  5
    Davidson's Measurement‐Theoretic Analogy.Piers Rawling - 2013 - In Ernie Lepore & Kurt Ludwig (eds.), Blackwell Companion to Donald Davidson. Blackwell. pp. 247–263.
    Donald Davidson is famous for, among other things, his theory of radical interpretation – an account of how it is that we can attribute meanings to people's words, and contents to their mental states, based on an apparent paucity of evidence. This account is infused with ideas from, and applications of, the general theory of measurement, as well as one specific instance of that theory – decision theory. In addition, however, Davidson also applies measurement theory – in the form of (...)
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  24.  28
    Analogy and Abstraction.Dedre Gentner & Christian Hoyos - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (3):672-693.
    A central question in human development is how young children gain knowledge so fast. We propose that analogical generalization drives much of this early learning and allows children to generate new abstractions from experience. In this paper, we review evidence for analogical generalization in both children and adults. We discuss how analogical processes interact with the child's changing knowledge base to predict the course of learning, from conservative to domain-general understanding. This line of research leads to challenges to existing assumptions (...)
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  25. Analogical Cognition: Applications in Epistemology and the Philosophy of Mind and Language.Theodore Bach - 2012 - Philosophy Compass 7 (5):348-360.
    Analogical cognition refers to the ability to detect, process, and learn from relational similarities. The study of analogical and similarity cognition is widely considered one of the ‘success stories’ of cognitive science, exhibiting convergence across many disciplines on foundational questions. Given the centrality of analogy to mind and knowledge, it would benefit philosophers investigating topics in epistemology and the philosophies of mind and language to become familiar with empirical models of analogical cognition. The goal of this essay is to (...)
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  26.  5
    The Distinctiveness Problem of Analogical Arguments.Yanlin Liao - 2024 - Informal Logic 44 (1):65-101.
    The orthodox view holds that analogical arguments are a distinctive type of argument, while the eliminative view and its enhanced variant proposed in this paper contend that analogical arguments can be reducible to non-analogical arguments by eliminating the similarities proposition. This paper shows that the existing defense for the orthodox view fails to tackle the challenge posed by the eliminative view and its enhanced variant. The new defense for the distinctiveness of analogical arguments argues that an analogical argument is composed (...)
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  27. The Logic of Analogy.Avi Sion - 2023 - USA: Amazon/Kindle.
    The Logic of Analogy is a study of the valid logical forms of qualitative and quantitative analogical argument, and the rules pertaining to them. It investigates equally valid conflicting arguments, statistics-based arguments and their utility in science, arguments from precedent used in law-making or law-application, and examines subsumption in analogical terms. Included for purposes of illustration is a large section on Talmudic use of analogical reasoning.
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  28. Analogical structure mapping and the formation of abstract constructions : a novel construction learning study.Ben Ambridge, Micah B. Goldwater & Elena V. M. Lieven - 2018 - In Kristen Surett & Sudha Arunachalam (eds.), Semantics in language acquisition. Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
     
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  29.  38
    From Analogical Proportion to Logical Proportions.Henri Prade & Gilles Richard - 2013 - Logica Universalis 7 (4):441-505.
    Given a 4-tuple of Boolean variables (a, b, c, d), logical proportions are modeled by a pair of equivalences relating similarity indicators ( \({a \wedge b}\) and \({\overline{a} \wedge \overline{b}}\) ), or dissimilarity indicators ( \({a \wedge \overline{b}}\) and \({\overline{a} \wedge b}\) ) pertaining to the pair (a, b), to the ones associated with the pair (c, d). There are 120 semantically distinct logical proportions. One of them models the analogical proportion which corresponds to a statement of the form “a (...)
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  30.  20
    Multiple Analogies in Science and Philosophy.Cameron Shelley - 2003 - John Benjamins Publishing.
    A multiple analogy is a structured comparison in which several sources are likened to a target. In "Multiple analogies in science and philosophy," Shelley provides a thorough account of the cognitive representations and processes that participate in multiple analogy formation. Through analysis of real examples taken from the fields of evolutionary biology, archaeology, and Plato's "Republic," Shelley argues that multiple analogies are not simply concatenated single analogies but are instead the general form of analogical inference, of which single (...)
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  31. Analogical Reflection as a Source for the Science of Life: Kant and the Possibility of the Biological Sciences.Dalia Nassar - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 2016 (58):57-66.
    In contrast to the previously widespread view that Kant's work was largely in dialogue with the physical sciences, recent scholarship has highlighted Kant's interest in and contributions to the life sciences. Scholars are now investigating the extent to which Kant appealed to and incorporated insights from the life sciences and considering the ways he may have contributed to a new conception of living beings. The scholarship remains, however, divided in its interest: historians of science are concerned with the content of (...)
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  32. Models, analogies, and theories.Peter Achinstein - 1964 - Philosophy of Science 31 (4):328-350.
    Recent accounts of scientific method suggest that a model, or analogy, for an axiomatized theory is another theory, or postulate set, with an identical calculus. The present paper examines five central theses underlying this position. In the light of examples from physical science it seems necessary to distinguish between models and analogies and to recognize the need for important revisions in the position under study, especially in claims involving an emphasis on logical structure and similarity in form between theory (...)
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  33.  52
    Analogy, Supposition, and Transcendentality in Narrative Argument.Gilbert Plumer - 2017 - In Paula Olmos (ed.), Narration as Argument. Cham, Switzerland: Springer Verlag. pp. 63-81.
    Rodden writes, “How do stories persuade us? How do they ‘move’—and move us? The short answer: by analogies.” Rodden’s claim is a natural first view, also held by others. This chapter considers the extent to which this view is true and helpful in understanding how fictional narratives, taken as wholes, may be argumentative, comparing it to the two principal (though not necessarily exclusive) alternatives that have been proposed: understanding fictional narratives as exhibiting the structure of suppositional argument, or the structure (...)
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  34. Analogical Reasoning in Ethics.Georg Spielthenner - 2014 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (5):861-874.
    In this article I am concerned with analogical reasoning in ethics. There is no doubt that the use of analogy can be a powerful tool in our ethical reasoning. The importance of this mode of reasoning is therefore commonly accepted, but there is considerable debate concerning how its structure should be understood and how it should be assessed, both logically and epistemically. In this paper, I first explain the basic structure of arguments from analogy in ethics. I then (...)
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  35. Analogy but no disanalogy: The case of urban slums.Carol Bertram - 2015 - In Wayne Hugo (ed.), Conceptual integration and educational analysis. Cape Town, South Africa: HSRC Press.
     
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  36. The analogy of photography, or the history of photography, part 1, 2015.Kaja Silverman - 2019 - In Christopher Want (ed.), Philosophers on film from Bergson to Badiou: a critical reader. New York: Columbia University Press.
     
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  37. Imperceptible analogy in art: the forest metaphors of Ramon Llull and Perejaume.Amador Vega - 2018 - In Armador Vega & Peter Weibel (eds.), Dia-logos: Ramon Llull's method of thought and artistic practice. Minneapolis, MN: University Of Minnesota Press.
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  38.  45
    Analogical Cognition: an Insight into Word Meaning.Timothy Pritchard - 2019 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 10 (3):587-607.
    Analogical cognition, extensively researched by Dedre Gentner and her colleagues over the past thirty five years, has been described as the core of human cognition, and it characterizes our use of many words. This research provides significant insight into the nature of word meaning, but it has been ignored by linguists and philosophers of language. I discuss some of the implications of the research for our account of word meaning. In particular, I argue that the research points to, and helps (...)
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  39. Analoge Argumente und Analogieargumente.David Löwenstein - 2015 - In Gregor Betz, Dirk Koppelberg, David Lüwenstein & Anna Wehofsits (eds.), Weiter Denken - Über Philosophie, Wissenschaft Und Religion. Boston: De Gruyter. pp. 105-124.
    Analogien lassen sich aus unserem vernünftigen Nachdenken und Argumentieren kaum wegdenken. Ganz zurecht stellen sie eines der klassischen Themen der Argumentationstheorie dar. Doch wie genau sollte die argumentative Rolle von Analogien in Argumentrekonstruktionen dargestellt werden? Das ist die Leitfrage dieses Beitrags. Zunächst wird mit Michael Dummetts Schach-Analogie ein prominentes Beispiel dargestellt und eine genauere Charakterisierung des Analogiebegriffs vorgeschlagen. Danach wird die gängigste Rekonstruktionsform von Analogien diskutiert, das Analogieargument, und in einigen Punkten verfeinert. Vor diesem Hintergrund schlägt der Beitrag eine zweite, (...)
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  40. Analogical reasoning and modeling in the sciences.Paulo Abrantes - 1999 - Foundations of Science 4 (3):237-270.
    This paper aims at integrating the work onanalogical reasoning in Cognitive Science into thelong trend of philosophical interest, in this century,in analogical reasoning as a basis for scientificmodeling. In the first part of the paper, threesimulations of analogical reasoning, proposed incognitive science, are presented: Gentner''s StructureMatching Engine, Mitchel''s and Hofstadter''s COPYCATand the Analogical Constraint Mapping Engine, proposedby Holyoak and Thagard. The differences andcontroversial points in these simulations arehighlighted in order to make explicit theirpresuppositions concerning the nature of analogicalreasoning. In the (...)
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  41.  68
    Portraying analogy.James F. Ross (ed.) - 1981 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    The attention of philosophers. linguists and literary theorists has been converging on the diverse and intriguing phenomena of analogy of meaning:the different though related meanings of the same word, running from simple equivocation to paronymy, metaphor and figurative language. So far, however, their attempts at explanation have been piecemeal and inconclusive and no new and comprehensive theory of analogy has emerged. This is what James Ross offers here. In the first full treatment of the subject since the fifteenth (...)
  42. Analogy.[author unknown] - 1980 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 42 (1):178-179.
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  43. Particularism, Analogy, and Moral Cognition.Marcello Guarini - 2010 - Minds and Machines 20 (3):385-422.
    ‘Particularism’ and ‘generalism’ refer to families of positions in the philosophy of moral reasoning, with the former playing down the importance of principles, rules or standards, and the latter stressing their importance. Part of the debate has taken an empirical turn, and this turn has implications for AI research and the philosophy of cognitive modeling. In this paper, Jonathan Dancy’s approach to particularism (arguably one of the best known and most radical approaches) is questioned both on logical and empirical grounds. (...)
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  44. Two analogy strategies: the cases of mind metaphors and introspection.Eugen Fischer - 2018 - Connection Science 30 (2):211-243.
    Analogical reasoning is often employed in problem-solving and metaphor interpretation. This paper submits that, as a default, analogical reasoning addressing these different tasks employs different mapping strategies: In problem-solving, it employs analogy-maximising strategies (like structure mapping, Gentner & Markman 1997); in metaphor interpretation, analogy-minimising strategies (like ATT-Meta, Barnden 2015). The two strategies interact in analogical reasoning with conceptual metaphors. This interaction leads to predictable fallacies. The paper supports these hypotheses through case-studies on ‘mind’-metaphors from ordinary discourse, and abstract (...)
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  45.  30
    Analogy in Indian and Western philosophical thought.David B. Zilberman - 2006 - Dordrecht: Springer. Edited by Helena Gourko & R. S. Cohen.
    This book is unusual in many respects. It was written by a prolific author whose tragic untimely death did not allow to finish this and many other of his undertakings. It was assembled from numerous excerpts, notes, and fragments according to his initial plans. Zilberman’s legacy still awaits its true discovery and this book is a second installment to it after The Birth of Meaning in Hindu Thought (Kluwer, 1988). Zilberman’s treatment of analogy is unique in its approach, scope, (...)
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  46.  19
    Analogy Lays the Foundation for Two Crucial Aspects of Symbolic Development: Intention and Correspondence.Lei Yuan & David H. Uttal - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (3):738-757.
    We argue that analogical reasoning, particularly Gentner's structure-mapping theory, provides an integrative theoretical framework through which we can better understand the development of symbol use. Analogical reasoning can contribute both to the understanding of others’ intentions and the establishment of correspondences between symbols and their referents, two crucial components of symbolic understanding. We review relevant research on the development of symbolic representations, intentionality, comparison, and similarity, and demonstrate how structure-mapping theory can shed light on several ostensibly disparate findings in the (...)
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  47.  10
    Analogical Comparison Promotes Theory‐of‐Mind Development.Christian Hoyos, William S. Horton, Nina K. Simms & Dedre Gentner - 2020 - Cognitive Science 44 (9):e12891.
    Theory‐of‐mind (ToM) is an integral part of social cognition, but how it develops remains a critical question. There is evidence that children can gain insight into ToM through experience, including language training and explanatory interactions. But this still leaves open the question of how children gain these insights—what processes drive this learning? We propose that analogical comparison is a key mechanism in the development of ToM. In Experiment 1, children were shown true‐ and false‐belief scenarios and prompted to engage in (...)
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  48.  24
    The Analogy between Light and Sound in the History of Optics from the Ancient Greeks to Isaac Newton. Part 1.Olivier Darrigol - 2010 - Centaurus 52 (2):117-155.
    Analogies between hearing and seeing already existed in ancient Greek theories of perception. The present paper follows the evolution of such analogies until the rise of 17th century optics, with due regard to the diversity of their origins and nature but with particular emphasis on their bearing on the physical concepts of light and sound. Whereas the old Greek analogies were only side effects of the unifying concepts of perception, the analogies of the 17th century played an important role in (...)
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  49.  76
    Analogical Understanding of Divine Causality in Thomas Aquinas.Piotr Roszak - 2017 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 9 (4):133-153.
    The article presents the question of understanding divine causality and its analogical character in the context of Thomas Aquinas’s teaching on Divine Providence. Analyzing Aquinas’s texts concerning the relation of God’s action towards nature and its activities it is necessary to emphasize the proper understanding of mutual relations between secondary causes and the primary cause which are not on the same level. Influenced by the reflection of M. Dodds and I Silva, the author of the article refers to Aquinas’s biblical (...)
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  50. Analogical Versus Discrete Theories of Possibility. E. Lombardo - 2002 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 80 (3):307.
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