The author argues that mathematics develops through interaction among partial transcendental subjects that correspond to a specific established theory and a meta-subject that is an "inventor" of new theories and approaches. He suggests that this twofold structure has a close similarity to Kantian transcendental subject.
Arsen RYCHINSKY is a well-known public figure of the first half of the twentieth century. His work, "Problems of Ukrainian Religious Consciousness," printed in 1933, even with notes, caused dissatisfaction with the Polish authorities that dominated the western Ukrainian lands. Three times A. Richinsky was imprisoned. For the same work, in 1939, a talented ethnologist of religion was imprisoned by Bolshevik authorities.
In some publications in book and newspaper forms, in the thoughts of civil servants who are concerned with national and religious issues, the version of Crimean Karaites belonging to Jewry still exists, considering their Karaite religion as a kind of Judaism only on the grounds that they have the Old Testament with their Holy Book The bible However, if one is to be strict in the logic of such reasoning, then Christianity should be included in Judaism, because in Christianity the (...) Sacred Book also has the same Old Testament. But for some reason, such conclusions about Christians do not apply to recipients of karayism. (shrink)
Department of Philosophy of Religion The Department of Religious Studies of IF NASU during 2006-2008 carried out the specified planned theme. Below we present its sections in the summary. The full study material will be published in the monograph under the same title, which will be published by the end of 2009. The book can be used as a textbook on religious studies.
Having considered the text of the "Charter of Muslims of Ukraine," the Department of Religious Studies firstly notes the positive fact of the emergence of a fundamentally new document that highlights the principles and approaches of the modern vision of the life of Muslim communities of Ukraine in a society with a dominant non-Muslim population. Moreover, unlike the famous "European Islamic Charter", which was adopted in 2008., the "Charter of Muslims of Ukraine" is a document more concrete and less declarative, (...) since it means the principles of the common life of Muslims, taking into account Ukrainian specifics. (shrink)
Participants of the symposium, having discussed the problem of the existence of Christianity in the context of national self-determination, the ethnoconclusion possibilities of the religious factor, taking into account the peculiarities of the development of Christianity in the political culture of society, the functioning and role of religion in the process of national self-determination of the state, the formation of ethnoconfessional self-consciousness.
In 1996, the number of religious communities, united in about 70 denominations and religious areas, continued to grow and at the beginning of 1997 reached 18482. Their property or There are 11897 religious buildings. There are currently 172 monasteries in obedience to 3892 monks and nuns, 26 brotherhoods, 104 missions, 68 religious schools, 5032 Sunday schools and catechesis centers, 122 spiritual p periodicals, many of which, unfortunately, for one reason or another, only come out a few numbers a year. The (...) religious needs of believers are satisfied with 16,429 priests, of whom 507 are foreigners, and we will consider these data in a confessional way. (shrink)
With the publication of a book by a well-known Polish religious scholar, associate professor at the Jagiellonian University Institute of Religious Studies, Henrik Hoffmann, "History of Polish Studies in Religious Studies 1873-1939", it can be argued that Polish religious studies and scholars have become more sophisticated. religious studies. For the first time in Polish historiography, various information was collected about basic ideas developed by Polish religious scholars, one of the most complete bibliographies of their works was submitted. This attention to (...) the bibliography has its explanation: G. Hoffmann is one of the authors of the unique and worthy imitation of the project on the computer registry of all books and articles that have been published in Poland on religious issues. (shrink)
Ukraine is a multi-confessional state, where, as of January 1, 2000, 23 543 religious community organizations, monasteries, missions, fraternities, educational establishments belonging to 90 denominations, branches, churches are officially registered.. In their property or use, there are over 16 637 religious buildings. Confessions have opened 250 convents, 184 missions, 49 brotherhoods, 121 religious schools, 7,165 Sunday schools and catechesis offices, and 194 periodicals. Religious needs of believers are satisfied by 21 281 priests, of whom 650 are foreigners.
The purpose of this article is to shed light on the peculiarities of language functioning in the structure of a person's religious consciousness. The article is an attempt to actualize and rethink some of the scientific methods of contemporary religious discipline in the light of new research in psychology and linguistics. Much has been done along the way. The most notable specialized work of recent years on this topic can be considered "Language and religion" by N.B. Mechkovskaya, which was released (...) in 1998. There are enough works relevant to our topic that should be addressed; in the field of psychology these are the works of Luria, Rubinstein, Leontiev, Vygotsky, Fromm, etc., ethnology and linguistics - Saussure, Levi-Strauss, Potebna, and others. (shrink)
Competition in retail banking lending forces banks to constantly analyze the proposed loan products and loan products to competitors, to develop and introduce new versions of products, improve existing conditions, taking into account the changing needs of the population, the provision of new social groups of potential borrowers, uses of credit and other factors. In the process, the banks are increasingly collaborating with sales, service, insurance and other organizations providing credit in conjunction with other services. The specificity of the emergence (...) of different types of retail lending, their interrelation and interpenetration leads to the necessity of ordering and classification of retail banking loans, as well as its continuous improvement and additions. The choice of reasonable criteria differentiation of types of retail loans based on certain classifications is rather difficult, but important problem. Scientific approaches to the classification of bank loans illuminated by representatives of such scholars H. Babin, U. Dremova, A. Lavrushin, W. Lexis, E. Litvinov, M. Petukhov, A. Plyetinska, N. Syekirina, M. Chirkova, N. Shabanova and others. The article aims to systematize criteria for the classification of retail banking loans, which will increase the efficiency of banks through differentiated product range of loans to meet the needs of customers. After systematization and critical analysis of scientific approaches to the classification of retail banking loans formed a plurality of types of loans and are presented in the form of classification of retail loans, depending on the following conditions: bank control over how the borrower spends money; speed of the Credit application; credit facility; credit terms; support; method of payment; Terms of; method of charging interest; giving way; category of the borrower; the amount of the loan; currency loan; type of interest rate; method of evaluating creditworthiness; segment of the retail market; sales channel. The classification best reflects the diversity of the types of retail banking loans and can be used to diversify the credit risk of investments, development of various loan products for the effective organization of retail lending, as well as to develop a differentiated system of assessing the creditworthiness of private borrowers. (shrink)
Kavramlar doğru anlamlandırılmadığı takdirde meselelerin anlaşılması noktasında yanlış sonuçlara varmanın kaçınılmaz olduğu bir hakikattir. Fıtrat kavramı bu manada insanın neliği bağlamında başat kavram olarak her daim farklı değerlendirmelere konu olmuştur. İnsanın, gerek kendisini var eden Allah ile olan ilişkisi gerekse hemcinsleriyle ve içerisinde yaşadığı âlemle ilişkisi çerçevesinde bu kavramın anlam alanının tespiti yine ait olduğu dünya üzerinden yapıldığı zaman konu hakkında doğru sonuçların elde edilmesine imkân tanıyacaktır. Kur’ân ve hadislerde yerini bulan fıtrat kavramının anlam alanına yönelik çalışmaların bu alanlarda derinlemesine (...) tahlili noktasında söz konusu metinleri, kendi iç bütünlükleri ve birbirleriyle olan ilişkileri bağlamında meseleyi ele alması, en sağlıklı yol olacaktır. Bu çalışmada kavramın önce sözlük anlamı, türevleri üzerinden ele alınmış daha sonra Kur’ân ve hadislerde geçtiği durumları, belirtilen usûl üzerinden değerlendirmeye tâbi tutulmuştur. Sonuç olarak luğavî anlamı da dikkate alınarak fıtrat kavramı ile Kur’ân’da insanın Allah’la ilişkisine, hadislerde ise insanın doğasındaki sâfiyete ve insanlarla olan ilişkisinde dikkat gerektiren yönüne vurgu yapıldığı ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır. (shrink)
In his later work, Metafizicheskie predpolozheniia poznaniia. Opyt preodoleniia Kanta i kantianstva [Metaphysical Presuppositions of Knowledge. An Attempt to Overcome Kant and Kantianism], Evgeny N. Trubetskoy tried to overcome the Kantian tradition in philosophy in order to advance his conception of all-unity and the philosophy of absolute and unconditional consciousness. Despite insisting on the distinction between the “historical Kant” and Neo-Kantianism, in reality Trubetskoy was strongly dependent on the Neo-Kantian interpretation of Kant’s philosophy, which meant that his fight against Kantian (...) philosophy was really fought against a conception of Kant he unconsciously adopted from the Neo-Kantians. Evidence of this can be seen in his interpretation of the theory of knowledge and its tasks, his thesis concerning the antimetaphysical direction of Kantian philosophy, and his insistence on the presence of the transcendental method in Kant’s philosophy. (shrink)
In the research investigated the present state, conditions and possibilities on introduction the free circulation of agricultural land in Ukraine, highlighted the main problems of its development, analyzed experience of sale and lease of agricultural land in European countries. It is demonstrated the survey results of shareholders and agricultural producers in the two districts - Bila Tserkva, Kyiv region and Uman, Cherkassy region. The model of the agricultural land market should meet not only economic efficiency and expediency, but also contribute (...) to the sustainable development of rural areas, where the circulation of agricultural land should be preceded by the introduction of fuses and restrictions. In order to prevent landlessness of peasants and the formation of latifundists, the free circulation of land can be implemented in two stages. 1 stage: land inventory, cadaster and land management system, which includes four subsystems: 1) land rights ; 3) land use ; 4) infrastructure development. Second stage of the market opening for state and communal property land. The priorities on purchase to be provided for the local communities, restriction on access the market for the legal entities, foreigners, introduction of other restrictions on the sale of agricultural land, the application the taxes differentiations on land sales, fees, etc. (shrink)
Öz Çalışmanın konusu irfanî geleneğin on beşinci yüzyıldaki önemli temsilcilerinden ve aynı zamanda İbnü’l-Arabî’nin takipçilerinden biri olan İbn Türke’nin varlık mertebelerine dair görüşleridir. Konu, İbn Türke’nin varlık ve varlığın mertebeleri ile ilgili düşüncelerinden hareketle hazırlanmıştır. Birincil kaynakların esas alındığı bu çalışmada, İbn Türke ve Ekberî geleneğin önemli temsilcilerinin eserlerine müracaat edilmiştir. Çalışmanın amacı, felsefe ve kelâmın yanı sıra tasavvuf felsefesinin en önemli konularından biri olan varlık düşüncesi ve varlık mertebelerini İbn Türke’nin görüşleri çerçevesinde ele alarak âlemdeki varoluşun hakikatinin ne olduğu, (...) insanoğlunun özünün nereden geldiği gibi temel sorulara cevap olabilecek özgün bir çalışma ortaya koymaktır. Bu çalışmayla; varlığın bir ve tek hakikat olduğu, Hak’tan feyz ederek görünür âlemde ortaya çıkan her şeyin O’nun isim ve sıfatlarının tecellisi olduğu, her ne kadar Hak’tan ayrıymış gibi görünse de aslında Hakk’a doğru sonsuz bir dönüş içerisinde olduğu, dolayısıyla tek varlıktan kaynaklı çok sayıda varlığın esasen yokluğa mahkûm olduğu ve asıl varlığın Allah olduğu sonucuna varılmıştır. (shrink)
According to familiar accounts, Rousseau held that humans are actuated by two distinct kinds of self love: amour de soi, a benign concern for one's self-preservation and well-being; and amour-propre, a malign concern to stand above other people, delighting in their despite. I argue that although amour-propre can (and often does) assume this malign form, this is not intrinsic to its character. The first and best rank among men that amour-propre directs us to claim for ourselves is that of occupying (...) 'man's estate'. This does not require, indeed it precludes, subjection of others. Amour-propre does not need suppression or circumscription if we are to live good lives; it rather requires direction to its proper end, not a delusive one. (shrink)
The article compares the functions of religious faith and religious experience as structural components of religious consciousness. Traditionally, in scientific studies, the problem of religious belief and religious experience is viewed separately from the perspective of psychology and philosophy of religion. However, the author of this article, while researching the structure of religious consciousness, noticed that at the present stage of the development of religious traditions, religious faith and religious experience perform rather related functions. This work is devoted to the (...) substantive disclosure of the relevance of this hypothesis. (shrink)
Skeptical theists are seeking for some reasonable solutions to the evidential problem of evil. One of the most fundamental responses of skeptical theism is that the concept of “gratuitous evil”, which cannot be a proof of the absence of God. Therefore, it is not the existence of God that skeptical theism suspects. Instead, skeptical theism contemplates whether the evil in the world really has a “gratuitous” basis. This paper focuses on Peter van Inwagen's “no-minimum claim”. No-minimum claim” stands in opposition (...) to the views that assume that God minimizes the evils that exist in the world in order to achieve justice. “No-minimum claim” acknowledges that these evils still have enormous amounts to people. Thus “no-minimum claim” suggests that the evils experienced in the world are incompatible with the “best of all possible worlds” views or the other explanations of classical theodicy. According to the “no minimum claim”, the reason why the amount of evil in the world still seems so high may be God’s deliberate calculations in effecting the distribution of these evils. In order to reach these calculations, it is not necessary for the amount of evil that God allowed to reflect on the world to be perfectly manifested at the minimum level. The purpose of this paper is to consider the skeptical theism approach within the framework of Peter van Inwagen's “no-minimum claim” and to limit his arguments to an alternative approach to skeptic theism. Our claim is that such view coincides with skeptical theism, but the “no- minimum claim” still has some ambiguities at the point of the limits of evil. From this, we can conclude that the “no minimum claim” has received many objections in the skeptical theism literature and these objections are justified at certain points. (shrink)
One of the distinctive features of the Twenty-seventh Congress of the CPSU was the extreme attention devoted to the theoretical and practical problems of perfecting socialism. Guided by Marxist-Leninist theory, the Congress underscored particularly that fidelity to this theory consists not in repeating the classical postulates and conclusions of Marxism, but in its creative development on the basis of accumulated experience. The Political Report of the CPSU Central Committee to the Twenty-seventh Congress contained the following statement by Lenin: "'Our theory (...) is not a dogma but a guide to action.' This is what Marx and Engels always said in justly ridiculing the rote memorization and simple repetition of ‘formulas’ capable in the best of cases of only marking out general tasks, which must undergo modifications in accordance with the concrete economic and political circumstances of every particular phase of the historical process.". (shrink)