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  1.  60
    Incorporation, Transparency and Cognitive Extension: Why the Distinction Between Embedded and Extended Might Be More Important to Ethics Than to Metaphysics.Mirko Farina & Andrea Lavazza - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (1):1-21.
    We begin by introducing our readers to the Extended Mind Thesis and briefly discuss a series of arguments in its favour. We continue by showing of such a theory can be resisted and go on to demonstrate that a more conservative account of cognition can be developed. We acknowledge a stalemate between these two different accounts of cognition and notice a couple of issues that we argue have prevented further progress in the field. To overcome the stalemate, we propose to (...)
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  2.  32
    Consciousness in a Rotor? Science and Ethics of Potentially Conscious Human Cerebral Organoids.Federico Zilio & Andrea Lavazza - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 14 (2):178-196.
    Human cerebral organoids are three-dimensional biological cultures grown in the laboratory to mimic as closely as possible the cellular composition, structure, and function of the corresponding organ, the brain. For now, cerebral organoids lack blood vessels and other characteristics of the human brain, but are also capable of having coordinated electrical activity. They have been usefully employed for the study of several diseases and the development of the nervous system in unprecedented ways. Research on human cerebral organoids is proceeding at (...)
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  3.  53
    Cerebral organoids: ethical issues and consciousness assessment.Andrea Lavazza & Marcello Massimini - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (9):606-610.
    Organoids are three-dimensional biological structures grown in vitro from different kinds of stem cells that self-organise mimicking real organs with organ-specific cell types. Recently, researchers have managed to produce human organoids which have structural and functional properties very similar to those of different organs, such as the retina, the intestines, the kidneys, the pancreas, the liver and the inner ear. Organoids are considered a great resource for biomedical research, as they allow for a detailed study of the development and pathologies (...)
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  4.  39
    Human cerebral organoids and consciousness: a double-edged sword.Andrea Lavazza - 2020 - Monash Bioethics Review 38 (2):105-128.
    Human cerebral organoids (HCOs) are three-dimensional in vitro cell cultures that mimic the developmental process and organization of the developing human brain. In just a few years this technique has produced brain models that are already being used to study diseases of the nervous system and to test treatments and drugs. Currently, HCOs consist of tens of millions of cells and have a size of a few millimeters. The greatest limitation to further development is due to their lack of vascularization. (...)
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  5.  48
    Minding Rights: Mapping Ethical and Legal Foundations of ‘Neurorights’.Sjors Ligthart, Marcello Ienca, Gerben Meynen, Fruzsina Molnar-Gabor, Roberto Andorno, Christoph Bublitz, Paul Catley, Lisa Claydon, Thomas Douglas, Nita Farahany, Joseph J. Fins, Sara Goering, Pim Haselager, Fabrice Jotterand, Andrea Lavazza, Allan McCay, Abel Wajnerman Paz, Stephen Rainey, Jesper Ryberg & Philipp Kellmeyer - 2023 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 32 (4):461-481.
    The rise of neurotechnologies, especially in combination with artificial intelligence (AI)-based methods for brain data analytics, has given rise to concerns around the protection of mental privacy, mental integrity and cognitive liberty – often framed as “neurorights” in ethical, legal, and policy discussions. Several states are now looking at including neurorights into their constitutional legal frameworks, and international institutions and organizations, such as UNESCO and the Council of Europe, are taking an active interest in developing international policy and governance guidelines (...)
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  6.  47
    Mind embedded or extended: transhumanist and posthumanist reflections in support of the extended mind thesis.Andrea Lavazza & Mirko Farina - 2022 - Synthese 200 (6):1-24.
    The goal of this paper is to encourage participants in the debate about the locus of cognition (e.g., extended mind vs embedded mind) to turn their attention to noteworthy anthropological and sociological considerations typically (but not uniquely) arising from transhumanist and posthumanist research. Such considerations, we claim, promise to potentially give us a way out of the stalemate in which such a debate has fallen. A secondary goal of this paper is to impress trans and post-humanistically inclined readers to embrace (...)
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  7.  33
    COVID-19 and Biomedical Experts: When Epistemic Authority is (Probably) Not Enough.Pietro Pietrini, Andrea Lavazza & Mirko Farina - 2022 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 19 (1):135-142.
    This critical essay evaluates the potential integration of distinct kinds of expertise in policymaking, especially during situations of critical emergencies, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. This article relies on two case studies: herd immunity and restricted access to ventilators for disabled people. These case studies are discussed as examples of experts’ recommendations that have not been widely accepted, though they were made within the boundaries of expert epistemic authority. While the fundamental contribution of biomedical experts in devising public health policies (...)
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  8. AI and society: a virtue ethics approach.Mirko Farina, Petr Zhdanov, Artur Karimov & Andrea Lavazza - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-14.
    Advances in artificial intelligence and robotics stand to change many aspects of our lives, including our values. If trends continue as expected, many industries will undergo automation in the near future, calling into question whether we can still value the sense of identity and security our occupations once provided us with. Likewise, the advent of social robots driven by AI, appears to be shifting the meaning of numerous, long-standing values associated with interpersonal relationships, like friendship. Furthermore, powerful actors’ and institutions’ (...)
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  9.  42
    Theoretical Neurobiology of Consciousness Applied to Human Cerebral Organoids.Matthew Owen, Zirui Huang, Catherine Duclos, Andrea Lavazza, Matteo Grasso & Anthony G. Hudetz - forthcoming - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics:1-21.
    Organoids and specifically human cerebral organoids (HCOs) are one of the most relevant novelties in the field of biomedical research. Grown either from embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells, HCOs can be used as in vitro three-dimensional models, mimicking the developmental process and organization of the developing human brain. Based on that, and despite their current limitations, it cannot be assumed that they will never at any stage of development manifest some rudimentary form of consciousness. In the absence of behavioral (...)
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  10.  15
    Why There Are Still Moral Reasons to Prefer Extended over Embedded: a (Short) Reply to Cassinadri.Andrea Lavazza & Mirko Farina - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (3):1-7.
    In a recent paper, Cassinadri raised substantial criticism about the possibility of using moral reasons to endorse the hypothesis of extended cognition over its most popular alternative, the embedded view. In particular, Cassinadri criticized 4 of the arguments we formulated to defend EXT and argued that our claim that EXT might be preferable to EMB does not stand close scrutiny. In this short reply, we point out—contra Cassinadri—why we still believe that there are moral reasons to prefer EXT over EMB, (...)
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  11.  54
    Moral Bioenhancement Through Memory-editing: A Risk for Identity and Authenticity?Andrea Lavazza - 2019 - Topoi 38 (1):15-27.
    Moral bioenhancement is the attempt to improve human behavioral dispositions, especially in relation to the great ethical challenges of our age. To this end, scientists have hypothesised new molecules or even permanent changes in the genetic makeup to achieve such moral bioenhancement. The philosophical debate has focused on the permissibility and desirability of that enhancement and the possibility of making it mandatory, given the positive result that would follow. However, there might be another way to enhance the overall moral behavior (...)
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  12. Free Will and Neuroscience: From Explaining Freedom Away to New Ways of Operationalizing and Measuring It.Andrea Lavazza - 2016 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 10.
  13.  15
    Cerebral Organoids and Biological Hybrids as New Entities in the Moral Landscape.Alice Andrea Chinaia & Andrea Lavazza - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 13 (2):117-119.
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  14.  45
    Epistemic Responsibility, Rights and Duties During the COVID-19 Pandemic.Artur Karimov, Andrea Lavazza & Mirko Farina - 2022 - Social Epistemology 36 (6):686-702.
    We start by introducing the idea of echo chambers. Echo chambers are social and epistemic structures in which opinions, leanings, or beliefs about certain topics are amplified and reinforced due to repeated interactions within a closed system; that is, within a system that has a rather homogeneous sample of sources or people, which all share the same attitudes towards the topics in question. Echo chambers are a particularly dangerous phenomena because they prevent the critical assessment of sources and contents, thus (...)
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  15.  44
    Cerebral organoids and consciousness: how far are we willing to go?Andrea Lavazza & Marcello Massimini - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (9):613-614.
    In his interesting commentary, Joshua Shepherd raises two points—one related to epistemology, the other to ethics—about our article on human cerebral organoids.1 2 From the epistemological standpoint, he calls into question the need for a theory of consciousness. A theory of consciousness, for him, is not necessary because of the lack of consensus about the very nature of consciousness. Shepherd suggests that ‘given widespread disagreement, applying a theory of consciousness may not be helpful when attempting to diagnose the presence of (...)
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  16.  24
    The meaning of Freedom after Covid-19.Mirko Farina & Andrea Lavazza - 2021 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 43 (1):1-5.
    Many governments have seen digital health technologies as promising tools to tackle the current COVID-19 pandemic. A much-talked example in this context involves the recent deluge of digital contact tracing apps aimed at detecting Covid-19 exposure. In this short contribution we look at the bio-political justification of this phenomenon and reflect on whether DCT apps constitute, as it is often argued, a serious potential breach of our right to privacy. Despite praising efforts attempting to develop legal and ethical frameworks for (...)
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  17.  38
    Moral and social reasons to acknowledge the use of cognitive enhancers in competitive-selective contexts.Mirko D. Garasic & Andrea Lavazza - 2016 - BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):1-12.
    BackgroundAlthough some of the most radical hypothesis related to the practical implementations of human enhancement have yet to become even close to reality, the use of cognitive enhancers is a very tangible phenomenon occurring with increasing popularity in university campuses as well as in other contexts. It is now well documented that the use of cognitive enhancers is not only increasingly common in Western countries, but also gradually accepted as a normal procedure by the media as well. In fact, its (...)
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  18. Contemporary Dualism: A Defense.Andrea Lavazza & Howard Robinson (eds.) - 2013 - New York: Routledge.
  19. Not so fast. On some bold neuroscientific claims concerning human agency.Andrea Lavazza & Mario De Caro - 2009 - Neuroethics 3 (1):23-41.
    According to a widespread view, a complete explanatory reduction of all aspects of the human mind to the electro-chemical functioning of the brain is at hand and will certainly produce vast and positive cultural, political and social consequences. However, notwithstanding the astonishing advances generated by the neurosciences in recent years for our understanding of the mechanisms and functions of the brain, the application of these findings to the specific but crucial issue of human agency can be considered a “pre-paradigmatic science” (...)
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  20.  8
    Human Extinction and AI: What We Can Learn from the Ultimate Threat.Andrea Lavazza & Murilo Vilaça - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (1):1-21.
    Human extinction is something generally deemed as undesirable, although some scholars view it as a potential solution to the problems of the Earth since it would reduce the moral evil and the suffering that are brought about by humans. We contend that humans collectively have absolute intrinsic value as sentient, conscious and rational entities, and we should preserve them from extinction. However, severe threats, such as climate change and incurable viruses, might push humanity to the brink of extinction. Should that (...)
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  21.  18
    Can Memory Make a Difference? Reasons for Changing or Not Our Autobiographical Memory.Andrea Lavazza - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (1):38-40.
  22.  20
    Human Brain Organoids: Why There Can Be Moral Concerns If They Grow Up in the Lab and Are Transplanted or Destroyed.Andrea Lavazza & Massimo Reichlin - 2023 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 32 (4):582-596.
    Human brain organoids (HBOs) are three-dimensional biological entities grown in the laboratory in order to recapitulate the structure and functions of the adult human brain. They can be taken to be novel living entities for their specific features and uses. As a contribution to the ongoing discussion on the use of HBOs, the authors identify three sets of reasons for moral concern. The first set of reasons regards the potential emergence of sentience/consciousness in HBOs that would endow them with a (...)
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  23.  23
    Transcranial electrical stimulation for human enhancement and the risk of inequality: Prohibition or compensation?Andrea Lavazza - 2018 - Bioethics 33 (1):122-131.
    Non‐invasive brain stimulation is used to modulate brain excitation and inhibition and to improve cognitive functioning. The effectiveness of the enhancement due to transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is still controversial, but the technique seems to have large potential for improvement and more specific applications. In particular, it has recently been used by athletes, both beginners and professionals. This paper analyses the ethical issues related to tDCS enhancement, which depend on its specific features: ease of use, immediate effect, non‐detectability and (...)
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  24.  55
    Erasing traumatic memories: when context and social interests can outweigh personal autonomy.Andrea Lavazza - 2015 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 10:3.
    Neuroscientific research on the removal of unpleasant and traumatic memories is still at a very early stage, but is making rapid progress and has stirred a significant philosophical and neuroethical debate. Even if memory is considered to be a fundamental element of personal identity, in the context of memory-erasing the autonomy of decision-making seems prevailing. However, there seem to be situations where the overall context in which people might choose to intervene on their memories would lead to view those actions (...)
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  25.  45
    Introduction: Moral Enhancement.Andrea Lavazza & Massimo Reichlin - 2019 - Topoi 38 (1):1-5.
    It is often contended that certain enhancement technologies are acceptable, because they simply update traditional ways of pursuing the improvement of human capacities. This is not true with reference to moral bioenhancement, because of the radical difference between traditional and biotechnological ways of producing moral progress. These latter risk having serious negative effects on our moral agency, by causing a substantial loss of freedom and capacity of authentic moral behaviour, by affecting our moral identity and by imposing a standard conception (...)
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  26.  41
    Memory-Modulation: Self-Improvement or Self-Depletion?Andrea Lavazza - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
  27.  49
    What (or sometimes who) are organoids? And whose are they?Andrea Lavazza - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (2):144-145.
    In terms of ethical implications, Boers, van Delden and Bredenoord have made an interesting step forward with their model of organoids as hybrids, which seeks to find a balance between subject-like value and object-like value. Their framework aims to introduce effective procedures not to exploit donors and to increase their engagement, but it does not seem to take sufficient account of how organoids are used and how donors and society as a whole may want to act about such uses. I (...)
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  28.  38
    Why Cognitive Sciences Do Not Prove That Free Will Is an Epiphenomenon.Andrea Lavazza - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
  29.  17
    The “One Health” approach in the face of Covid-19: how radical should it be?Vittorio A. Sironi, Silvia Inglese & Andrea Lavazza - 2022 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 17 (1):1-10.
    Background The 2020-2021 coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic is just the latest epidemic event that requires us to rethink and change our understanding of health. Health should no longer be conceived only in relation to human beings, but in unitary terms, as a dimension that connects humans, animals, plants, and the environment (holistic view, One Health). In general, alterations occurring in this articulated chain of life trigger a domino effect. Methodology In this paper, we review the One Health paradigm in the light (...)
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  30.  33
    Of Meatballs, Autonomy, and Human Dignity: Neuroethics and the Boundaries of Decision Making Among Persons with Dementia.Andrea Lavazza & Massimo Reichlin - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 9 (2):88-95.
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  31.  27
    Infosphere, Datafication, and Decision-Making Processes in the AI Era.Andrea Lavazza & Mirko Farina - 2023 - Topoi 42 (3):843-856.
    A recent interpretation of artificial intelligence (AI) (Floridi 2013, 2022) suggests that the implementation of AI demands the investigation of the binding conditions that make it possible to build and integrate artifacts into our lived world. Such artifacts can successfully interact with the world because our environment has been designed to be compatible with intelligent machines (such as robots). As the use of AI becomes ubiquitous in society, possibly leading to the formation of increasingly intelligent bio-technological unions, there will likely (...)
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  32.  19
    What We May Forget When Discussing Human Memory Manipulation.Andrea Lavazza - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 7 (4):249-251.
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  33.  23
    Philosophical foundation of the right to mental integrity in the age of neurotechnologies.Andrea Lavazza & Rodolfo Giorgi - 2023 - Neuroethics 16 (1):1-13.
    Neurotechnologies broadly understood are tools that have the capability to read, record and modify our mental activity by acting on its brain correlates. The emergence of increasingly powerful and sophisticated techniques has given rise to the proposal to introduce new rights specifically directed to protect mental privacy, freedom of thought, and mental integrity. These rights, also proposed as basic human rights, are conceived in direct relation to tools that threaten mental privacy, freedom of thought, mental integrity, and personal identity. In (...)
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  34.  26
    Operationalizing and Measuring Free Will. Towards a New Framework for Psychology, Ethics, and Law.Andrea Lavazza & Silvia Ignlese - 2015 - Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia e Psicologia 6 (1):37-55.
    Free will is usually defined by three conditions: the ability to do otherwise; control of one’s own choices; responsiveness to reasons. The compatibility of free will with determinism lies at the heart of the philosophical debate at the metaphysical level. This debate, while being increasingly refined, has not yet reached a conclusion. Recently, neuroscience and empirical psychology have tried to settle the problem of free will with a series of experiments that go in the direction of so-called illusionism: free will (...)
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  35.  16
    The Virtues Needed by Experts in Action.Andrea Lavazza & Mirko Farina - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (4):142-157.
    The current Covid-19 pandemic is illustrative of both the need of more experts and of the difficulties that can arise in the face of their decisions. This happens, we argue, because experts usually interact with society through a strongly naturalistic framework, which often places experts’ epistemic authority (understood as neutrality and objectivity) at the centre, sometimes at the expenses of other pluralistic values (such as axiological ones) that people (often non-experts) cherish. In this paper, we argue that we need to (...)
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  36.  7
    Not Too Risky. How to Take a Reasonable Stance on Human Enhancement.Murilo Mariano Vilaça & Andrea Lavazza - forthcoming - Filosofia Unisinos:1-16.
    Following a trend in bioethical/applied ethics approaches, one of the frustrating features of studies on technological human enhancement is their dichotomous tendency. Often, benefits and risks of technological human enhancement are stated in theoretically and empirically vague, polarized, unweighted ways. This has blocked the debate in the problematic ‘pros vs. cons’ stage, leading to the adoption of extremist positions. In this paper, we will address one side of the problem: the focus on risks and the imprecise approach to them. What (...)
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  37.  31
    Dealing with Criminal Behavior: the Inaccuracy of the Quarantine Analogy.Sergei Levin, Mirko Farina & Andrea Lavazza - 2021 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 17 (1):135-154.
    Pereboom and Caruso propose the quarantine model as an alternative to existing models of criminal justice. They appeal to the established public health practice of quarantining people, which is believed to be effective and morally justified, to explain why -in criminal justice- it is also morally acceptable to detain wrongdoers, without assuming the existence of a retrospective moral responsibility. Wrongdoers in their model are treated as carriers of dangerous diseases and as such should be preventively detained (or rehabilitated) until they (...)
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  38.  16
    Machine learning in human creativity: status and perspectives.Mirko Farina, Andrea Lavazza, Giuseppe Sartori & Witold Pedrycz - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-13.
    As we write this research paper, we notice an explosion in popularity of machine learning in numerous fields (ranging from governance, education, and management to criminal justice, fraud detection, and internet of things). In this contribution, rather than focusing on any of those fields, which have been well-reviewed already, we decided to concentrate on a series of more recent applications of deep learning models and technologies that have only recently gained significant track in the relevant literature. These applications are concerned (...)
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  39.  16
    Why HEAVEN Is Not About Saving Lives at All.Mirko Daniel Garasic & Andrea Lavazza - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 8 (4):228-229.
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  40.  16
    A Rawlsian Version of the Opportunity Maintenance Thesis.Andrea Lavazza - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (6):50-52.
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  41.  13
    Pushing the boundaries of the quarantine model: Philosophical concerns and policy implications.Mirko Farina, Andrea Lavazza & Sergei Levin - forthcoming - Diametros.
    The quarantine model, recently proposed by Pereboom and Caruso, is one of the most influential models developed to date in the context of criminal justice. The quarantine model challenges the very idea of criminal punishment and asserts that nobody deserves punishment on a fundamental level. Instead, in order to deal with offenders, it proposes a series of incapacitation measures based on public safety concerns. In this article, we examine several objections to the quarantine model that demonstrate how, in our view, (...)
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  42.  29
    The Quarantine Model and its Limits.Andrea Lavazza, Sergei Levin & Mirko Farina - 2023 - Philosophia 51 (5):2417-2438.
    There are several well-established theories of criminal punishment and of its justification. The quarantine model (advocated by Pereboom and Caruso) has recently emerged as one of the most prominent theories in the field, by denying the very idea of criminal justice. This theory claims that no one ought to be criminally punished because fundamentally people do not deserve any kind of punishment. On these grounds, the quarantine model proposes forms of incapacitation based on public safety considerations. In this article, we (...)
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  43.  13
    Are we Ready for a “Microbiome-Guided Behaviour” Approach?Andrea Lavazza & Vittorio A. Sironi - 2019 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 28 (4):708-724.
    :The microbiome is proving to be increasingly important for human brain functioning. A series of recent studies have shown that the microbiome influences the central nervous system in various ways, and consequently acts on the psychological well-being of the individual by mediating, among others, the reactions of stress and anxiety. From a specifically neuroethical point of view, according to some scholars, the particular composition of the microbiome—qua microbial community—can have consequences on the traditional idea of human individuality. Another neuroethical aspect (...)
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  44. Mental Causation.Rodolfo Giorgi & Andrea Lavazza - 2018 - Aphex 17.
    This article aims to provide a brief overview of mental causation problem and its current proposed solutions. Indeed, mental causation turns out as one of the most difficult philosophical conundrums in contemporary philosophy of mind. In the first two sections, we offer an outline of the problem and the philosophical debate about it, and show that mental causation problem is pivotal within the contemporary philosophy of mind. In the third section, we focus on the most popular models of mental causation, (...)
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  45. Art as a metaphor of the mind: A neo-Jamesian aesthetics embracing phenomenology, neuroscience, and evolution.Andrea Lavazza - 2008 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 8 (2):159-182.
    This paper focuses on the emergent neo-Jamesian perspective concerning the phenomenology of art and aesthetic experience. Starting from the distinction between nucleus and fringe in the stream of thought described by William James, it can be argued that our appreciation of a work of art is guided by a vague and blurred perception of a much more powerful content, of which we are not fully aware. Accordingly, a work of art is seen as a kind of metaphor of our mental (...)
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  46.  15
    If Criminal Intentions Are Nonvoluntary, Mandatory Neurointerventions Might Be Permissible.Andrea Lavazza - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 9 (3):154-156.
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  47.  17
    The Future of Human Cerebral Organoids: A Reply to Commentaries.Andrea Lavazza & Federico Zilio - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 14 (4):W1-W4.
    Human brain organoids (HCOs) are laboratory-grown biological entities that have been added to the catalog of living entities for just over a decade. How they are formed and may continue to develop for some time is not irrelevant, given their peculiarity, which is that they mimic the human brain with a high degree of similarity. Revolving around this key issue is the discussion on our target article (Zilio and Lavazza 2023), for which we are grateful to all the commentators.
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  48.  40
    A Pragmatic and Empirical Approach to Free Will.Andrea Lavazza - 2017 - Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia e Psicologia 8 (3):247-258.
    : The long dispute between incompatibilists and compatibilists is further exemplified in the discussion between Sam Harris and Daniel Dennett. In this article I try to add to the discussion by outlining a concept of free will linked to five operating conditions and proposing its operationalization and quantification. The idea is to empirically and pragmatically define free will as we need it for moral blame and legal liability, while separating it from the debate on global determinism, local determinism, automatisms and (...)
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  49.  9
    Can Neuromodulation also Enhance Social Inequality? Some Possible Indirect Interventions of the State.Andrea Lavazza - 2017 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 11.
  50.  41
    An externalist approach to creativity: discovery versus recombination.Andrea Lavazza & Riccardo Manzotti - 2013 - Mind and Society 12 (1):61-72.
    What is the goal of creativity? Is it just a symbolic reshuffling or a moment of semantic extension? Similar to the contrast between syntax and semantics, creativity has an internal and an external aspect. Contrary to the widespread view that emphasises the problem-solving role of creativity, here we consider whether creativity represents an authentic moment of ontological discovery and semantic openness like Schopenhauer and Picasso suggested. To address the semantic aspect of creativity, we take advantage of recent externalist models of (...)
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