In this study there are presented a series of aspects concerning the religious behavior of the Romanian population. By using quantitative analysis we have identified a series of religious key factors which can be used by parties and politicians to obtain votes during election campaigns. The obtained results highlight the fact that people with a lower level of education are more receptive to the political messages transmitted by religious means. Also, the influence of political actions and messages having a religious (...) character is more powerful at the level of the population with a lower standard of living. By means of quantitative analysis we have also evaluated the impact of religious and ethnical fractionalization on the political representation in the national parliament. (shrink)
Gender discrimination is a reality affecting an important part of the socio-economic life. The study aims to examine, by using quantitative techniques, the main tendencies in the Romanian society regarding gender discrimination, as perceived by the young, educated population. In order to meet the objectives of the study, a cluster sampling was performed among the Romanian students. The results from the statisti- cal sampling were compared to national data from several studies made by national and international organizations. In the final (...) part of the study, the findings of sampling research are validated by a logit model. The model is presenting the main factors that are generating gender discrimination, as well as the most important variables throughout which discrimination is perceived in Romania. (shrink)
Technical Novel by Andrei Platonovich Platonov shows the process of organizing and constructing a technological utopia. Technological utopianism, according to Howard P. Segal, is defined as "the use of hardware and of knowledge to create and preserve an intendedly perfect society."1 Segal emphasizes that the extent to which technology shapes a society's values, institutions, techniques, and way of life is what distinguishes a technological society from previous societies. In Technical Novel, the main characters strive toward building an ideal society (...) by laying down basic... (shrink)
New Waves in Philosophy, a book collection that stands out for giving a snapshot of research in all areas of philosophy is a successful editorial project addressed by Vincent F. Hendricks and Duncan Pritchard. New Waves in Philosophy of Action is one of its last titles, edited by Jesús H. Aguilar, Andrei A. Buckareff and Keith Frankish. -/- The book is aimed at the researchers of all fields and readers in general interested in this sub-discipline of philosophy very difficult (...) to localize (is it part of a sub-discipline such as metaphysics or maybe part of the philosophy of mind?). What is and how can we know the nature of intentions and its role in action? (shrink)
A few decades ago, only isolated groups of philosophers counted the phenomenon of normativity as one of their principal interests. Rules and norms have always, of course, been in the purview of moral philosophers, who often took them as exceedingly abstract entities, if not directly metaphysical. Philosophers from the border territories of philosophy and social sciences, on the other hand, were interested in more concrete norms, namely those that emerge and survive within human societies. Philosophers of law stood between these (...) two extremes, studying law as a matter of socially instituted norms which, however, might be seen as a projection of something more esoteric. The research programs of these groups of philosophers had little overlap. And for philosophers of mind, of language, or of science (with the exception of a few philosophers of social sciences, such as Peter Winch), norms were at most only of marginal interest. This situation has changed hugely over recent decades. I think the catalyst was the interest in rules and norms within the philosophy of language, which was kindled by the ongoing reception of the later Wittgenstein. Other philosophers, like Michael Dummett and Wilfrid Sellars, also deserve part of the credit. Via philosophy of language, interest in norms invaded sections of philosophy of mind, too, and the previously isolated studies of various types of norms slowly became interconnected, if not directly integrated. No wonder that more and more general studies of the nature of rules and norms are now reaching the light of day. Andrei Marmor's Social Conventions is one of the most recent contributions. Marmor sees a social convention as a specific kind of norm characterized especially by its arbitrariness. More precisely, a rule is conventional, according to the author, iff (i) some people follow it; (ii) they have a reason to follow it; and (iii) there is an alternative rule that they could have followed for the same reason. The point of departure for Marmor's analysis is David Lewis's theory of convention F1F, which, however, he considers too narrow and hence extends it considerably. Lewis's idea is that norms result from certain spontaneous processes by which society reacts to coordination problems.. (shrink)
In our paper, ‘Escaping hell: divine motivation and the problem of hell’, we defended a theory of hell that we called ‘escapism’. We argued that, given God's just and loving character, it would be most rational for Him to maintain an open-door policy to those who are in hell, allowing them an unlimited number of chances to be reconciled with God and enjoy communion with Him. In this paper we reply to two recent objections to our original paper. The first (...) is an argument from religious luck offered by Russell Jones. The second is an argument from Kyle Swan that alleges that our commitments about the nature of reasons for action still leaves escapism vulnerable to an objection we labelled the ‘Job objection’ in our original paper. In this paper we argue that escapism has the resources built into it needed to withstand the objections from Jones and Swan. (shrink)
Andrei Khrennikov's book returns us to the old question of whether reality, either material or mental, may be fundamentally mathematical. This question, however, creates difficulties for those not suitably trained in mathematics. While this was already a problem for the Greeks, the exceedingly abstract and complex character of modern mathematics makes it especially acute now. Khrennikov's book confronts its readers with one of the more arcane areas of modern mathematics, namely p-adics and the p-adic version of the mathematics used (...) in classical and quantum physics. At the same time, by dealing with Freudian and related theory, the book focuses primarily on the human mind rather than the material world or the brain as a physical object. Thus, while harking back to Greek thought on the possibly mathematical nature of mental reality, the project is unusual from a contemporary point of view. These days, the more usual role of mathematics lies in investigation of the biological, chemical, and physical bases of mental processes, including exploration of the possibility of their quantum origin . While using analogous mathematics, Khrennikov's project shifts the focus to the mathematical modeling of mental, rather than physical, processes. Andrei Khrennikov, Classical and Quantum Mental Models and Freud's Theory of Unconscious Mind, Vaxjo, Sweden: Vaxjo University Press, 2002, xix+207pp., ISBN 91-7636-315-5. (shrink)
Abstract. The paper argues for the following points: (1) Marmor's own understanding of "legal positivism" is different from the understanding defended, e.g., by Herbert Hart and Norberto Bobbio, and apparently misleads him into the wrong track of a theoretical inversion; (2) Marmor's two-stages model of (legal) interpretation—the understanding-interpretion model—provides no support for Marmor's own positivistic theory of law; (3) Marmor's concept of interpretation is at odds both with the basic tenets of Hartian and Continental methodological legal positivism, on the one (...) hand, and with the actual practice of legal interpretation in the Western world, on the other hand; (4) Marmor's concept of an easy case is likewise objectionable. (shrink)
Chair: Carl Wellman. There will now be a discussion between the two speakers in which they will take turns, posing questions, isolating issues and talking back and forth. At some point, I will accept questions from the floor.
The animating idea behind this book is that “a better understanding of linguistic communication may help us to a better understanding of legal regulation” . While for Marmor the philosophy of language has played a foundational role in the philosophy of law, The Language of Law is concerned more narrowly with “linguistic communication as a means of conveying legal content” . In preliminary statements Marmor foregrounds his interest in “the linguistic aspects of legal directives”, specifically “the boundaries between linguistic and (...) normative considerations in the inference to legal content of statutory law”. The aim is to articulate “how the legal determinants work” . These linguistic questions, Marmor argues, can be considered independently of any theory of law or of the nature of legal philosophy. His assumption is that “we can make some philosophical progress by paying close attention to the kind of speech acts that legal enactments are” . The underlying issue .. (shrink)
Because of the outward openness of Platonov's world, and the existence in it of recognizable, seemingly deliberately enhanced motifs, one can easily be misled or in any event confused, never getting to the source of this diversity of meanings which, however, by being repeated over and over again, becomes a kind of monotone calling upon us to make sense of it as well. Something similar may also be identified in Dostoevsky: one and the same element, repeated incessantly, creates an "emblematic (...) theme" or an "ontological schema" the contours of which are discernible in almost all his major writings. (shrink)
At the centre of theories of film form is the idea that the montage of different scenes produces cinematic time. Montage creates a conflict between different shots, and time (as a purely functional relationship between shots) arises out of montage as an abstract element.