Results for 'Andrew James Goudie'

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  1.  24
    Different vulnerabilities for addiction may contribute to the same phenomena and some additional interactions.Andrew James Goudie, Matt Field & Jon Cole - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (4):445-446.
    The framework for addiction offered by the target article can perhaps be simplified into fewer, more basic, vulnerabilities. covers a number of vulnerabilities, not just enhanced delay discounting. Real-world drug-use decisions involve both delay and probability discounting. The motivational salience of, and attentional bias for, drug cues may be related to a number of vulnerabilities. Interactions among vulnerabilities are of significance and complicate the application of this framework.
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  2.  32
    Hallucinations and antipsychotics: The role of the 5-HT2A receptor.Andrew James Goudie & Jonathan Charles Cole - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (6):795-796.
    Behrendt & Young's (B&Y's) novel “unifying model” of hallucinations, although comprehensive, fails to incorporate research into the possible role of 5-HT2A receptors in the mode of action of novel “atypical” antipsychotic drugs (which treat hallucinations effectively), and into the role of such receptors, which are located in thalamocortical circuits, in mediating drug-induced hallucinations.
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  3. Indirect Compatibilism.Andrew James Latham - 2019 - Dissertation, University of Sydney
    In this thesis, I will defend a new kind of compatibilist account of free action, indirect conscious control compatibilism (or indirect compatibilism for short), and argue that some of our actions are free according to it. My argument has three components, and involves the development of a brand new tool for experimental philosophy, and the use of cognitive neuroscience. The first component of the argument shows that compatibilism (of some kind) is a conceptual truth. Contrary to the current orthodoxy in (...)
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  4. Faith, Recognition, and Community.Andrew James Komasinski - 2018 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 92 (3):445-464.
    This article looks at “faith-in” and what Jonathan Kvanvig calls the “belittler objection” by comparing Hegel’s and Kierkegaard’s interpretations of Abram (later known as Abraham). I first argue that Hegel’s treatment of Abram in Spirit of Christianity and its Fate is an objection to faith-in. Building on this with additional Hegelian texts, I argue that Hegel’s objection employs his social command account of morality. I then turn to Johannes de Silentio’s treatments of Abraham in Fear and Trembling and Søren Kierkegaard’s (...)
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  5. From Proto-Forgiveness to Minimal Forgiveness.Andrew James Latham & Kristie Miller - forthcoming - Australasian Philosophical Review 3 (3):330-335.
    In ‘Forgiveness, an Ordered Pluralism’, Fricker distinguishes two concepts of forgiveness, both of which are deployed in our forgiveness practices: moral justice forgiveness and gifted forgiveness. She then argues that the former is more explanatorily basic than the latter. We think Fricker is right about this. We will argue, however, that contra Fricker, it is a third more minimal concept that is most basic. Like Fricker, we will focus on the function of our practices, but in a way that is (...)
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  6.  7
    Putting Ruist and Hegelian Social Thought in Dialogue.Andrew James Komasinski - 2021 - Philosophy East and West 71 (3):724-746.
    This article first considers Hegel's treatment of Ruist thought, especially the Berlin-era lectures. While Hegel and Hegelian thought cannot integrate non-Western material, five interesting analogues in their social thought deserve consideration: the family as society's relational foundation; ritual as cultural language; Hegelian necessity as Ruist fate; rulers as relational centers; and tools for evaluating ritual.
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  7.  28
    How Kierkegaard can help us understand covering in Analects 13.18.Andrew James Komasinski - 2016 - Asian Philosophy 26 (2):133-148.
    ABSTRACTI suggest that Kierkegaard proves a helpful interlocutor in the debate about Analects 13.18 and the meaning of yin 隱. After surveying the contemporary debate, I argue that Kierkegaard and the Confucians agree on three important points. First, they both present relational selves. Second, both believe certain relationships are integral for moral knowledge. Third, both present a differentiated account of love where our obligations are highest to those with whom we are closest. Moreover, Kierkegaard’s ‘covering’ in the deliberation ‘Love covers (...)
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  8. Forgiveness: From Conceptual Pluralism to Conceptual Ethics.Andrew James Latham, Kristie Miller, James Norton & Luke Russell - forthcoming - In Court Lewis (ed.), The Philosophy of Forgiveness, Volume V. Vernon.
    Forgiveness theorists focus a good deal on explicating the content of what they take to be a shared folk concept of forgiveness. Our empirical research, however, suggests that there is a range of concepts of forgiveness present in the population, and therefore that we should be folk conceptual pluralists about forgiveness. We suggest two possible responses on the part of forgiveness theorists: (1) to deny folk conceptual pluralism by arguing that forgiveness is a functional concept and (2) to accept folk (...)
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  9.  10
    The Awakenings of Charlotte Perkins Gilman.Andrew James Paravantes - 2019 - Utopian Studies 30 (3):505-530.
    “The sleeper awakes” is a convention of many literary utopias from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The plots of Edward Bellamy’s Looking Backward, William Morris’s News from Nowhere, and H. G. Wells’sWhen the Sleeper Wakes all famously involve a sleeping modern everyman who awakens to a future where the conflicts and contradictions of the burgeoning capitalist society have been resolved. The Bleilers identify dozens of other speculative novels from the same period employing this very device, such as William (...)
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  10.  22
    The culture of the Roman Plebs- C. courrier la plèbe de Rome et sa culture (fin du II E siècle av. J.-c. – Fin du I er siècle ap. J.-c.). Pp. XII + 1031, figs, ills. Rome: École française de Rome, 2014. Paper, €82. Isbn: 978-2-7283-0966-5. [REVIEW]Andrew James Sillett - 2016 - The Classical Review 66 (1):206-208.
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  11.  65
    Acting for a Reason and Following a Principle.Andrew James McAninch - 2015 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 18 (3):649-661.
    According to an influential view of practical reason and rational agency, a person acts for a reason only if she recognizes some consideration to be a reason, where this recognition motivates her to act. I call this requirement the guidance condition on acting for a reason. Despite its intuitive appeal, the guidance condition appears to generate a vicious regress. At least one proponent of the guidance condition, Christine M. Korsgaard, is sensitive to this regress worry, and her appeal in recent (...)
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  12.  6
    Chaucer‘s Postcolonial Renaissance.Andrew James Johnston - 2015 - Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 91 (2):5-20.
    This article investigates how Chaucer‘s Knight‘s and Squire‘s tales critically engage with the Orientalist strategies buttressing contemporary Italian humanist discussions of visual art. Framed by references to crusading, the two tales enter into a dialogue focusing, in particular, on the relations between the classical, the scientific and the Oriental in trecento Italian discourses on painting and optics, discourses that are alluded to in the description of Theseus Theatre and the events that happen there. The Squire‘s Tale exhibits what one might (...)
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  13.  11
    An Evolving Scientific Public Sphere: State Science Enlightenment, Communicative Discourse, and Public Culture from Imperial Russia to Khrushchev's Soviet Times.James T. Andrews - 2013 - Science in Context 26 (3):509-526.
    ArgumentBy the late nineteenth century, science pedagogues and academicians became involved in a vast movement to popularize science throughout the Russian empire. With the aftermath of the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution, many now found the new Marxist state a willing supporter of their goals of spreading science to an under-educated public. In the Stalin era, Soviet state officials believed that the spread of science and technology had to coalesce with the Communist Party's utilitarian goals and needs to revive the industrial sector (...)
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  14.  16
    Cleon's hidden appeals (Thucydides 3.37–40)1.James A. Andrews - 2000 - Classical Quarterly 50 (1):45-62.
    πƤΟƩ ΗΔΟΝΗΝ ΛΕƮΕΙΝ At 2.65 Thucydides says of Pericles that he did not speak to please : he had no need of such means for acquiring influence, since he already enjoyed it because of his recognized merits. But his successors were on the same plane as one another, each one striving to establish himself as the man first in influence with the demos. And in this drive for ascendancy, they began to allow the people's pleasures to shape the advice they (...)
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  15.  10
    Andrew James Johnston, Performing the Middle Ages: From “Beowulf” to “Othello.”(Late Medieval and Early Modern Studies, 15.) Turnhout: Brepols, 2008. Pp. viii, 342.€ 70. [REVIEW]Edward Wheatley - 2010 - Speculum 85 (3):692-694.
  16.  13
    Cleon's Ethopoetics.James A. Andrews - 1994 - Classical Quarterly 44 (01):26-.
    In 427 B.c. the Athenian assembly passed a decree bearing on the recently suppressed revolt on the island of Lesbos. All citizens in Mytilene, the city which had led the revolt, were to be executed and their women and children sold into slavery. A trireme was swiftly dispatched to Paches with instructions to execute the decree. But the Athenians had arrived at their decision in a fit of anger; and when presently their ργ subsided, they experienced grave misgivings over an (...)
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  17.  29
    An Untyped Higher Order Logic with Y Combinator.James H. Andrews - 2007 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 72 (4):1385 - 1404.
    We define a higher order logic which has only a notion of sort rather than a notion of type, and which permits all terms of the untyped lambda calculus and allows the use of the Y combinator in writing recursive predicates. The consistency of the logic is maintained by a distinction between use and mention, as in Gilmore's logics. We give a consistent model theory, a proof system which is sound with respect to the model theory, and a cut-elimination proof (...)
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  18. Why are people so darn past biased?Preston Greene, Andrew James Latham, Kristie Miller & James Norton - forthcoming - In Christoph Hoerl, Teresa McCormack & Alison Sutton Fernandes (eds.), Temporal Asymmetries in Philosophy and Psychology. OUP.
    Many philosophers have assumed that our preferences regarding hedonic events exhibit a bias toward the future: we prefer positive experiences to be in our future and negative experiences to be in our past. Recent experimental work by Greene et al. (ms) confirmed this assumption. However, they noted a potential for some participants to respond in a deviant manner, and hence for their methodology to underestimate the percentage of people who are time neutral, and overestimate the percentage who are future biased. (...)
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  19.  6
    Jennifer Ebbeler, Disciplining Christians: Correction and Community in Augustine’s Letters. [REVIEW]James A. Andrews - 2013 - Augustinian Studies 44 (2):311-314.
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  20.  16
    Pericles on the athenian constitution (thuc. 2.37).James A. Andrews - 2004 - American Journal of Philology 125 (4):539-561.
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  21. Growth and degrowth: Dewey and self-limitation.Andrew James Thompson - 2022 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 54 (14):2532-2541.
    This paper explores John Dewey’s debt to Hegel by examining the relationship between his conception of growth and Bildung. Dewey’s notion of the progressive subject takes the project of education as unending—it is both a personal and collective process that strives to synthesise competing social values democratically. Despite Dewey’s rejection of absolutism and idealism, his teleological commitment to democracy reveals his tendency to revert to Hegel’s philosophical ideals. Although Dewey was aware of capitalism’s power to eclipse the advance of democracy, (...)
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  22.  6
    Rolf Hellebust. Flesh to Metal: Soviet Literature and the Alchemy of Revolution. x + 221 pp., illus., bibl., index. Ithaca, N.Y./London: Cornell University Press, 2003. $18.95. [REVIEW]James T. Andrews - 2004 - Isis 95 (4):722-723.
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  23. The Possibility of Emergent Conscious Causal Powers.Lok-Chi Chan & Andrew James Latham - 2022 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 100 (1):195-201.
    ABSTRACT Lewtas [2017] recently articulated an argument claiming that emergent conscious causal powers are impossible. In developing his argument, Lewtas makes several assumptions about emergence, phenomenal consciousness, categorical properties, and causation. We argue that there are plausible alternatives to these assumptions. Thus, the proponent of emergent conscious causal powers can escape Lewtas’s challenge.
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  24. Paul C. Gilmore. Logicism renewed: logical foundations for mathematics and computer science. Lecture Notes in Logic, vol. 23. Association for Symbolic Logic / A K Peters, Ltd., Wellesley, Massachusetts, 2005, xvii + 230 pp.P. C. Gilmore & James H. Andrews - 2007 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 13 (1):104-105.
  25.  25
    A History of the China International Famine Relief Commission.C. S. G. & Andrew James Nathan - 1965 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 85 (4):609.
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  26.  1
    Ix-10 Ordinis Noni Tomus Decimus: Apologiae Et Disticha Catonis.W. Martin Bloomer, Andrew James McGregor Irving, David Pierangelo Hubert Napolitano, Antonius Gerardus Weiler & Émile Telle (eds.) - 2021 - Brill.
    This volume contains the editions of polemical texts by Erasmus against Martin Luther and Pierre Cousturier, of his defence against attacks on his oration on matrimony, and of his immensely popular ‘pocket’ edition of the _Disticha Catonis_.
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  27. Regret.Marcia Baron & Andrew James McAninch - 2019 - In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.
    We are all familiar with regret. And on the face of it, there doesn't seem to be anything puzzling about it, the way there is about (among other things) self‐deception and survivor guilt. So what philosophical significance does it have?
     
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  28.  2
    Jan-Peer Hartmann and Andrew James Johnston, eds., Material Remains: Reading the Past in Medieval and Early Modern British Literature. (Interventions: New Studies in Medieval Culture.) Columbus: The Ohio State University Press, 2021. Pp. x, 294; black-and-white figures. $99.95. ISBN: 978-0-8142-1474-9. Table of contents available online at https://ohiostatepress.org/books/titles/9780814214749.html. [REVIEW]Eric Weiskott - 2022 - Speculum 97 (4):1202-1204.
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  29.  68
    Views regarding physician-assisted suicide: a study of medical professionals at various points in their training.Mark Kitching, Andrew James Stevens & Louise Forman - 2008 - Clinical Ethics 3 (1):27-33.
    In this study, we sought to obtain detailed opinion on some of the practical issues that might arise should physician-assisted suicide (PAS) ever be legalized in the UK. We carried out an anonymous postal questionnaire of medical students, junior and senior doctors working at an acute hospital trust, over a three-week period. A total of 435 questionnaires were distributed and we had an overall return rate of 34%. We found that opinions changed very little as doctors progressed from medical school (...)
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  30. Alien worlds, alien laws, and the Humean conceivability argument.Lok-Chi Chan, David Braddon-Mitchell & Andrew James Latham - 2020 - Ratio 33 (1):1-13.
    Monism is our name for a range of views according to which the connection between dispositions and their categorical bases is intimate and necessary, or on which there are no categorical bases at all. In contrast, Dualist views hold that the connection between dispositions and their categorical bases is distant and contingent. This paper is a defence of Monism against an influential conceivability argument in favour of Dualism. The argument suggests that the apparent possibility of causal behaviour coming apart from (...)
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  31. In the court cases section, the following cases are presented: Taub V. state of maryland; Chaney V. heckler; university of arizona health sciences center V. heiman; and in re: Guardianship of Andrew James Barry. [REVIEW]Center V. Heiman & R. E. In - 1984 - Bioethics Reporter 1 (1):157.
     
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  32.  27
    Nonaddictive instrumental drug use: Theoretical strengths and weaknesses.Andrew J. Goudie, Matthew J. Gullo, Abigail K. Rose, Paul Christiansen, Jonathan C. Cole, Matt Field & Harry Sumnall - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (6):314-315.
    The potential to instrumentalize drug use based upon the detection of very many different drug states undoubtedly exists, and such states may play a role in psychiatric and many other drug uses. Nevertheless, nonaddictive drug use is potentially more parsimoniously explained in terms of sensation seeking/impulsivity and drug expectations. Cultural factors also play a major role in nonaddictive drug use.
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  33.  12
    Opponent processes in classical conditioning: The jury is still out.Andrew J. Goudie - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (1):199-200.
  34. Is our naïve theory of time dynamical?Andrew J. Latham, Kristie Miller & James Norton - 2021 - Synthese 198 (5):4251-4271.
    We investigated, experimentally, the contention that the folk view, or naïve theory, of time, amongst the population we investigated is dynamical. We found that amongst that population, ~ 70% have an extant theory of time that is more similar to a dynamical than a non-dynamical theory, and ~ 70% of those who deploy a naïve theory of time deploy a naïve theory that is more similar to a dynamical than a non-dynamical theory. Interestingly, while we found stable results across our (...)
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  35. The Joy of Being Wrong: Original Sin through Easter Eyes.James Alison, Alistair I. Mcfadyen, Andrew Sung Park, Ted Peters & Solomon Schimmel - 2001 - Journal of Religious Ethics 29 (3):471-501.
    Reviewing works by James Alison, Alistair McFadyen, Andrew Sung Park, Ted Peters, and Solomon Schimmel, the author suggests that the status and function of the discourse/doctrine of sin highlight tensions between theology and ethics in ways that suggest the character, limits, and promise of religious ethics. This literature commends attention to sin-talk because it helps religious ethicists to render more adequately the dynamics of human agency, sociality, and culture and because it raises questions about the nature and task (...)
     
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  36. Future bias in action: does the past matter more when you can affect it?Andrew J. Latham, Kristie Miller, James Norton & Christian Tarsney - 2020 - Synthese 198 (12):11327-11349.
    Philosophers have long noted, and empirical psychology has lately confirmed, that most people are “biased toward the future”: we prefer to have positive experiences in the future, and negative experiences in the past. At least two explanations have been offered for this bias: belief in temporal passage and the practical irrelevance of the past resulting from our inability to influence past events. We set out to test the latter explanation. In a large survey, we find that participants exhibit significantly less (...)
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  37.  1
    Henry James and the Father Question.Andrew Taylor - 2002 - Cambridge University Press.
    The intellectual relationship between Henry James and his father, who was a philosopher and theologian, proved to be an influential resource for the novelist. Andrew Taylor explores how James's writing responds to James Senior's epistemological, thematic and narrative concerns, and relocates these concerns in a more secularised and cosmopolitan cultural milieu. Taylor examines the nature of both men's engagement with autobiographical strategies, issues of gender reform, and the language of religion. He argues for a reading of (...)
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  38. An Empirical Investigation of the Role of Direction in our Concept of Time.Andrew J. Latham, Kristie Miller & James Norton - 2021 - Acta Analytica 36 (1):25-47.
    This paper empirically investigates one aspect of the folk concept of time by testing how the presence or absence of directedness impacts judgements about whether there is time in a world. Experiment 1 found that dynamists, showed significantly higher levels of agreement that there is time in dynamically directed worlds than in non-dynamical non-directed worlds. Comparing our results to those we describe in Latham et al., we report that while ~ 70% of dynamists say there is time in B-theory worlds, (...)
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  39. Do the Folk Represent Time as Essentially Dynamical?Andrew J. Latham, Kristie Miller & James Norton - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    Recent research (Latham, Miller and Norton, forthcoming) reveals that a majority of people represent actual time as dynamical. But do they, as suggested by McTaggart and Gödel, represent time as essentially dynamical? This paper distinguishes three interrelated questions. We ask (a) whether the folk representation of time is sensitive or insensitive: i.e., does what satisfies the folk representation of time in counterfactual worlds depend on what satisfies it actually—sensitive—or does is not depend on what satisfies it actually—insensitive, and (b) do (...)
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  40. An Empirical Investigation of Purported Passage Phenomenology.Andrew J. Latham, Kristie Miller & James Norton - 2020 - Journal of Philosophy 117 (7):353-386.
    It has widely been assumed, by philosophers, that most people unambiguously have a phenomenology as of time passing, and that this is a datum that philosophical theories must accommodate. Moreover, it has been assumed that the greater the extent to which people have said phenomenology, the more likely they are to endorse a dynamical theory of time. This paper is the first to empirically test these assumptions. Surprisingly, our results do not support either assumption. One experiment instead found the reverse (...)
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  41. Finding Our Way through Phenotypes.Andrew R. Deans, Suzanna E. Lewis, Eva Huala, Salvatore S. Anzaldo, Michael Ashburner, James P. Balhoff, David C. Blackburn, Judith A. Blake, J. Gordon Burleigh, Bruno Chanet, Laurel D. Cooper, Mélanie Courtot, Sándor Csösz, Hong Cui, Barry Smith & Others - 2015 - PLoS Biol 13 (1):e1002033.
    Despite a large and multifaceted effort to understand the vast landscape of phenotypic data, their current form inhibits productive data analysis. The lack of a community-wide, consensus-based, human- and machine-interpretable language for describing phenotypes and their genomic and environmental contexts is perhaps the most pressing scientific bottleneck to integration across many key fields in biology, including genomics, systems biology, development, medicine, evolution, ecology, and systematics. Here we survey the current phenomics landscape, including data resources and handling, and the progress that (...)
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  42.  42
    James F. Drane: A Liberal Catholic Bioethics. Muenster, DE: Lit Verlag. 2010, 290 Pages.Andrew Papanikitas & Barbara Prainsack - 2011 - Philosophia 39 (4):771-774.
    James F. Drane: A Liberal Catholic Bioethics. Muenster, DE: Lit Verlag. 2010, 290 Pages Content Type Journal Article Category Book Review Pages 771-774 DOI 10.1007/s11406-011-9319-4 Authors Andrew Papanikitas, Department of Education and Professional Studies, King’s College London, Strand Campus, London, WC2R 2LS UK Barbara Prainsack, Kings Institute of Social Science and Public Policy, King’s College London, Strand Campus, London, WC2R 2LS UK Journal Philosophia Online ISSN 1574-9274 Print ISSN 0048-3893 Journal Volume Volume 39 Journal Issue Volume 39, Number (...)
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  43. The Realm of Ends or, Pluralism and Theism; the Gifford Lectures Delivered in the University of St. Andrews in the Years 1907-10, by James Ward. [REVIEW]James Ward - 1920 - The University Press.
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  44.  67
    Quine’s Intuition: Why Quine’s Early Nominalism is Naturalistic.James Andrew Smith - 2020 - Erkenntnis 85 (5):1199-1218.
    According to a growing consensus in the secondary literature on Quine, the judgment Quine makes in favor of the nominalism outlined in “Steps Toward a Constructive Nominalism” is in tension with the naturalism he later adopts. In this paper, I show the consensus view is mistaken by showing that Quine’s judgment is rooted in a naturalistic standard of clarity. Moreover, I argue that Quine late in his career is committed to accepting one plausible reading of his judgment in 1947. In (...)
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  45.  74
    Quine on naturalism, nominalism, and philosophy’s place within science.James Andrew Smith - 2021 - Synthese 198 (2):1549-1567.
    W.V. Quine is a well-known proponent of naturalism, the view on which reality is described only in science. He is also well-known for arguing that our current scientific theories commit us to the existence of abstract objects. It is tempting to believe that the naturalistic philosopher should think scientists outside of philosophy are in the best position to assess the merits of revising our current commitment to abstract objects. But Quine rejects this deferential view. On the reading of Quine’s philosophical (...)
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  46. A Christian for All Christians.Andrew Walker & James Patrick - 1994 - Utopian Studies 5 (1):229-231.
  47.  50
    Pure and Impure Time Preferences.Andrew J. Latham, Kristie Miller & James Norton - forthcoming - Australasian Philosophical Review.
    This paper investigates two assumptions of the exponential discounted utility theory (EDU) to which Callender draws our attention: namely that we can cleanly distinguish pure from impure temporal preferences, and that past discounting can be ignored. Drawing on recent empirical work in this area, we argue that insofar as one might have thought that past-directed preferences are more pure than future ones, then there is evidence that people’s pure preferences (insofar as we can make sense of that notion) show more (...)
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  48.  24
    The Organism as a Whole in an Analysis of Death.Andrew P. Huang & James L. Bernat - 2019 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 44 (6):712-731.
    Although death statutes permitting physicians to declare brain death are relatively uniform throughout the United States, academic debate persists over the equivalency of human death and brain death. Alan Shewmon showed that the formerly accepted integration rationale was conceptually incomplete by showing that brain-dead patients demonstrated a degree of integration. We provide a more complete rationale for the equivalency of human death and brain death by defending a deeper understanding of the organism as a whole and by using a novel (...)
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  49. Friends Over the Ocean Andrew Lang's American Correspondents 1881-1912.Andrew Lang & Marysa Demoor - 1989 - Rijksuniversiteit Te Gent.
     
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  50.  56
    Against a Normative Asymmetry between Near- and Future-bias.Andrew J. Latham, Kristie Miller & James Norton - forthcoming - Synthese.
    Empirical evidence shows that people have multiple time-biases. One is near-bias; another is future-bias. Philosophical theorising about these biases often proceeds on two assumptions. First, that the two biases are independent: that they are explained by different factors (the independence assumption). Second, that there is a normative asymmetry between the two biases: one is rationally impermissible (near-bias) and the other rationally permissible (future-bias). The former assumption at least partly feeds into the latter: if the two biases were not explained by (...)
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