An important goal of teaching ethics to engineering students is to enhance their ability to make well-reasoned ethical decisions in their engineering practice: a goal in line with the stated ethical codes of professional engineering organizations. While engineering educators have explored a wide range of methodologies for teaching ethics, a satisfying model for developing ethical reasoning skills has not been adopted broadly. In this paper we argue that a principlist-based approach to ethical reasoning is uniquely suited to engineering ethics education. (...) Reflexive Principlism is an approach to ethical decision-making that focuses on internalizing a reflective and iterative process of specification, balancing, and justification of four core ethical principles in the context of specific cases. In engineering, that approach provides structure to ethical reasoning while allowing the flexibility for adaptation to varying contexts through specification. Reflexive Principlism integrates well with the prevalent and familiar methodologies of reasoning within the engineering disciplines as well as with the goals of engineering ethics education. (shrink)
Open peer commentary on the article “Designing Academic Conferences in the Light of Second-Order Cybernetics” by Laurence D. Richards. Upshot: I propose that a lack of a common ground or culture of understanding is a design flaw in academic conferences that creates opportunities for violent reactions. I suggest that an additional or revised design principle or praxis should be considered through application of second-order cybernetics.
This book taps the best American thinkers to answer the essential American question: How do we sustain our experiment in government of, by, and for the people? Authored by an extraordinary and politically diverse roster of public officials, scholars, and educators, these chapters describe our nation's civic education problem, assess its causes, offer an agenda for reform, and explain the high stakes at risk if we fail.
resumo: O objetivo do artigo é explicitar o projeto de transformação da tecnologia de Andrew Feenberg a partir do conceito de design e da noção de tecnoestética de Gilbert Simondon. Queremos entender qual seria o papel da tecnoestética na transformação do design da tecnologia. O uso das categorias tecnoestéticas, como prazer no uso dos objetos técnicos e a incorporação deste uso ao sentido do eu, pode fornecer um critério para a intervenção democrática na constituição do design dos objetos técnicos? (...) abstract: The article explains Andrew Feenberg’s project of transforming technology through Gilbert Simondon’s concept of design and his notion of the techno-aesthetic. We want to understand what role the techno-aesthetic would play in the transformation of technological design. Can the use of techno-aesthetic categories and the incorporation of this use in the self’s sense provide a criterion for democratic intervention in the constitution of technical objects’ design? (shrink)
Pretende-se, neste artigo, analisar a perspectiva segundo a qual Hans Jonas e Andrew Feenberg compreendem a técnica como um poder de nova magnitude no mundo moderno e como, a partir de suas análises, uma na perspectiva ética e outra na perspectiva política, ambos analisam as formas de exercício desse poder, ou seja, as suas potencialidades, os limites, os riscos, as consequências de suas intervenções e as exigências teóricas e éticas do seu uso. Trata-se, então, de compreender a técnica como (...) um poder e, ao mesmo tempo, de perguntar sobre o quanto de poder ela tem ou, em outras palavras, o quanto de poder tem o homem de determiná-la ética e politicamente. O poder, assim, será o fio condutor da reflexão, a fim de demonstrar como Jonas pensa a responsabilidade como exercício do poder ético de controle da técnica, ao tempo em que Feenberg pensa a democratização da técnica como medida de intervenção e como alternativa à tecnocracia reinante, em vista de uma transformação dos interesses que guiam as escolhas técnicas. (shrink)
In “Friendship Amongst the Self-Sufficient: Epicurus” (this Journal, Vol. 2, No. 2, June 2001), Andrew Mitchell explores the Epicurean view of the relationship between self-sufficiency and friendship by contrasting it with the views of Aristotle and the Stoics. Epicurus, Aristotle, and the Stoics do indeed have interestingly different views on friendship that are well worth comparing. Yet Mitchell’s characterization of Aristotelian friendship is misleading, his account of Stoic friendship is inaccurate, and his interpretation of Epicurean friendship is curiously imaginative (...) but ultimately rather strange. (shrink)
Running throughout the work of Oliver O’Donovan is a discussion of the nature of authority, and its relation to reality, and to freedom. While holding fast to the maxim that authority is the correlate of freedom, O’Donovan’s understanding of authority moves, as a result of his engagement with the nature of political authority, to emphasise the idea of social mediation. This leads, in the most recent works, to a description of authority as an event in which reality is disclosed. Arguably, (...) this formal account does not adequately distinguish the element of practical direction within authority, meaning that it may struggle to explain some ways in which we speak about authority’s presence, and its misuse. However, there may be resources for making this distinction within O’Donovan’s understanding of judgment as an act of moral discrimination with a twofold form. O’Donovan’s is an elegant and economical account of authority, promising to provide a simple analysis that encompasses the peculiarities of authority and illuminates a wide range of phenomena. (shrink)
ResumoEste artigo defende que a teoria da concretização de Gilbert Simondon é útil tanto para os estudos sobre ciência e tecnologia quanto para a teoria política. Por "concretização", Simondon compreende o processo de multiplicação de funções propiciadas pelas estruturas de um dispositivo. Ele oferece o exemplo do motor com resfriamento a ar, que combina resfriamento e contenção em uma única estrutura, a caixa do motor. A concretização contrasta com projetos "abstratos", que acrescentam estruturas para cada função, complicando o dispositivo e (...) reduzindo sua eficiência. De acordo com Simondon, a evolução normal das tecnologias pode ser acompanhada através de suas sucessivas concretizações. O propósito deste artigo é concretizar em um único sistema de referência conceitual as noções funcionalmente distintas de "concretização" em Simondon e de "atores" nos ECT. Essa combinação tem aplicações políticas importantes. Ela mostra como demandas aparentemente contraditórias podem ser reconciliadas através de inovação. Por exemplo, diz-se frequentemente que acrescentar novas funções ambientais a tecnologias existentes implicará na troca da eficiência pela ideologia. Ao invés disso, o novo sistema de referência conceitual abre-nos uma perspectiva de transformação radical da tecnologia requerida pela modernização e sustentabilidade ecológicas. Ao fazer isso, ele sugere um modo de reconstruir a "crítica racional da razão" da Escola de Frankfurt e a noção de "racionalidade tecnológica" de Marcuse.This article argues that Gilbert Simondon's theory of concretization is useful for both science and technology studies and political theory. By "concretization" Simondon means the process of multiplying the functions served by the structures of a device. He gives the example of the air cooled engine which combines cooling and containment in a single structure, the engine case. Concretization contrasts with "abstract" designs that add structures for each function, complicating the device and reducing its efficiency. According to Simondon the normal evolution of technologies can be traced in successive concretizations. The aim of this paper is to concretize in a single conceptual framework the functionally distinct notions of "concretization" in Simondon and "actors" in STS. The combination has important political applications. It shows how apparently contradictory demands can be reconciled through innovation. For example, we are often told that adding new environmental functions to existing technologies will trade off ideology for efficiency. Instead, the new framework opens a perspective on the radical transformation of technology required by ecological modernization and sustainability. In so doing, it suggests a way of reconstructing the Frankfurt School's "rational critique of reason" and Marcuse's notion of "technological rationality". (shrink)
This collection of writings by E.S. Brightman is a worthy representation of the intellectual dimensions and philosophical achievements of the man who led the personalist movement in his lifetime and who served as Borden Parker Bowne Professor of Philosophy at Boston University from 1924 until 1953. The volume contains twenty-one selections, consisting of journal articles, book chapters, published lectures and addresses; they are arranged in seven subdivisions: Person, Knowledge, and Reality; Persons and Theory of Value; Philosophy of Religion; On (...) Bowne’s Personalism; Of Persons and Philosophies; Latin American Thought; and Personalism and Life. Each part is meaty in its own way. (shrink)
NOT BOLDNESS, but circumspection, and again circumspection, and always circumspection." That is the motto A. O. Lovejoy, in his presidential address to the Eastern Division of the American Philosophical Association, recommended to his fellow philosophers. Observing that the course of American philosophy from the turn of the century to the first World War had undergone a revolution against the alleged certitudes of idealism and witnessed the rise of discordant realisms and pragmatisms, Lovejoy wondered whether philosophy must lose itself in incessant (...) disagreement and fail forever to arrive at universally intelligible and definitely cogent results. He ascribed the failures of philosophers to their confusion of the distinct activities of edification and of inquiry; and he undertook to formulate the conditions for progress in philosophical inquiry. Above all, he urged that philosophers pledge themselves to dispassionate, disinterested inquiry. Philosophers, he contended, must develop the habit of "logical observation." They must deliberately and systematically attempt to enumerate exhaustively all the elements that bear upon a philosophical problem. Philosophy, he held, is intrinsically a cooperative enterprise, since it requires more than one mind to advance toward the truth. Yet, he readily added, philosophical cooperation consists primarily in disagreement, for he quoted Harrington's aphorism with approval: "Truth is a spark to which objections are like bellows." Nevertheless, he seldom wavered from his conviction that truth would win unanimous assent. Philosophers, he advised, should adopt a common and an unambiguous terminology and should formulate a common set of rules for the purposes of philosophical discussions. They should treat individual problems in isolation and deal with general issues in piecemeal fashion. And finally, they should prepare an undogmatic, nonpartisan, comprehensive catalogue of philosophical considerations, organized according to the problems or theses to which they are pertinent. Thus the cooperative pursuit of objective truths would be facilitated, and progress in philosophical inquiry, based upon circumspection, would be attained. (shrink)