Results for 'Andrew Y. Lee'

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  1. The Light & the Room.Andrew Y. Lee - manuscript
    To be conscious—according to a common metaphor—is for the “lights to be on inside.” Is this a good metaphor? I argue that the metaphor elicits useful intuitions while staying neutral on controversial philosophical questions. But I also argue that there are two ways of interpreting the metaphor. Is consciousness the inner light itself? Or is consciousness the illuminated room? Call the first sense subjectivity (where ‘consciousness’ =def what makes an entity feel some way at all), and the second sense phenomenal (...)
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  2. Consciousness and Continuity.Andrew Y. Lee - manuscript
    Let a smooth experience be an experience with perfectly gradual changes in phenomenal character. Consider, as examples, your visual experience of a blue sky or your auditory experience of a rising pitch. Do the phenomenal characters of smooth experiences have continuous or discrete structures? If we appeal merely to introspection, then it may seem that we should think that smooth experiences are continuous. This paper (1) uses formal tools to clarify what it means to say that an experience is continuous (...)
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  3. Structuralism in the Science of Consciousness: Editorial Introduction.Andrew Y. Lee & Sascha Benjamin Fink - manuscript
    In recent years, the science and the philosophy of consciousness has seen growing interest in structural questions about consciousness. This is the Editorial Introduction for a special volume for Philosophy and the Mind Sciences on “Structuralism in Consciousness Studies.”.
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  4.  12
    [deleted]Objective Phenomenology.Andrew Y. Lee - 2024 - Erkenntnis 89 (3):1197-1216.
    This paper examines the idea of objective phenomenology, or a way of understanding the phenomenal character of conscious experiences that doesn’t require one to have had the kinds of experiences under consideration. My central thesis is that structural facts about experience—facts that characterize purely how conscious experiences are structured—are objective phenomenal facts. I begin by precisifying the idea of objective phenomenology and diagnosing what makes any given phenomenal fact subjective. Then I defend the view that structural facts about experience are (...)
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  5. Degrees of Consciousness.Andrew Y. Lee - 2023 - Noûs 57 (3):553-575.
    Is a human more conscious than an octopus? In the science of consciousness, it’s oftentimes assumed that some creatures (or mental states) are more conscious than others. But in recent years, a number of philosophers have argued that the notion of degrees of consciousness is conceptually confused. This paper (1) argues that the most prominent objections to degrees of consciousness are unsustainable, (2) examines the semantics of ‘more conscious than’ expressions, (3) develops an analysis of what it is for a (...)
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  6. The Structure of Analog Representation.Andrew Y. Lee, Joshua Myers & Gabriel Oak Rabin - 2023 - Noûs 57 (1):209-237.
    This paper develops a theory of analog representation. We first argue that the mark of the analog is to be found in the nature of a representational system’s interpretation function, rather than in its vehicles or contents alone. We then develop the rulebound structure theory of analog representation, according to which analog systems are those that use interpretive rules to map syntactic structural features onto semantic structural features. The theory involves three degree-theoretic measures that capture three independent ways in which (...)
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  7. Modeling Mental Qualities.Andrew Y. Lee - 2021 - The Philosophical Review 130 (2):263-209.
    Conscious experiences are characterized by mental qualities, such as those involved in seeing red, feeling pain, or smelling cinnamon. The standard framework for modeling mental qualities represents them via points in geometrical spaces, where distances between points inversely correspond to degrees of phenomenal similarity. This paper argues that the standard framework is structurally inadequate and develops a new framework that is more powerful and flexible. The core problem for the standard framework is that it cannot capture precision structure: for example, (...)
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  8. The Neutrality of Life.Andrew Y. Lee - 2023 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 101 (3):685-703.
    Some philosophers think that life is worth living not merely because of the goods and the bads within it, but also because life itself is good. I explain how this idea can be formalized by associating each version of such of a view with a function from length of life to the value generated by life itself. Then I argue that every version of the view that life itself is good faces some version of the following dilemma: either (1) good (...)
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  9. Speciesism and Sentientism.Andrew Y. Lee - 2022 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 29 (3-4):205-228.
    Many philosophers accept both of the following claims: (1) consciousness matters morally, and (2) species membership doesn’t matter morally. In other words, many reject speciesism but accept what we might call 'sentientism'. But do the reasons against speciesism yield analogous reasons against sentientism, just as the reasons against racism and sexism are thought to yield analogous reasons against speciesism? This paper argues that speciesism is disanalogous to sentientism (as well as racism and sexism). I make a case for the following (...)
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  10. Does sentience come in degrees?Andrew Y. Lee - 2020 - Animal Sentience 29 (20).
    I discuss whether "sentience" (i.e., phenomenal consciousness) comes in degrees.
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  11. Is consciousness intrinsically valuable?Andrew Y. Lee - 2018 - Philosophical Studies 175 (1):1–17.
    Is consciousness intrinsically valuable? Some theorists favor the positive view, according to which consciousness itself accrues intrinsic value, independent of the particular kind of experience instantiated. In contrast, I favor the neutral view, according to which consciousness is neither intrinsically valuable nor disvaluable. The primary purpose of this paper is to clarify what is at stake when we ask whether consciousness is intrinsically valuable, to carve out the theoretical space, and to evaluate the question rigorously. Along the way, I also (...)
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  12. Knowing What It's Like.Andrew Y. Lee - 2023 - Philosophical Perspectives 37 (1):187-209.
    David Lewis—famously—never tasted vegemite. Did he have any knowledge of what it's like to taste vegemite? Most say 'no'; I say 'yes'. I argue that knowledge of what it’s like varies along a spectrum from more exact to more approximate, and that phenomenal concepts vary along a spectrum in how precisely they characterize what it’s like to undergo their target experiences. This degreed picture contrasts with the standard all-or-nothing picture, where phenomenal concepts and phenomenal knowledge lack any such degreed structure. (...)
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  13. The Microstructure of Experience.Andrew Y. Lee - 2019 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 5 (3):286-305.
    I argue that experiences can have microphenomenal structures, where the macrophenomenal properties we introspect are realized by non-introspectible microphenomenal properties. After explaining what it means to ascribe a microstructure to experience, I defend the thesis against its principal philosophical challenge, discuss how the thesis interacts with other philosophical issues about experience, and consider our prospects for investigating the microphenomenal realm.
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  14. Metaethical Experientialism.Andrew Y. Lee - forthcoming - In Geoffrey Lee & Adam Pautz (eds.), The Importance of Being Conscious. Oxford University Press.
    I develop and defend metaethical experientialism, the thesis that phenomenal facts explain certain kinds of value facts. I argue, for example, that anyone who knows what it’s like to feel extreme pain is in a position to know that that kind of experience is bad. I argue that metaethical experientialism yields genuine counterexamples to the principle that no ethical conclusion can be derived from purely descriptive premises. I also discuss the prospects for a pluralistic metaethics, whereby different metaethical theories hold (...)
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  15. The neuroscientific study of religious and spiritual phenomena: Or why God doesn't use biostatistics.Andrew B. Newberg & Bruce Y. Lee - 2005 - Zygon 40 (2):469-490.
  16. How Should We Study Animal Consciousness Scientifically?Jonathan Birch, Donald M. Broom, Heather Browning, Andrew Crump, Simona Ginsburg, Marta Halina, David Harrison, Eva Jablonka, Andrew Y. Lee, François Kammerer, Colin Klein, Victor Lamme, Matthias Michel, Françoise Wemelsfelder & Oryan Zacks - 2022 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 29 (3-4):8-28.
    This editorial introduces the Journal of Consciousness Studies special issue on "Animal Consciousness". The 15 contributors and co-editors answer the question "How should we study animal consciousness scientifically?" in 500 words or fewer.
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  17. Religion and health: A review and critical analysis.Bruce Y. Lee & Andrew B. Newberg - 2005 - Zygon 40 (2):443-468.
    The study of the relationship between religion and health has grown substantially in the past decade. There is little doubt that religion plays an important role in many people's lives and that this has an impact on their health. The question is how researchers and clinicians can best evaluate the available information and how we can improve upon the current findings. In this essay we review the current knowledge regarding religion and health and also critically review issues pertaining to methodology, (...)
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  18.  41
    On the finiteness of the recursive chromatic number.William I. Gasarch & Andrew C. Y. Lee - 1998 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 93 (1-3):73-81.
    A recursive graph is a graph whose vertex and edge sets are recursive. A highly recursive graph is a recursive graph that also has the following property: one can recursively determine the neighbors of a vertex. Both of these have been studied in the literature. We consider an intermediary notion: Let A be a set. An A-recursive graph is a recursive graph that also has the following property: one can recursively-in-A determine the neighbors of a vertex. We show that, if (...)
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  19.  6
    Cognitive and Emotional Appraisal of Motivational Interviewing Statements: An Event-Related Potential Study.Karen Y. L. Hui, Clive H. Y. Wong, Andrew M. H. Siu, Tatia M. C. Lee & Chetwyn C. H. Chan - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15:727175.
    The counseling process involves attention, emotional perception, cognitive appraisal, and decision-making. This study aimed to investigate cognitive appraisal and the associated emotional processes when reading short therapists' statements of motivational interviewing (MI). Thirty participants with work injuries were classified into the pre-contemplation (PC,n= 15) or readiness stage of the change group (RD,n= 15). The participants viewed MI congruent (MI-C), MI incongruent (MI-INC), or control phrases during which their electroencephalograms were captured. The results indicated significant Group × Condition effects in the (...)
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  20. Alethic Openness and the Growing Block Theory of Time.Batoul Hodroj, Andrew J. Latham, Jordan Lee-Tory & Kristie Miller - 2022 - The Philosophical Quarterly 73 (2):532-556.
    Whatever its ultimate philosophical merits, it is often thought that the growing block theory presents an intuitive picture of reality that accords well with our pre-reflective or folk view of time, and of the past, present, and future. This is partly motivated by the idea that we find it intuitive that, in some sense, the future is open and the past closed, and that the growing block theory is particularly well suited to accommodate this being so. In this paper, we (...)
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  21.  9
    Does ectogestation have oppressive potential?J. Y. Lee, Andrea Bidoli & Ezio Di Nucci - forthcoming - Journal of Social Philosophy.
    Journal of Social Philosophy, EarlyView.
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  22.  18
    Who should provide the uterus? The ethics of live donor recruitment for uterus transplantation.J. Y. Lee - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    Uterus transplantation (UTx) is an experimental surgery likely to face the issue of organ shortage. In my article, I explore how this issue might be addressed by changing the prevailing practices around live uterus donor recruitment. Currently, women with children – often the mothers of recipients – tend to be overrepresented as donors. Yet, other potentially eligible groups who may have an interest in providing their uterus – such as transgender men, or cisgender women who do not wish to gestate (...)
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  23.  16
    Equal Access to Parenthood and the Imperfect Duty to Benefit.J. Y. Lee & Ezio Di Nucci - 2023 - Philosophy of Medicine 4 (1).
    Should involuntarily childless people have the same opportunities to access parenthood as those who are not involuntarily childless? In the context of assisted reproductive technologies, affirmative answers to this question are often cashed out in terms of positive rights, including rights to third-party reproduction. In this paper, we critically explore the scope and extent to which any such right would hold up morally. Ultimately, we argue for a departure away from positive parental rights. Instead, we argue that the state has (...)
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  24.  56
    Is present-bias a distinctive psychological kind?Natalja Deng, Batoul Hodroj, Andrew J. Latham, Jordan Lee-Tory & Kristie Miller - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    Present-bias is the preference, all else being equal, for positive events to be located in the present rather than the non-present, and for negative events to be located in the non-present rather than the present. Very little attention has been given to present-bias in the contemporary literature on time biases. This may be because it is often assumed that present-bias is not a distinctive psychological kind; that what explains people’s being present-biased is just what explains them displaying various other time-biases. (...)
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  25.  12
    Teaching & Learning Guide for: Relational Approaches to Personal Autonomy.J. Y. Lee - 2023 - Philosophy Compass 18 (9):e12943.
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  26.  20
    Framing gestation: assistance, delegation, and beyond.J. Y. Lee - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (7):448-449.
    Assisted conception can be distinguished from assisted gestation.1 These processes have tended to be grouped together under the generic term assisted reproductive technology in the bioethical literature. According to Chloe Romanis, however, it is worth distinguishing interventions such as surrogacy, uterus transplantation, and potentially artificial placenta technology, as falling under the genus assisted gestative technologies. This is because gestation carries unique ethico-legal implications as compared with conception. The proposed genus of assisted gestative technologies is a helpful first step in the (...)
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  27.  30
    Katherine Hawley: How to be Trustworthy: Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019. Hardback (ISBN 9780198843900) 28.7€. 176 pages.J. Y. Lee - 2020 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 23 (3):689-690.
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  28.  12
    Normative competence, autonomy, and oppression.J. Y. Lee - 2022 - Feminist Philosophy Quarterly 8 (1).
    Natalie Stoljar posits that purely procedural theories of autonomy are unable to explain the ‘feminist intuition’, which is the idea that the internalization of false and oppressive norms are incompatible with autonomy. She claims instead that an account based on ‘normative competence’ – which requires true beliefs and critical reflection – can explain why oppressive norms should be excluded as legitimate decision-making inputs. On my view, however, the normative competence approach is subject to a worrying problem. While Stoljar's view successfully (...)
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  29.  21
    Atomistic formulation of a multiscale field theory for nano/micro solids.Y. Chen & J. Lee - 2005 - Philosophical Magazine 85 (33-35):4095-4126.
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  30.  47
    Reading performance is predicted by more than phonological processing.Michelle Y. Kibby, Sylvia E. Lee & Sarah M. Dyer - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  31.  8
    From Stars to Brains: Milestones in the Planetary Evolution of Life and Intelligence.Andrew Y. Glikson - 2019 - Cham: Springer Verlag.
    The permutation of basic atoms—nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, carbon and phosphorus―into the biomolecules DNA and RNA, subsequently evolved in cells and brains, defining the origin of life and intelligence, remains unexplained. Equally the origin of the genetic information and the intertwined nature of ‘hardware’ and ‘software’ involved in the evolution of bio-molecules and the cells are shrouded in mystery. This treatise aims at exploring individual and swarm behaviour patterns which potentially hint at as yet unknown biological principles. It reviews theories of (...)
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  32.  23
    The Expanded Access Cure: A Twenty-First Century Framework for Companies.Alexandra Y. Murata & Stacey B. Lee - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 156 (1):155-171.
    Through expanded access protocols, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) allows patients with serious or immediately life-threatening diseases access to experimental drugs outside the clinical trial setting when no satisfactory alternative treatment is available. While the FDA has established a mechanism for providing patients with unapproved drug access, the regulations do not require the pharmaceutical company to provide the drug. The drug company’s permission to use its experimental drug is a necessary prerequisite to using the FDA’s expanded access mechanism. Increasingly, (...)
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  33.  37
    Autonomy in the Philosophy of Sex and Love. [REVIEW]J. Y. Lee - 2020 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 24 (1):381-392.
    In this review essay, I critically evaluate the concept of autonomy and the role that it plays in the philosophy of sex and love in Patricia Marino’s book, Philosophy of Sex and Love: An Opinionated Introduction.
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  34. Objective Phenomenology.Andrew Y. Lee - 2024 - Erkenntnis 89 (3):1197–1216.
    This paper examines the idea of objective phenomenology, or a way of understanding the phenomenal character of conscious experiences that doesn’t require one to have had the kinds of experiences under consideration. My central thesis is that structural facts about experience—facts that characterize purely how conscious experiences are structured—are objective phenomenal facts. I begin by precisifying the idea of objective phenomenology and diagnosing what makes any given phenomenal fact subjective. Then I defend the view that structural facts about experience are (...)
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  35.  48
    Linguistic complexity and information structure in Korean: Evidence from eye-tracking during reading☆.Y. Lee, H. Lee & P. Gordon - 2007 - Cognition 104 (3):495-534.
  36.  35
    Defining reasonable patient standard and preference for shared decision making among patients undergoing anaesthesia in Singapore.J. L. J. Yek, A. K. Y. Lee, J. A. D. Tan, G. Y. Lin, T. Thamotharampillai & H. R. Abdullah - 2017 - BMC Medical Ethics 18 (1):6.
    A cross-sectional study to ascertain what the Singapore population would regard as material risk in the anaesthesia consent-taking process and identify demographic factors that predict patient preferences in medical decision-making to tailor a more patient-centered informed consent. A survey was performed involving patients 21 years old and above who attended the pre-operative evaluation clinic over a 1-month period in Singapore General Hospital. Questionnaires were administered to assess patients’ perception of material risks, by trained interviewers. Patients’ demographics were obtained. Mann–Whitney U (...)
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  37.  75
    ‘Psychopaths’ at Work? Implications of Lay Persons’ Use of Labels and Behavioural Criteria for Psychopathy.Carlo Caponecchia, Andrew Y. Z. Sun & Anne Wyatt - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 107 (4):399-408.
    In attempting to explain or deal with negative workplace behaviours such as workplace bullying, the notion of ‘workplace psychopaths’ has recently received much attention. Focusing on individual aspects of negative workplace behaviour is at odds with more systemic approaches that recognise the contribution of individual, organisational and societal influences, without seeking to blame a person(s) for their behaviour or personality disorder. Regarding a coworker as a psychopath is highly stigmatising, and given the relatively low prevalence of psychopathy in the community, (...)
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  38.  6
    Incongruence in Lighting Impairs Face Identification.Denise Y. Lim, Alan L. F. Lee & Charles C.-F. Or - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    The effect of uniform lighting on face identity processing is little understood, despite its potential influence on our ability to recognize faces. Here, we investigated how changes in uniform lighting level affected face identification performance during face memory tests. Observers were tasked with learning a series of faces, followed by a memory test where observers judged whether the faces presented were studied before or novel. Face stimuli were presented under uniform bright or dim illuminations, and lighting across the face learning (...)
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  39.  22
    The Fading Affect Bias shows healthy coping at the general level, but not the specific level for religious variables across religious and non-religious events.Jeffrey A. Gibbons, Jennifer K. Hartzler, Andrew W. Hartzler, Sherman A. Lee & W. Richard Walker - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 36:265-276.
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  40.  23
    Atomic-resolution spectroscopic imaging of oxide interfaces.L. Fitting Kourkoutis, H. L. Xin, Y. Hotta, J. H. Lee, Y. Hikita, D. G. Schlom, H. Y. Hwang & D. A. Muller - 2010 - Philosophical Magazine 90 (35-36):4731-4749.
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  41.  34
    Using the instrumented indentation technique for stress characterization of friction stir-welded API X80 steel.Y. Lee, J. -Y. Kim, J. -S. Lee, K. -H. Kim, J. Y. Koo & D. Kwon - 2006 - Philosophical Magazine 86 (33-35):5497-5504.
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  42.  11
    On the arbitrary nature of things: an agnostic reading of Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit.Andrew Lee Bridges - 2022 - Eugene, Oregon: Pickwick Publications, an imprint of Wipf and Stock Publishers.
    On the Arbitrary Nature of Things approaches Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit through a paradigm of agnosticism developed from Hegel's own critique of systems of knowledge. This work traces Hegel's descriptions of the movements of Spirit with equal measures of charity and skepticism. It provokes one to question the level of agnosticism that should be taken toward our various systems of human understanding, both in Hegel's Phenomenology and in our contemporary world. With respect to our contemporary world, Bridges questions whether the (...)
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  43.  11
    What Is A Family? A Constitutive-Affirmative Account.J. Y. Lee, R. Bentzon & E. Di Nucci - forthcoming - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry:1-11.
    Bio-heteronormative conceptions of the family have long reinforced a nuclear ideal of the family as a heterosexual marriage, with children who are the genetic progeny of that union. This ideal, however, has also long been resisted in light of recent social developments, exhibited through the increased incidence and acceptance of step-families, donor-conceived families, and so forth. Although to this end some might claim that the bio-heteronormative ideal is not necessary for a social unit to count as a family, a more (...)
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  44.  22
    Beyond ‘Hobby Farming’: towards a typology of non-commercial farming.Lee-Ann Sutherland, Carla Barlagne & Andrew P. Barnes - 2019 - Agriculture and Human Values 36 (3):475-493.
    In this paper we develop a typology of ‘non-commercial’ approaches to farming, based on a survey of a representative sample of farmers in Scotland, United Kingdom. In total, 395 farmers indicated that they do not seek to make a profit on their farms. We estimate that these non-commercial approaches to farming are utilised on at least 13% of agricultural land in Scotland. As such, non-commercial farming is not a marginal practice, nor are NCF limited to small-scale ‘hobby’ farms: NCF exist (...)
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  45.  38
    Predictors of doctor‐rated and patient‐rated gout severity: gout impact scales improve assessment.Andrew J. Sarkin, Ashley E. Levack, Marian M. Shieh, Arthur F. Kavanaugh, Dinesh Khanna, Jasvinder A. Singh, Robert A. Terkeltaub, Susan J. Lee & Jan D. Hirsch - 2010 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (6):1244-1247.
  46. Quantitative approaches to empirical legal research.Lee Epstein & Andrew D. Martin - 2010 - In Peter Cane & Herbert M. Kritzer (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Empirical Legal Research. Oxford University Press.
    This article deals with the objective nuances of empirical research, within the ambit of the quantitative kind. It begins with an overview of conducting empirical legal research, discussing its research design, implementation, and challenges faced. Theorizing in empirical legal scholarship comes in different forms: in some projects theories seek to provide insight into a wide range of phenomena, others are tailored to fit particular situations. In the clarification process the researcher translates abstract notions into concrete ones. To convert the data (...)
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  47.  52
    Microbicides Development Programme: Engaging the community in the standard of care debate in a vaginal microbicide trial in Mwanza, Tanzania.Andrew Vallely, Charles Shagi, Shelley Lees, Katherine Shapiro, Joseph Masanja, Lawi Nikolau, Johari Kazimoto, Selephina Soteli, Claire Moffat, John Changalucha, Sheena McCormack & Richard J. Hayes - 2009 - BMC Medical Ethics 10 (1):17-.
    BackgroundHIV prevention research in resource-limited countries is associated with a variety of ethical dilemmas. Key amongst these is the question of what constitutes an appropriate standard of health care (SoC) for participants in HIV prevention trials. This paper describes a community-focused approach to develop a locally-appropriate SoC in the context of a phase III vaginal microbicide trial in Mwanza City, northwest Tanzania.MethodsA mobile community-based sexual and reproductive health service for women working as informal food vendors or in traditional and modern (...)
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  48.  28
    “Fury, us”: Anger as a basis for new group self-categories.Andrew G. Livingstone, Lee Shepherd, Russell Spears & Antony S. R. Manstead - 2016 - Cognition and Emotion 30 (1):183-192.
  49.  24
    Introduction to Value Theory.Lee Andrew Elioseff - 1969 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 29 (1):133-137.
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  50.  43
    Gender-based homophily in collaborations across a heterogeneous scholarly landscape.Y. Samuel Wang, Carole J. Lee, Jevin D. West, Carl T. Bergstrom & Elena A. Erosheva - 2023 - PLoS ONE 18 (4):e0283106.
    Using the corpus of JSTOR articles, we investigate the role of gender in collaboration patterns across the scholarly landscape by analyzing gender-based homophily--the tendency for researchers to co-author with individuals of the same gender. For a nuanced analysis of gender homophily, we develop methodology necessitated by the fact that the data comprises heterogeneous sub-disciplines and that not all authorships are exchangeable. In particular, we distinguish three components of gender homophily in collaborations: a structural component that is due to demographics and (...)
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