The pivotal problem of comorbidity research lies in the psychometric foundation it rests on, that is, latent variable theory, in which a mental disorder is viewed as a latent variable that causes a constellation of symptoms. From this perspective, comorbidity is a (bi)directional relationship between multiple latent variables. We argue that such a latent variable perspective encounters serious problems in the study of comorbidity, and offer a radically different conceptualization in terms of a network approach, where comorbidity is hypothesized to (...) arise from direct relations between symptoms of multiple disorders. We propose a method to visualize comorbidity networks and, based on an empirical network for major depression and generalized anxiety, we argue that this approach generates realistic hypotheses about pathways to comorbidity, overlapping symptoms, and diagnostic boundaries, that are not naturally accommodated by latent variable models: Some pathways to comorbidity through the symptom space are more likely than others; those pathways generally have the same direction (i.e., from symptoms of one disorder to symptoms of the other); overlapping symptoms play an important role in comorbidity; and boundaries between diagnostic categories are necessarily fuzzy. (shrink)
Lindquist et al. present a strong case for a constructionist account of emotion. First, we elaborate on the ramifications that a constructionist account of emotions might have for psychiatric disorders with emotional disturbances as core elements. Second, we reflect on similarities between Lindquist et al.'s model and recent attempts at formulating psychiatric disorders as networks of causally related symptoms.
The majority of commentators agree on one thing: Our network approach might be the prime candidate for offering a new perspective on the origins of mental disorders. In our response, we elaborate on refinements (e.g., cognitive and genetic levels) and extensions (e.g., to Axis II disorders) of the network model, as well as discuss ways to test its validity.
Tim Maudlin’s argument for the inconsistency of Cramer’s Transactional Interpretation (TI) of quantum theory has been considered in some detail by Joseph Berkovitz, who has provided a possible solution to this challenge at the cost of a significant empirical lacuna on the part of TI. The present paper proposes an alternative solution in which Maudlin’s charge of inconsistency is evaded but at no cost of empirical content on the part of TI. However, Maudlin’s argument is taken as ruling out (...)Cramer’s heuristic “pseudotime” explanation of the realization of one transaction out of many. (shrink)
Tim Maudlin's argument for the inconsistency of Cramer's Transactional Interpretation of quantum theory has been considered in some detail by Joseph Berkovitz, who has provided a possible solution to this challenge at the cost of a significant empirical lacuna on the part of TI. The present paper proposes an alternative solution in which Maudlin's charge of inconsistency is evaded but at no cost of empirical content on the part of TI. However, Maudlin's argument is taken as ruling out (...) class='Hi'>Cramer's heuristic "pseudotime" explanation of the realization of one transaction out of many. (shrink)
Does stakeholder theory constitute an established academic field? Our answer is both “yes” and “no.” In the more than quarter-century since Freeman’s seminal contribution in 1984, this domain has acquired some of the administrative, social, and disciplinary trappings of an established field. Stakeholder research has coalesced around a unique intellectual position: that corporations must be understood within the context of their stakeholder relationships and that this understanding must grow out of the interplay between normative and social scientific insights. Yet, much (...) of this domain remains an unexplored territory. In this article, the authors assess the progress to date toward field status and outline future directions for stakeholder research. (shrink)
Existing descriptions of stakeholder management have primarily been static and one-dimensional. In this paper, we offer a multidimensional perspective and outline four main profiles of stakeholder management. We then explain how and why companies change their stakeholder management approach over time.
Bilang pagpapahalaga sa GOMBURZA, sa okasyon ng ika-150 anibersaryo ng kanilang kamatayan, ang pag-aaral na ito ay nagsagawa ng isang preliminaryong pagbaybay sa samu't saring pagpapakahulugan at pagbibigay-saysay na ikinakabit sa 1872 sa historiograpiyang Pilipino. Sa partikular, siniyasat ng sanaysay ang kapookan ng 1872 sa balangkas historiograpikal ng ilang prominenteng historyador tulad nina Teodoro Agoncillo, Zeus Salazar, Renato Constantino, Reynaldo Ileto, John Schumacher, Horacio de la Costa, at iba pa. Liban dito, tiningnan din ang pagpapakahulugan sa 1872 ng iba pang (...) teksbuk at akdang pangkasaysayan, bilang tagapagtawid ng mga diskurso ukol sa 1872 mula sa mga prominenteng historyador tungo sa mas malawak na bilang ng mga mambabasa. Sa huli, nahinuha mula sa mga talakayan na ang samu't saring pagpapakahulugan at pagbibigay-saysay sa 1872 bilang teksto ay nahuhulma ng mga balangkas at pananaw historiograpikal na kinapapalooban ng bawat historyador bilang mambabasa ng teksto. (shrink)
Dalawa sa mga hibla ng Pilosopiyang Filipino ay patungkol sa paggamit ng banyagang pilosopiya at pamimilosopiya sa wikang Filipino. Makatutulong ang dalawang ito tungo sa pagsasalin ng mga banyagang kaisipan sa talastasang bayan. Ang dalawang hiblang ito ang nais na ambagan ng kasalukuyang sanaysay, sa pamamagitan ng pagsasagawa ng rebyu sa isang halimbawa ng anime/manga na Hapon: ang Attack on Titan (AOT) ni Hajime Isayama. Gagamitin sa pagbasa ng AOT ang mga pilosopikal na pananaw ng ilang Aleman/Austrianong pilosoper/sikolohista na sina (...) Sigmund Freud, Erich Fromm, Carl Schmitt, at Friedrich Nietzsche. Sa pagbasang ito sa pamamagitan ng apat na banyagang palaisip, tututukan ang tema ng kalayaan at digmaan. Liban dito, maglalatag din ng pagmumuni-muni ukol sa paksa ng pananangkapan sa kasaysayan bilang sandatang pulitikal, isang temang lantad na lantad rin sa AOT. Ang lahat ng ito ay isasagawa sa wikang Filipino, bilang pagtatangka na makapag-ambag sa pagpapasok ng anime/manga na Hapon at pilosopiyang Aleman/Austriano sa talastasang bayan. (shrink)
The theory of vortices seems to contradict Descartes’s willingness to accept in physics only “principles also accepted in mathematics.” We show that this cosmological theory is on the contrary consistent with the Cartesian mathematical norm – explaining phenomena only by the properties that bodies have in common with mathematical objects – and partly implied by the thesis according to which the essence of matter consists of extension – circular motion being the only one allowing movement in a world saturated by (...) a homogeneous extension. In this respect, the incoherence of the Principles of Philosophy resides rather in the gap between the claim to have “proved by mathematical demonstration” and in the fact that, to pass from the level of general principles to that of cosmology, Descartes sets up a series of auxiliary hypotheses concerning the genesis of the world. (shrink)
Ang panunuring-aklat na ito ay interogasyon sa isang partikular na aspekto ng historiograpiya ni Resil Mojares. Sa pamamagitan ng pagbasa sa kanyang Interrogations in Philippine Cultural History bilang isang ehemplong tekstong historiograpikal, inilalatag ng panunuring-aklat na ito ang suhestiyon na mula sa punto-de-bista ng Pantayong Pananaw ay maituturing na malapit ang pagkakahawig ng historiograpiya ni Mojares sa balangkas pangkaisipan ng historiograpiyang Third Way. Binibigyang-tuon dito ang manaka-nakang puna ni Mojares sa tinatawag niyang “ethnonationalism”, na ang isa sa pinakamaunlad na anyo (...) sa kasalukuyan ay ang Pantayong Pananaw. Nagtangka rin na maghain sa panunuring-aklat na ito ng kritika ng Pantayong Pananaw sa historiograpiyang Third Way, sa pamamagitan ng pagtugon sa mga punto ni Mojares. (shrink)
In the past decades, reductionism has dominated both research directions and funding policies in clinical psychology and psychiatry. The intense search for the biological basis of mental disorders, however, has not resulted in conclusive reductionist explanations of psychopathology. Recently, network models have been proposed as an alternative framework for the analysis of mental disorders, in which mental disorders arise from the causal interplay between symptoms. In this target article, we show that this conceptualization can help explain why reductionist approaches in (...) psychiatry and clinical psychology are on the wrong track. First, symptom networks preclude the identification of a common cause of symptomatology with a neurobiological condition; in symptom networks, there is no such common cause. Second, symptom network relations depend on the content of mental states and, as such, feature intentionality. Third, the strength of network relations is highly likely to depend partially on cultural and historical contexts as well as external mechanisms in the environment. Taken together, these properties suggest that, if mental disorders are indeed networks of causally related symptoms, reductionist accounts cannot achieve the level of success associated with reductionist disease models in modern medicine. As an alternative strategy, we propose to interpret network structures in terms of D. C. Dennett's notion ofreal patterns, and suggest that, instead of being reducible to a biological basis, mental disorders feature biological and psychological factors that are deeply intertwined in feedback loops. This suggests that neither psychological nor biological levels can claim causal or explanatory priority, and that a holistic research strategy is necessary for progress in the study of mental disorders. (shrink)
This article addresses some Late Scholastic accounts (Suárez, Abra de Raçonis, Gamaches, Ysambert, Arriaga), of the “problem of transduction” in angels, as a possible source for the genesis of early modern occasionalism, particularly La Forge’s and Cordemoy’s. Indeed, if the “problem of transduction” is a structural issue of all the Aristotelian gnoseology, the impossibility of interaction between immaterial and material substance concerns, more generally, all spiritual substances, posing the issue about the principle of "transduction" already at the level of angels, (...) entirely immaterial creatures, unable to any relationship with the bodies. In order to answer to this peculiar version of the 'problem of transduction' Late Scholastic elaborate doctrines that are direct antecedents of occasionalist ones, and which likely directly influenced early modern occasionalism. To follow this investigative path, I will intersect three complementary argumentative lines. First, I will focus on Late Scholastic angelology, to point out how the need to solve the 'problem of transduction' in this peculiar context pushes the sixteenth and seventeenth-century Schools to a proto-occasionalist conception of angelic innatism. Secondly, I will identify in the debate on the angelic locutio of the key places for the elaboration of a model that sees God as the only efficient cause and the only guarantor of the mind's communications and contents. Thirdly, I will stress how the Late Scholastic angelological debates could be an important source for early modern dualism and the seventeenth-century occasionalism, notably for La Forge and Cordemoy. -/- . (shrink)
This paper describes the origins of the logistic function and its history up to its adoption in bio-assay and the beginning of its wider acceptance in statistics, ca. 1950. The function was probably first invented in 1838 to describe population growth by the Belgian mathematician Verhulst, who gave it its name in 1845; but it was rediscovered independently several times over in the next eighty years, both for this purpose and for the description of autocatalytic chemical reactions. Its adoption in (...) an altogether different role in bio-assay has been determined decisively by the individual actions and personal histories of a few scholars: the widespread acceptance of the growth function is due to Pearl and Reed, the general recognition of Verhulst’s primacy to Yule, and the introduction of the function in bio-assay to Berkson. (shrink)
Konrad Cramer, in “ Reflections on the Logical Structure of a Kantian Moral Argument ”, argues that the Universal Law Formulation of the Categorical Imperative is best understood as providing us with an indirect method for determining the moral permissibility of acting on our maxims. He then goes on argue, however, that no interpretation of UL is consistent with Kant’s epistemic claim that we can easily discover what morality demands of us. In response I argue that Cramer relies (...) on an excessively demanding interpretation of Kant’s epistemic claim and that his indirect interpretation of UL rests on a problematic account how our maxims relate to the actions that we perform on their basis. I then turn to the question of the overall plausibility of UL, and stress the need to interpret it within the context of Kant’s overall moral system. (shrink)
The future state of the redeemed human being in heaven is difficult, if not impossible, to pin down in this life. Nevertheless, Augustine and Anselm speculate on the heavenly life of the human being, proceeding from certain theological premises gathered from Scripture, and their arguments often both mirror and complement one another. Because Anselm and Augustine hold the premise that human beings in heaven are “equal to the angels” (Luke 20:36), our understanding of the heavenly condition of the human can (...) be illuminated by angelology, and vice-versa; each reveals the nature of the other. The paper examines aspects of the positions of Augustine and Anselm on the original state of the angels, their fall, and their confirmation, and then explores the condition of prelapsarian Adam and the transformation of the elect in order to illuminate how these figures conceive the afterlife. The angelologies (and demonologies) of Augustine and Anselm help one to understand the heavenly goal of human life, how the redeemed state of human beings differs from their original condition in Eden, and why there is no redemption for the fallen angels. (shrink)
I give a pedagogical derivation of the Cramer-Rao Bound, which gives a lower bound on the variance of estimators used in statistical point estimation, commonly used to give numerical estimates of the systematic uncertainties in a measurement.
The frame concept from linguistics, cognitive science and artificial intelligence is a theoretical tool to model how explicitly given information is combined with expectations deriving from background knowledge. In this paper, we show how the frame concept can be fruitfully applied to analyze the notion of mathematical understanding. Our analysis additionally integrates insights from the hermeneutic tradition of philosophy as well as Schmid’s ideal genetic model of narrative constitution. We illustrate the practical applicability of our theoretical analysis through a case (...) study on extremal proofs. Based on this case study, we compare our analysis of proof understanding to Avigad’s ability-based analysis of proof understanding. (shrink)
Kant vertritt in der Kritik der praktischen Vernunft und im Gemeinspruch die Auffassung, daß man eine Leihgabe auch dann nicht einfach einbehalten darf, wenn dies gefahrlos möglich wäre. Wie Konrad Cramer allerdings in seinem Aufsatz zum „Depositum“ zeigt, ist es gar nicht so leicht, auf der Grundlage der Kantischen Ethik ein gutes Argument für diese Auffassung zu rekonstruieren. Im Ausgang von Cramers Kritik wird hier der Versuch unternommen, Kants Position zu stärken: Die Maxime desjenigen, der das hinterlegte Gut einbehält, (...) ist die, sein Vermögen mit allen sicheren Mitteln zu vergrößern; wäre nun diese Maxime allgemein verbreitet, so würde es der ursprüngliche Eigentümer gar nicht wagen, sich von seinem Eigentum zu trennen. Es gäbe keine Deposita. Derjenige, der sich so am Gut eines andern bereichern möchte, untergräbt bei Allgemeinheit seiner Maxime tatsächlich die Bedingung der Möglichkeit der Einbehaltung des Depositums. Entscheidend wichtig für den Erfolg der Rekonstruktion ist die präzise Unterscheidung von „Regeln“ und „Maximen“. (shrink)
Bilang “kathang-buhay” ni Zeus A. Salazar, ang tinaguriang Ama ng Pantayong Pananaw (PP) at ng Bagong Historiograpiyang Pilipino, hindi mauunawaan ang PP nang hiwalay sa kanyang akademikong talambuhay. Kaya naman mainam na baybayin angkasaysayan ng Pantayong Pananaw sa konteksto ng kapantasanni Salazar. Maaaring hatiin ang kasaysayan ng PP sa konteksto ng kapantasan ni Salazar sa limang yugto, gamit ang metapora ng paglago ng halaman: 1. Panahon ng Pagpupunla ng mga ideyang magiging batayang kaisipan ng PP sa hinaharap, mula sapagpasok ni (...) Salazar sa Unibersidad ng Pilipinas (PP) bilang magaaral ng kasaysayan (1951) hanggang sa pagkakalimbag ngkanyang Ang Pagtuturo ng Kasaysayan sa Pilipino (1970), maaari itong bansagan bilang “Yugtong Pre-Pantayo”; 2. Panahon ng Pag-uugat ng PP sa UP mula sa pagkakalimbag ng artikulo ukol sa wikang Filipino (1970) hanggang sa pagdaraos ng Unang Pambansang Kumperensya sa Historiograpiyang Pilipino, kaalinsabay ng paghirang sa kanya bilang dekano ng Dalubhasaan ng Agham Panlipunan at Pilosopiya at pagdaraos ng (1989), 3. Panahon ng Pagsibol ng PP sa UP na tumutukoy sa institusyunalisasyon nito sa UP Departamento ng Kasaysayanmula sa kumperensyang ito (1989) hanggang sa pagkakalimbag ng Pantayong Pananaw: Ugat at Kabuluhan (1997), 4. Panahon ng Pagyabong ng PP sa labas ng UP mula sa pagkakalimbag ng aklat (1997) hanggang sa paglulunsad ng Saliksik E-Journal (2012), at 5. Panahon ng Pamumunga mula sa paglulunsad ngSaliksik E-Journal (2012) hanggang sa pagtatapos ng pagtuturo ni Salazar sa Politeknikong Unibersidad ng Pilipinas (2019). (shrink)
Companies seeking to effectively manage the ethical dimensions of their business have created formal and informal practices, including those with the labels “ethics and compliance” and “corporate social responsibility”. However, there is little research describing how practitioners who create and implement these practices understand their meaning and relationship. Leveraging a communities of practice theoretical perspective, this qualitative study proposes that these practices can be studied as artifacts of managerial learning. Thematic analysis of interviews with senior managers suggests that practices have (...) diverse meaning, with only informal relationships between them in most cases. Theoretically, this research offers a new lens through which to view compliance and CSR practices as socially negotiated, contextual, and dynamic. Practically, it suggests that there may be new opportunities for learning if managers create practices through an intentional exploration of shared meaning. (shrink)
Abstract: This paper conceptualizes the interaction of three discursive paths: the history of science, scientific education, and the debate about the Filipinization of scientific education. The paper analyzes the form of scientific revolution in the field of medicine which is different from its counterparts in the fields of astronomy and physics; as such, the paper contributes a particular narrative of that provides proof that it is possible to tackle scientific issues using the Filipino language as medium. It assumes that the (...) Filipino language should be used in the teaching of science and in scientific research. The scientific revolution in medicine is seen as the eventual downfall of Hippocrates and Galen and the rise of the theories of Paracelsus, Vesalius, Fracastoro , and Harvey. (shrink)