Results for 'Animal research'

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  1. The Regulation of Animal Research and the Emergence of Animal Ethics: A Conceptual History. [REVIEW]Bernard E. Rollin - 2006 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 27 (4):285-304.
    The history of the regulation of animal research is essentially the history of the emergence of meaningful social ethics for animals in society. Initially, animal ethics concerned itself solely with cruelty, but this was seen as inadequate to late 20th-century concerns about animal use. The new social ethic for animals was quite different, and its conceptual bases are explored in this paper. The Animal Welfare Act of 1966 represented a very minimal and in many ways (...)
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  2.  11
    Animal Researchers Shoulder a Psychological Burden That Animal Ethics Committees Ought to Address.Mike King & Hazem Zohny - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    Animal ethics committees typically focus on the welfare of animals used in experiments, neglecting the potential welfare impact of that animal use on the animal laboratory personnel. Some of this work, particularly the killing of animals, can impose significant psychological burdens that can diminish the well-being of laboratory animal personnel, as well as their capacity to care for animals. We propose that AECs, which regulate animal research in part on the basis of reducing harm, (...)
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  3.  39
    Principles of Animal Research Ethics.Tom L. Beauchamp & David DeGrazia - 2020 - Oup Usa.
    This volume presents a framework of general principles for animal research ethics together with an analysis of the principles' meaning and moral requirements. Tom L. Beauchamp and David DeGrazia's comprehensive framework addresses ethical requirements pertaining to societal benefit and features a thorough, ethically defensible program of animal welfare. The book also features commentaries on the framework of principles by eminent figures in animal research ethics from an array of relevant disciplines: veterinary medicine, biomedical research, (...)
  4. Animal Research That Respects Animal Rights: Extending Requirements for Research with Humans to Animals.Angela K. Martin - 2022 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 31 (1):59-72.
    The purpose of this article is to show that animal rights are not necessarily at odds with the use of animals for research. If animals hold basic moral rights similar to those of humans, then we should consequently extend the ethical requirements guiding research with humans to research with animals. The article spells out how this can be done in practice by applying the seven requirements for ethical research with humans proposed by Ezekiel Emanuel, David (...)
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  5.  39
    Animal Research Is an Ethical Issue for Humans as Well as for Animals.Kathy Archibald - 2018 - Journal of Animal Ethics 8 (1):1-11.
    Animals are used in biomedical research to study disease, develop new medicines, and test them for safety. As the Oxford Centre for Animal Ethics’ review Normalising the Unthinkable acknowledges, many great strides in medicine have involved animals. However, their contribution has not always been positive. Decades of attempts to develop treatments for diseases including asthma, cancer, stroke, and Alzheimer’s using animals have failed to translate to humans, leaving patients with inadequate treatments or without treatments at all. As Normalising (...)
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  6. Animal Research at DRDC Downsview - a Hidden History.Paul Bali - manuscript
    an overview of military research involving pigs, rats, and rabbits at DRDC Downsview [Toronto], from 2004 -2007. -/- appendix includes military docs secured thru an ATIP request by Animal Alliance Canada.
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  7.  35
    Animal Research Ethics in Africa: Is Tanzania Making Progress?Misago Seth & Fredy Saguti - 2012 - Developing World Bioethics 12 (3):158-162.
    The significance of animals in research cannot be over-emphasized. The use of animals for research and training in research centres, hospitals and schools is progressively increasing. Advances in biotechnology to improve animal productivity require animal research. Drugs being developed and new interventions or therapies being invented for cure and palliation of all sorts of animal diseases and conditions need to be tested in animals for their safety and efficacy at some stages of their (...)
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  8.  8
    The Sentience Shift in Animal Research.Heather Browning & Walter Veit - forthcoming - The New Bioethics:1-16.
    One of the primary concerns in animal research is ensuring the welfare of laboratory animals. Modern views on animal welfare emphasize the role of animal sentience, i.e. the capacity to experience...
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  9.  19
    The Ethics of Animal Research: Exploring the Controversy.Jeremy R. Garrett (ed.) - 2012 - Mit Press.
    A balanced, accessible discussion of whether and on what grounds animal research can be ethically justified.
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  10.  8
    Evaluating Animal Research.Lilly-Marlene Russow - 1986 - Between the Species 2 (4):11.
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  11.  9
    Animal Research Through a Lens: Transparency on Animal Research.J. W. Yeates & B. Reed - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (7):504-505.
  12.  13
    Animal Research, Safeguards, and Lessons From the Long History of Judicial Torture.Adam Clulow & Jan Lauwereyns - 2020 - Journal of Animal Ethics 10 (2):103-114.
    For animal research, the precautionary principle was written into public policy through the so-called three R’s of replacement, reduction, and refinement. These guidelines, as developed by Russell and Burch six decades ago, aimed to establish safeguards against the abuse of animals in the pursuit of science. While these safeguards, which started from the basic premise that science itself would benefit from a reduction of animal suffering, seem compelling at first, the three R’s have in practice generated a (...)
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  13.  72
    Confronting Ethical Permissibility in Animal Research: Rejecting a Common Assumption and Extending a Principle of Justice.Chong Un Choe Smith - 2014 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 35 (2):175-185.
    A common assumption in the selection of nonhuman animal subjects for research and the approval of research is that, if the risks of a procedure are too great for humans, and if there is a so-called scientific necessity, then it is permissible to use nonhuman animal subjects. I reject the common assumption as neglecting the central ethical issue of the permissibility of using nonhuman animal subjects and as being inconsistent with the principle of justice used (...)
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  14. The Ethics of Animal Research: What Are the Prospects for Agreement?David Degrazia - 1999 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 8 (1):23-34.
    Few human uses of nonhuman animals have incited as much controversy as the use of animals in biomedical research. The political exchanges over this issue tend to produce much more heat than light, as representatives of both biomedicine and the animal protection community accuse opponents of being and the like. However, a healthy number of individuals within these two communities offer the possibility of a more illuminating discussion of the ethics of animal research.
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  15. Public Attitudes Toward Animal Research: Some International Comparisons.Linda Pifer, Kinya Shimizu & Ralph Pifer - 1994 - Society and Animals 2 (2):95-113.
    A comparative analysis was made of the public's attitudes toward the use of animals in scientific research in 15 different nations. The intensity of opposition to animal research was found to vary from relatively low levels in Japan and the United States to much higher levels in France, Belgium, and Great Britain. More women than men were opposed to animal research in all 15 nations. Scientific knowledge, or the lack of knowledge, was not found to (...)
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  16.  56
    Human and Animal Research Guidelines: Aligning Ethical Constructs with New Scientific Developments.Hope Ferdowsian - 2011 - Bioethics 25 (8):472-478.
    Both human research and animal research operate within established standards and procedures. Although the human research environment has been criticized for its sometimes inefficient and imperfect process, reported abuses of human subjects in research served as the impetus for the establishment of the Nuremberg Code, Declaration of Helsinki, and the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research and the resulting Belmont Report. No similar, comprehensive and principled effort has (...)
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  17. Animal Research, Non-Vegetarianism, and the Moral Status of Animals - Understanding the Impasse of the Animal Rights Problem.Hon-Lam Li - 2002 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 27 (5):589 – 615.
    I offer some reasons for the theory that, compared with human beings, non-human animals have some but lesser intrinsic value. On the basis of this theory, I first argue that we do not know how to compare an animal's claim to be free from a more serious type of harm, and a human's claim to be free from some lesser type of harm. For we need to take account of these parties' intrinsic value, and their competing types of claim. (...)
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  18.  11
    Animal Research, Animal Welfare, and the Three R's.Bernard E. Rollin - 2010 - Journal of Philosophy, Science and Law 10:1-11.
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  19.  20
    Rethinking the Morality of Animal Research.Jerrold Tannenbaum & Andrew N. Rowan - 1985 - Hastings Center Report 15 (5):32-43.
  20.  21
    The Ethics of Animal Research: A Survey of Pediatric Health Care Workers.Ari R. Joffe, Meredith Bara, Natalie Anton & Nathan Nobis - 2014 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 9:20.
    Pediatric health care workers often perform, promote, and advocate use of public funds for animal research . We aim to determine whether HCW consider common arguments in support of AR convincing.
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  21. Neuroethics and Animals: Report and Recommendations From the University of Pennsylvania Animal Research Neuroethics Workshop.Adam Shriver & Tyler M. John - 2021 - ILAR Journal (00):1-10.
    Growing awareness of the ethical implications of neuroscience in the early years of the 21st century led to the emergence of the new academic field of “neuroethics,” which studies the ethical implications of developments in the neurosciences. However, despite the acceleration and evolution of neuroscience research on nonhuman animals, the unique ethical issues connected with neuroscience research involving nonhuman animals remain underdiscussed. This is a significant oversight given the central place of animal models in neuroscience. To respond (...)
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  22.  64
    The Three Rs of Animal Research: What They Mean for the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee and Why.Howard J. Curzer, Gad Perry, Mark C. Wallace & Dan Perry - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (2):549-565.
    The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee is entrusted with assessing the ethics of proposed projects prior to approval of animal research. The role of the IACUC is detailed in legislation and binding rules, which are in turn inspired by the Three Rs: the principles of Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement. However, these principles are poorly defined. Although this provides the IACUC leeway in assessing a proposed project, it also affords little guidance. Our goal is to provide procedural (...)
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  23.  39
    Principles of Animal Research Ethics Tom L. Beauchamp and David DeGrazia Oxford University Press: New York, 2020. 176 Pp. Isbn 9780190939120. Us$34.95. [REVIEW]Nathan Nobis - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (9):998-999.
    In Principles of Animal Research Ethics, Tom Beauchamp and David DeGrazia (hereafter B&D) aim to replace the well-known “3Rs”—Replacing animal research with non-animal methods, Reducing the numbers of animals, and Refining experiments to reduce harms and improve welfare—as the guiding principles regulating animal research. . . B&D present their principles as “useful” for people engaged in animal research and as a “philosophically sound” (p. 4) framework for a new ethic for (...) research. Regrettably, I have doubts about both these overall claims and so am pessimistic about the book. (shrink)
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  24.  21
    The Ethics of Animal Research: A Survey of the Public and Scientists in North America.Ari R. Joffe, Meredith Bara, Natalie Anton & Nathan Nobis - 2016 - BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):1-12.
    BackgroundTo determine whether the public and scientists consider common arguments in support of animal research convincing.MethodsAfter validation, the survey was sent to samples of public, Amazon Mechanical Turk, a Canadian city festival and children’s hospital), medical students, and scientists. We presented questions about common arguments to justify the moral permissibility of AR. Responses were compared using Chi-square with Bonferonni correction.ResultsThere were 1220 public [SSI, n = 586; AMT, n = 439; Festival, n = 195; Hospital n = 107], (...)
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  25.  23
    The Work of the Animal Research Station, Cambridge.Chris Polge - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 38 (2):511-520.
    This paper traces the history of the Animal Research Station, Cambridge from its establishment in 1932 to its closure in 1986. The author worked there for forty years and was Director from 1979. Originally set up as a field station for Cambridge University’s School of Agriculture, the Station was expanded after World War II as the Agricultural Research Council’s Unit of Animal Reproduction. Beginning with semen and artificial insemination, research at the Station soon embraced superovulation (...)
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  26. Necessary Conditions for Morally Responsible Animal Research.David Degrazia & Jeff Sebo - 2015 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 24 (4):420-430.
    In this paper, we present three necessary conditions for morally responsible animal research that we believe people on both sides of this debate can accept. Specifically, we argue that, even if human beings have higher moral status than nonhuman animals, animal research is morally permissible only if it satisfies (a) an expectation of sufficient net benefit, (b) a worthwhile-life condition, and (c) a no unnecessary-harm/qualified-basic-needs condition. We then claim that, whether or not these necessary conditions are (...)
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  27.  3
    Animal Research Unbound: The Messiness of the Moral and the Ethnographer’s Dilemma.Lesley A. Sharp - 2021 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 43 (2):1-19.
    Interspecies intimacy defines an inescapable reality of lab animal research. This essay is an effort to disentangle this reality’s consequences—both in and outside the lab—as framed by the quandaries of ethnographic engagement. Encounters with lab staff and, in turn, with audiences unfamiliar with laboratory life, together provide crucial entry points for considering how the “messiness of the moral” might facilitate an “unbounded” approach to lab animal worlds. Within the lab, one encounters specialized ethical principles—often codified as law—that (...)
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  28.  52
    Standards for Animal Research: Looking at the Middle.Rebecca Dresser - 1988 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 13 (2):123-143.
    Much of the public debate over laboratory animal use has focused on either the scientist's demand for absolute freedom of inquiry, or the abolitionist's demand for an end to animal use in science. Yet many recent proposals for reform seek instead to balance the interests of laboratory animals in avoiding harm against the interests of research beneficiaries in continued animal use. This essay is an analysis of the intermediate reform positions and their underlying ethical principles. Keywords: (...)
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  29.  9
    Inventing Oncomice: Making Natural Animal, Research Tool and Invention Cohere.Rosemary Robins - 2008 - Genomics, Society and Policy 4 (2):21-35.
    This paper examines how the oncomouse became a patentable invention. The oncomouse began life in the laboratory, where it was genetically modified for use as a research tool to assist with the study of human cancer. Its design, a product of genetic modification, made the oncomouse potentially patentable subject matter. The United States was the first jurisdiction to award the patent and several others followed. However, the question of animal patenting was most contentious in Europe and Canada. In (...)
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  30.  7
    Ethical Review of Animal Research and the Standards of Procedural Justice: A European Perspective.Tomasz Pietrzykowski - 2021 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 18 (3):525-534.
    Committees established for the ethical review of research involving animals have become a widespread legal standard around the world. Despite many differences in their composition, powers, and institutional settings, they share many common problems related to the well-established standards of procedural justice in administrative practice. The paper adapts the general theory of procedural justice to the specific context of ethical review committees. From this perspective, the main concerns over the procedural aspects of the ethical evaluation of research projects (...)
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  31.  21
    Animal Research In Diabetes And Ethical Consideration.Shamima Parvin Lasker & Rishad Raihan - 2012 - Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics 1 (2):20-23.
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  32.  16
    The Importance of Animal Research in Cognitive Neuroscience.Hiran Perera-W. A. - manuscript
    The aim of this essay is to identify the significance of animal research and its benefits in cognitive neuroscience research. This essay will evaluate the advantages of conducting research using animal models, its history, and the ethical issues surrounding this technique. It will further evaluate how the research has contributed to improve our knowledge of human brain functioning.
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  33.  17
    Animal Research.J. Bernstein - 1997 - Journal of Medical Ethics 23 (2):119-119.
  34.  58
    Protection of Animal Research Subjects.Czesław Radzikowski - 2006 - Science and Engineering Ethics 12 (1):103-110.
    The use of experimental animals, mostly rodents, in biomedical research and especially in oncology and immunology should be acknowledged with respect, recognizing the contribution of animal experimentation in the fascinating scientific progress in these disciplines of research. It is an obligation of the investigator to justify the scientific and ethical aspects of each study requiring the use of animals. The international guiding principles for using animals in biomedical research are well defined and have been distributed worldwide (...)
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  35.  27
    The Ethical Judgment of Animal Research.Shelley L. Gavin & Harold A. Herzog - 1992 - Ethics and Behavior 2 (4):263 – 286.
    One hundred sixty subjects acted as members of a hypothetical Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee and evaluated five proposals in which animals were to be used for research or educational purposes. They were asked to approve or reject the proposals and to indicate what factors were important in reaching their ethical decisions. Gender and differences in personal moral philosophy were related to approval decisions. The reasons given for the decisions fell into three main categories: metacognitive statements, factors (...)
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  36.  3
    Animal Research on Campus: Reflections on My Experience in the Field.Nadine Dolby - forthcoming - Educational Studies:1-12.
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  37.  90
    Moral Community and Animal Research in Medicine.R. G. Frey - 1997 - Ethics and Behavior 7 (2):123 – 136.
    The invocation of moral rights in moral/social debate today is a recipe for deadlock in our consideration of substantive issues. How we treat animals and humans in part should derive from the value of their lives, which is a function of the quality of their lives, which in turn is a function of the richness of their lives. Consistency in argument requires that humans with a low quality of life should be chosen as experimental subjects over animals with a higher (...)
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  38.  8
    The Ethical Challenges of Animal Research.Hope R. Ferdowsian & John P. Gluck - 2015 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 24 (4):391-406.
  39.  1
    Responsibility and Laboratory Animal Research Governance.Sarah Hartley & Carmen McLeod - 2018 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 43 (4):723-741.
    The use of animals in experiments and research remains highly contentious. Laboratory animal research governance provides guidance and regulatory frameworks to oversee the use and welfare of laboratory animals and relies heavily on the replacement, reduction, and refinement principles to demonstrate responsibility. However, the application of the 3Rs is criticized for being too narrow in focus and closing down societal concerns and political questions about the purpose of animal laboratory research. These critiques challenge the legitimacy (...)
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  40. Animal Rights V Animal Research: A Modest Proposal-Reply.T. Sprigge - 1996 - Journal of Medical Ethics 22 (5):302-303.
     
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  41. The Case Against Animal Research.Tom Regan - forthcoming - Contemporary Issues in Bioethics. Belmont, California: Wadsworth.
     
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  42.  3
    The Work of the Animal Research Station, Cambridge.Chris Polge - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 38 (2):511-520.
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  43.  15
    Guest Editorial: Reassessing Animal Research Ethics.David Degrazia & Tom L. Beauchamp - 2015 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 24 (4):385-389.
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  44.  12
    Reforming the Politics of Animal Research.Lisa Hara Levin & William A. Reppy - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (7):563-566.
  45. Animal Rights V Animal Research: A Modest Proposal.J. Bernstein - 1996 - Journal of Medical Ethics 22 (5):300-303.
    The practical problem of assuaging the opponents of animal research may be solved without formally addressing (or resolving) the underlying ethical questions of the debate. Specifically, a peaceful boycott of the "fruits" of animal research may lead to a wider cessation of such research, than, say, vocal or even violent protest. To assist those who might wish to participate in such a boycott- and, moreover, to critically inform them of the implications of their actions-1 offer (...)
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  46.  37
    Part-Human Animal Research: The Imperative to Move Beyond a Philosophical Debate.Melinda Abelman, P. Pearl O'Rourke & Kai C. Sonntag - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (9):26-28.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 12, Issue 9, Page 26-28, September 2012.
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  47.  5
    Recovering The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique: The 3Rs and the Human Essence of Animal Research.Robert G. W. Kirk - 2018 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 43 (4):622-648.
    The 3Rs, or the replacement, reduction, and refinement of animal research, are widely accepted as the best approach to maximizing high-quality science while ensuring the highest standard of ethical consideration is applied in regulating the use of animals in scientific procedures. This contrasts with the muted scientific interest in the 3Rs when they were first proposed in The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. Indeed, the relative success of the 3Rs has done little to encourage engagement with their original (...)
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  48.  29
    Compensation and Limits on Harm in Animal Research.Jake Earl - 2022 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 32 (3):313-327.
    Although researchers generally take great care to ensure that human subjects do not suffer very serious harms from their involvement in research, the situation is different for nonhuman animal subjects. Significant progress has been made in reducing unnecessary animal suffering in research, yet researchers still inflict severe pain and distress on tens of thousands of animals every year for scientific purposes. Some bioethicists, scientists, and animal welfare advocates argue for placing an upper limit on the (...)
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  49.  27
    The Ethics of Animal Research.David DeGrazia - 2015 - Journal of Value Inquiry 49 (3):485-490.
  50.  70
    Raising the Bar in the Justification of Animal Research.Elisa Galgut - 2015 - Journal of Animal Ethics 5 (1):5-19,.
    Animal ethics committees (AECs) appeal to utilitarian principles in their justification of animal experiments. Although AECs do not grant rights to animals, they do accept that animals have moral standing and should not be unnecessarily harmed. Although many appeal to utilitarian arguments in the justification of animal experiments, I argue that AECs routinely fall short of the requirements needed for such justification in a variety of ways. I argue that taking the moral status of animals seriously—even if (...)
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