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  1.  10
    On the Significance of the Identity Debate in DBS and the Need of an Inclusive Research Agenda. A Reply to Gilbert, Viana and Ineichen.Anke Snoek, Sanneke de Haan, Maartje Schermer & Dorothee Horstkötter - forthcoming - Neuroethics:1-10.
    Gilbert et al. argue that the concerns about the influence of Deep Brain Stimulation on – as they lump together – personality, identity, agency, autonomy, authenticity and the self are due to an ethics hype. They argue that there is only a small empirical base for an extended ethics debate. We will critically examine their claims and argue that Gilbert and colleagues do not show that the identity debate in DBS is a bubble, they in fact give very little evidence (...)
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  2. Reactive Attitudes, Relationships, and Addiction.Jeanette Kennett, Doug McConnell & Anke Snoek - forthcoming - In S. Ahmed & Hanna Pickard (eds.), Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy and Science of Addiction. London, UK: Routledge.
    In this chapter we focus on the structure of close personal relations and diagnose how these relationships are disrupted by addiction. We draw upon Peter Strawson’s landmark paper ‘Freedom and Resentment’ (2008, first published 1962) to argue that loved ones of those with addiction veer between, (1) reactive attitudes of blame and resentment generated by disappointed expectations of goodwill and reciprocity, and (2) the detached objective stance from which the addicted person is seen as less blameworthy but also as less (...)
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  3. Narrating Truths Worth Living: Addiction Narratives.Doug McConnell & Anke Snoek - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 3 (4):77-78.
    Self-narrative is often, perhaps primarily, a tool of self- constitution, not of truth representation. We explore this theme with reference to our own recent qualitative interviews of substance-dependent agents. Narrative self- constitution, the process of realizing a valued narrative projection of oneself, depends on one’s narrative tracking truth to a certain extent. Therefore, insofar as narratives are successfully realized, they have a claim to being true, although a certain amount of self-deception typically comes along for the ride. We suggest that, (...)
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  4.  42
    Drug Addiction and Criminal Responsibility.Jeanette Kennett, Nicole A. Vincent & Anke Snoek - 2014 - In Neil Levy & Jens Clausen (eds.), Handbook on Neuroethics. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 1065-1083.
    Recent studies reveal some of the neurophysiological mechanisms involved in drug addiction. This prompts some theorists to claim that drug addiction diminishes responsibility. Stephen Morse however rejects this claim. Morse argues that these studies show that drug addiction involves neither compulsion, coercion, nor irrationality. He also adds that addicted people are responsible for becoming addicted and for failing to take measures to manage their addiction. After summarizing relevant neuroscience of addiction literature, this chapter engages critically with Morse to argue that (...)
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  5.  21
    Does DBS Alienate Identity or Does It Simply Fail to Restore Identity Already Eroded by Illness?Anke Snoek - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 8 (2):114-115.
    This article critical examines Gilbert and colleagues’ study (Gilbert et al. 2017) claims on how deep brain stimulation (DBS) as a treatment for Parkinson’s disease (PD) can influence people’s self-concept.
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  6.  7
    Addiction and Moralization: The Role of the Underlying Model of Addiction.Steve Matthews & Anke Snoek - 2017 - Neuroethics 10 (1):129-139.
    Addiction appears to be a deeply moralized concept. To understand the entwinement of addiction and morality, we briefly discuss the disease model and its alternatives in order to address the following questions: Is the disease model the only path towards a ‘de-moralized’ discourse of addiction? While it is tempting to think that medical language surrounding addiction provides liberation from the moralized language, evidence suggests that this is not necessarily the case. On the other hand non-disease models of addiction may seem (...)
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  7.  43
    Agamben's Foucault: An Overview.Anke Snoek - 2010 - Foucault Studies 10:44-67.
    This article gives an overview of the influence of the work of Michel Foucault on the philosophy of Agamben. Discussed are Foucault’s influence on the Homo Sacer cycle, on (the development) of Agamben’s notion of power (and on his closely related notion of freedom and art of life), as well as on Agamben’s philosophy of language and methodology. While most commentaries focus on Agamben’s interpretation of Foucault’s concept of biopower, his work also contains many interesting references to Foucault on freedom (...)
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  8.  5
    Neuroparenting: Tussen Apocalyps En Utopie.Anke Snoek & Dorothee Horstkötter - 2019 - Algemeen Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Wijsbegeerte 111 (4):525-543.
    Neuroparenting: Between apocalypse and utopiaNeuroscience increasingly invades all domains of our lives, including the intimate realm of child raising and parenting. The current trend of neuroparenting, that is parenting advice based on neuroscientific research, fits this development. This article analyses this development from an ethical point of view. We will outline the current developments in the domain of neuroparenting with a special focus on the so-called ‘baby brain’ and ‘adolescent brain’. To discuss corresponding promises and perils, we do not only (...)
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  9.  7
    The Importance of the Self for Autonomous Behavior.Dorothee Horstkötter & Anke Snoek - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 4 (4):62-63.
    Neuroscientific findings have often been argued to undermine notions of free will and to require far-reaching changes of our political and legal systems. Making a difference between the metaphysical notion of free will and the political notion of autonomy,Dubljevi´c (2013) argues this switchover to be mistaken. While we appreciate attention to the social limits of neuroscientific findings, we also have a twofold concern with his proposal. The first covers the nontransparent way in which he either rejects or embraces certain scientific (...)
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  10.  39
    Introduction: Testing and Refining Marc Lewis’s Critique of the Brain Disease Model of Addiction.Steve Matthews & Anke Snoek - 2017 - Neuroethics 10 (1):1-6.
    In this introduction we set out some salient themes that will help structure understanding of a complex set of intersecting issues discussed in this special issue on the work of Marc Lewis: conceptual foundations of the disease model, tolerating the disease model given socio-political environments, and A third wave: refining conceptualization of addiction in the light of Lewis’s model.
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  11.  16
    Ethical Issues in Research on Substance‐Dependent Parents: The Risk of Implicit Normative Judgements by Researchers.Anke Snoek & Dorothee Horstkötter - 2018 - Bioethics 32 (9):620-627.
    When doing research among vulnerable populations, researchers are obliged to protect their subjects from harm. We will argue that traditional ethical guidelines are not sufficient to do this, since they mainly focus on direct harms that can occur: for example, issues around informed consent, fair recruitment and risk/harm analysis. However, research also entails indirect harms that remain largely unnoticed by research ethical committees and the research community. Indirect harms do not occur during data collection, but in the analysis of the (...)
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  12.  16
    The Importance of Self-Narration in Recovery From Addiction.Doug McConnell & Anke Snoek - 2018 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 25 (3):31-44.
    Addiction involves a chronic deficit in self-governance that treatment aims to restore. We draw on our interviews with addicted people to argue that addiction is, in part, a problem of self-narrative change. Over time, agents come to strongly identify with the aspects of their self-narratives that are consistently verified by others. When addiction self-narratives become established, they shape the addicted person’s experience, plans, and expectations so that pathways to recovery appear implausible and feel alien. Therefore, the agent may prefer to (...)
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  13.  35
    Lessons in Biopolitics and Agency: Agamben on Addiction.Anke Snoek & Craig L. Fry - 2015 - The New Bioethics 21 (2):128-141.
    The concepts of ‘biopolitics’ and ‘naked life’ have become increasingly relevant in the debate on substance dependency due to the growing prominence of neuroscience in defining the nature of addiction1 and its threat to agency. However, these concepts are not necessarily well understood, and therefore may lead to oversight rather than insight. In this article we review the literature on Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben, whose founding works on both concepts shed a different light on addiction. We argue that the current (...)
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  14.  34
    Beyond Dualism : A Plea for an Extended Taxonomy of Agency Impairment in Addiction.Anke Snoek, Jeanette Kennett & Craig Fry - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 3 (2):56-57.
    Pickard (2012) claims that the neurobiological or disease model of addiction hinders the recovery of people because it undermines their feeling of self-efficacy and agency. Sub- stance users are “not aided by being treated as victims of a neurobiological disease, as opposed to agents of their own recovery” (40).Although Pickard acknowledges that claims of powerlessness or loss of agency can have a functional role in the self-narratives of substance users in excusing them from blame, she primarily focuses on the negative (...)
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  15.  20
    Stigma and Self-Stigma in Addiction.Steve Matthews, Robyn Dwyer & Anke Snoek - 2017 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 14 (2):275-286.
    Addictions are commonly accompanied by a sense of shame or self-stigmatization. Self-stigmatization results from public stigmatization in a process leading to the internalization of the social opprobrium attaching to the negative stereotypes associated with addiction. We offer an account of how this process works in terms of a range of looping effects, and this leads to our main claim that for a significant range of cases public stigma figures in the social construction of addiction. This rests on a social constructivist (...)
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  16.  16
    Pleasure and Addiction.Jeanette Kennett, Steve Matthews & Anke Snoek - 2013 - Frontiers in Psychiatry 4.
    What is the role and value of pleasure in addiction? Foddy and Savulescu have claimed that substance use is just pleasure-oriented behavior. They describe addiction as "strong appetites toward pleasure" and argue that addicts suffer in significant part because of strong social and moral disapproval of lives dominated by pleasure seeking. But such lives, they claim, can be autonomous and rational. The view they offer is largely in line with the choice model and opposed to a disease model of addiction. (...)
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  17.  7
    Among Super Soldiers, Killing Machines and Addicted Soldiers : The Ambivalent Relationship Between the Military and Synthetic Drugs.Anke Snoek - 2015 - In Jai Galliot & Mianna Lotz (eds.), Super Soldiers. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing. pp. 95-106.
    In this paper I will analyze several cases from the American Civil War, the two World Wars and the American Vietnam War, and contemporary research in enhancement substance, to determine how drug use can be analyzed and understood in both physical and moral (ethical) terms. This will require a discussion of drug use at different levels. First, I will address the consequences of drug use for the physical and mental sanity of soldiers, during and after wartime, irrespective of the reason (...)
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