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  1.  35
    Recommendations for Responsible Development and Application of Neurotechnologies.Sara Goering, Eran Klein, Laura Specker Sullivan, Anna Wexler, Blaise Agüera Y. Arcas, Guoqiang Bi, Jose M. Carmena, Joseph J. Fins, Phoebe Friesen, Jack Gallant, Jane E. Huggins, Philipp Kellmeyer, Adam Marblestone, Christine Mitchell, Erik Parens, Michelle Pham, Alan Rubel, Norihiro Sadato, Mina Teicher, David Wasserman, Meredith Whittaker, Jonathan Wolpaw & Rafael Yuste - 2021 - Neuroethics 14 (3):365-386.
    Advancements in novel neurotechnologies, such as brain computer interfaces and neuromodulatory devices such as deep brain stimulators, will have profound implications for society and human rights. While these technologies are improving the diagnosis and treatment of mental and neurological diseases, they can also alter individual agency and estrange those using neurotechnologies from their sense of self, challenging basic notions of what it means to be human. As an international coalition of interdisciplinary scholars and practitioners, we examine these challenges and make (...)
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  2.  14
    Translational Neuroethics: A Vision for a More Integrated, Inclusive, and Impactful Field.Anna Wexler & Laura Specker Sullivan - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 14 (4):388-399.
    As early-career neuroethicists, we come to the field of neuroethics at a unique moment: we are well-situated to consider nearly two decades of neuroethics scholarship and identify challenges that have persisted across time. But we are also looking squarely ahead, embarking on the next generation of exciting and productive neuroethics scholarship. In this article, we both reflect backwards and turn our gaze forward. First, we highlight criticisms of neuroethics, both from scholars within the field and outside it, that have focused (...)
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  3.  18
    Ethical Issues in Intraoperative Neuroscience Research: Assessing Subjects’ Recall of Informed Consent and Motivations for Participation.Anna Wexler, Rebekah J. Choi, Ashwin G. Ramayya, Nikhil Sharma, Brendan J. McShane, Love Y. Buch, Melanie P. Donley-Fletcher, Joshua I. Gold, Gordon H. Baltuch, Sara Goering & Eran Klein - 2022 - AJOB Empirical Bioethics 13 (1):57-66.
    BackgroundAn increasing number of studies utilize intracranial electrophysiology in human subjects to advance basic neuroscience knowledge. However, the use of neurosurgical patients as human research subjects raises important ethical considerations, particularly regarding informed consent and undue influence, as well as subjects’ motivations for participation. Yet a thorough empirical examination of these issues in a participant population has been lacking. The present study therefore aimed to empirically investigate ethical concerns regarding informed consent and voluntariness in Parkinson’s disease patients undergoing deep brain (...)
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  4.  6
    Ethical and Legal Considerations of Alternative Neurotherapies.Ashwini Nagappan, Louiza Kalokairinou & Anna Wexler - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (4):257-269.
    Neurotherapies for diagnostics and treatment—such as electroencephalography (EEG) neurofeedback, single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) imaging for neuropsychiatric evaluation, and off-label/experimental uses of brain stimulation—are continuously being offered to the public outside mainstream healthcare settings. Because these neurotherapies share many key features of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) techniques—and meet the definition of CAM as set out in Kaptchuk and Eisenberg—here we refer to them as “alternative neurotherapies.” By explicitly linking these alternative neurotherapy practices under a common conceptual framework, this paper (...)
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  5.  19
    The practices of do-it-yourself brain stimulation: implications for ethical considerations and regulatory proposals.Anna Wexler - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (4):211-215.
  6.  13
    Neurofeedback as placebo: a case of unintentional deception?Louiza Kalokairinou, Laura Specker Sullivan & Anna Wexler - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (12):1037-1042.
    The use of placebo in clinical practice has been the topic of extensive debate in the bioethics literature, with much scholarship focusing on concerns regarding deception. While considerations of placebo without deception have largely centred on open-label placebo, this paper considers a different kind of ethical quandary regarding placebo without an intent to deceive—one where the provider believes a treatment is effective due to a direct physiological mechanism, even though that belief may not be supported by rigorous scientific evidence. This (...)
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  7.  2
    Beyond “Ensuring Understanding”: Toward a Patient-Partnered Neuroethics of Brain Device Research.Meghan C. Halley, Tracy Dixon-Salazar & Anna Wexler - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 13 (4):241-244.
    The work of Sankary et al. (2022) provides valuable insights into the experiences of participants exiting brain device research. Empirical bioethics research such as this is critical to understandi...
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  8.  13
    The Urgent Need to Better Integrate Neuroscience and Neuroethics.Anna Wexler - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 11 (3):219-220.
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  9.  13
    Biomedical Citizen Science or Something Else? Reflections on Terms and Definitions.Christi J. Guerrini, Anna Wexler, Patricia J. Zettler & Amy L. McGuire - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (8):17-19.
    In their article “The Rise of Citizen Science in Health and Biomedical Research,” Wiggins and Wilbanks (2019) present a new typology for understanding the complex landscape of health and biomedical...
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  10.  11
    Trading Vulnerabilities: Living with Parkinson’s Disease before and after Deep Brain Stimulation.Sara Goering, Anna Wexler & Eran Klein - 2021 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 30 (4):623-630.
    Implanted medical devices—for example, cardiac defibrillators, deep brain stimulators, and insulin pumps—offer users the possibility of regaining some control over an increasingly unruly body, the opportunity to become part “cyborg” in service of addressing pressing health needs. We recognize the value and effectiveness of such devices, but call attention to what may be less clear to potential users—that their vulnerabilities may not entirely disappear but instead shift. We explore the kinds of shifting vulnerabilities experienced by people with Parkinson’s disease (PD) (...)
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  11.  7
    Getting into Their Heads: When the Investigator is also the Treating Physician.Stephanie R. Morain, Emily A. Largent & Anna Wexler - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (1):68-70.
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  12.  6
    Direct-to-Consumer Neurotechnology: A Grounded Appraisal.Anna Wexler - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 10 (4):172-174.
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  13.  8
    Opportunity Cost or Opportunity Lost: An Empirical Assessment of Ethical Concerns and Attitudes of EEG Neurofeedback Users.Louiza Kalokairinou, Rebekah Choi, Ashwini Nagappan & Anna Wexler - 2022 - Neuroethics 15 (3):1-13.
    Electroencephalography (EEG) neurofeedback is a type of biofeedback that purportedly teaches users how to control their brainwaves. Although neurofeedback is currently offered by thousands of providers worldwide, its provision is contested, as its effectiveness beyond a placebo effect is unproven. While scholars have voiced numerous ethical concerns about neurofeedback—regarding opportunity cost, physical and psychological harms, financial cost, and informed consent—to date these concerns have remained theoretical. This pilot study aimed to provide insights on whether these issues were supported by empirical (...)
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  14.  19
    Realizing Present and Future Promise of DIY Biology and Medicine through a Trust Architecture.Lisa M. Rasmussen, Christi J. Guerrini, Todd Kuiken, Camille Nebeker, Alex Pearlman, Sarah B. Ware, Anna Wexler & Patricia J. Zettler - 2020 - Hastings Center Report 50 (6):10-14.
    The speed and scale of the COVID‐19 pandemic has highlighted the limits of current health systems and the potential promise of non‐establishment research such as “DIY” research. We consider one example of how DIY research is responding to the pandemic, discuss the challenges faced by DIY research more generally, and suggest that a “trust architecture” should be developed now to contribute to successful future DIY efforts.
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  15.  28
    Covid‐19: Exposing the Lack of Evidence‐Based Practice in Medicine.Jonathan Reisman & Anna Wexler - 2020 - Hastings Center Report 50 (3):77-78.
    The Covid‐19 pandemic has altered the shape of medicine, making in‐person interactions risky for both patients and health care workers. Now, before scheduling in‐person appointments or procedures, physicians are forced to reconsider if they are truly necessary. The pandemic has thus thrown into relief the difference between evidence‐based medical care and traditional aspects of care that lack a strong evidentiary component. In this essay, we demonstrate how this has played out in prenatal care, as well as in other aspects of (...)
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  16.  14
    Innovative Practice Outside of Medical Institutions.Anna Wexler - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (6):41-42.
    Volume 19, Issue 6, June 2019, Page 41-42.
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