This paper presents preliminary findings of the project [name omitted for anonymity]. This interdisciplinary project builds on Argumentation theory and developmental sociocultural psychology for the study of children’s argumentation. We reconstruct children’s inferences in adult-child and child-child dialogical interaction in conversation in different settings. We focus in particular on implicit premises using the Argumentum Model of Topics for the reconstruction of the inferential configuration of arguments. Our findings reveal that sources of misunderstandings are more often than not due to misalignments (...) of implicit premises between adults and children; these misalignments concern material premises rather than the inferential-procedural level. (shrink)
The present study focuses on the observation of learning processes as they emerge in the context of conversations among two students in three successive tasks designed to foster conceptual change in proportional reasoning. The three tasks were set according to a pre-test treatment post-test paradigm. In the pre-test and the post-test tasks, the two students solved individually several items in the presence of an experimenter. In the treatment task, the two students worked as a dyad to solve similar items; they (...) used a balance to check their conclusions and subsequently continued solving the items when the weighing did not match their expectations. We adopt a micro-genetic approach and develop new analytical tools to observe what happened in the conversation (both socially and cognitively). Throughout the three successive tasks, we observed the interplay between tools, peers, experimenter, and task demands and how they are managed through the rules of conversation. We identified four processes that involved the emergence of new high-order strategies from coordinated actions distributed among peers, the guidance of the experimenter in coordinating actions, and ways the participation in solving a previous task was actualized in a successive one. (shrink)
The present study focuses on the observation of learning processes as they emerge in the context of conversations among two students in three successive tasks designed to foster conceptual change in proportional reasoning. The three tasks were set according to a pre-test treatment post-test paradigm. In the pre-test and the post-test tasks, the two students solved individually several items in the presence of an experimenter. In the treatment task, the two students worked as a dyad to solve similar items; they (...) used a balance to check their conclusions and subsequently continued solving the items when the weighing did not match their expectations. We adopt a micro-genetic approach and develop new analytical tools to observe what happened in the conversation . Throughout the three successive tasks, we observed the interplay between tools, peers, experimenter, and task demands and how they are managed through the rules of conversation. We identified four processes that involved the emergence of new high-order strategies from coordinated actions distributed among peers, the guidance of the experimenter in coordinating actions, and ways the participation in solving a previous task was actualized in a successive one. (shrink)
"Problem emergence and relational dynamics at the start of a philosophy workshop. This research aims to better understand how a common object is constructed (or not) during an interaction when the purpose of the interaction is to think together philosophically. After presenting what the practice of philosophy for children advocates, we analyze what happens when it is implemented by observing the unfolding of a philosophy workshop involving secondary school students and their teachers. We adopt an empirical approach and a precise (...) follow-up of the contributions of each participant. At the beginning of the workshop, we are interested in looking for those moments when a common problem emerges. Our observations suggest that the process of theoretical elaboration of a philosophical theme and that of the relational dynamics between the participants are intertwined. Keywords: interaction, philosophy for children, problem, dialogue, interpersonal relations. ". (shrink)
The delivery of education in refugee camps has become a key component of humanitarian programs. Since the late 1980s, camps have become the dominant way through which refugee movements are managed around the world. Children, the perfect embodiment of the innocent victim, are particularly targeted by humanitarian aid. When refugee situations become protracted and the temporary permanent, their learning structures tend to be become actual schools made of an administration, a teaching staff and a curriculum. Generally funded and coordinated by (...) the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, these camp schools contribute today to the schooling of almost 3,5 millions of refugee children. Going beyond an idealized vision of education as a “basic human right” and an instrument of “protection,” this article looks at the ways in which humanitarian aid contributes to establishing the school norm in the margins of the Nation-States while at the same time being closely intertwined with the politics of controlling human mobility. Based on the case studies of schools in two Congolese refugee camps, we explore which registers of legitimization and understandings of the child they are built on; how they are governed and negotiated on a daily basis by multiple actors; and how they are perceived by the students. What emerges from this analysis are a variety of tensions that characterize the dynamics of these schools: they simultaneously include their students in and exclude them from the dominant social order; they victimize them at the same time as they project them as future citizens, and they produce the conditions of their confinement while creating opportunities for certain socio-spatial mobilities. (shrink)
Mary-Anne Zagdoun se propose, dans l’ouvrage qu’elle consacre à la philosophie stoïcienne de l’art, de combler une lacune. En effet, « l’ampleur et l’importance [de celle-ci] ont été longtemps », selon elle, « sous-estimées » et « il manquait sur la question un travail permettant de situer le problème dans l’ensemble de la philosophie stoïcienne ». (Introduction, p. 9) L’on peut dès à présent dire que le but fixé par l’auteur est atteint : si Mary-Anne Zagdoun souligne à (...) maintes reprises l’in... (shrink)
C’est par une description de la fête des Grandes Dionysies, célébrée chaque année à Athènes à la fin du mois de mars, que Mary‑Anne Zagdoun entame son ouvrage sur « l’esthétique d’Aristote ». Et pour cause : c’est principalement, on le sait, lors de cette panégyrie qu’avaient lieu les représentations théâtrales des œuvres qui constituent l’objet d’étude privilégié à partir duquel Aristote a élaboré une théorie artistique novatrice : les tragédies et, dans une moindre mesure pour ce que nous (...) e... (shrink)
L’ouvrage d’Anne Cova, tiré principalement de la partie inédite de sa thèse doctorale soutenue en 1994, porte sur l’histoire des débats autour d’une question : « la liberté de la maternité », dont les contours s’étendent bien au-delà des discussions entre les féministes et leur opposants, et qui d’une certaine manière reste aussi « brûlante » de nos jours qu’il y a cent ans, soit la période étudiée. Le dépouillement des plus importants périodiques spécialisés publiés entre 1890 et 1939 (...) (Régén... (shrink)
La Colombiade war bis zur französischen Revolution ein in Frankreich und in den westeuropäischen Ländern vielbeachtetes Epos. Aus heutiger Sicht ist das gut lesbare Gedicht erneut von Interesse: es wägt Segnungen und Schäden der Kolonialisierung gegeneinander ab, propagiert die Idee eines auf wissenschaftlichem und humanistischem Ethos gegründeten Europas, und artikuliert das aufklärerische Selbstbewusstsein einer schreibenden Frau. Die Einführung der Herausgeberin stellt das Gedicht in den Wissenshorizont der Entstehungszeit und skizziert die Rezeption. Der Anhang informiert über Textvarianten, bringt erläuternde Anmerkungen und (...) einen bibliographischen Informationsteil. (shrink)
Ce colloque devenu livre comble une lacune. Alors que le sujet a été labouré pour le xviiie siècle, aucune synthèse n’existait jusque-là sur le mariage dans la littérature du xixe siècle. Or, la rupture avec les Lumières est frappante comme l’attestent, par exemple, les réécritures d’Inès de Castro étudiées par Maurizio Melai. Le thème du « mariage interdit », inspiré par la tragédie d’Houdar de la Motte (1723) mais subverti un siècle plus tard, illustre le passage de l’Ancien Régime aristocr...
Of all my recollections connected with the H of C that of my having had the honour of being the first to make the claim of women to the suffrage a parliamentary question, is the most gratifying as I believe it to have been the most important public service that circumstances made it in my power to render. This is now a thing accomplished.….
Documentary film, in the words of Bill Nichols, is one of the "discourses of sobriety" that include science, economics, politics, and history-discourses that claim to describe the "real," to tell the truth. Yet documentary film, in more obvious ways than does history, straddles the categories of fact and fiction, art and document, entertainment and knowledge. And the visual languages with which it operates have quite different effects than does the written text. In the following interview conducted during the winter of (...) 1997, historian Ann-Louise Shapiro raises questions about genre-the relationship of form to content and meaning-with documentary filmmaker Jill Godmilow.In order to explore the possibilities and constraints of non-fiction film as a medium for representing history, Godmilow was asked: What are the strategies and techniques by which documentary films make meaning? In representing historical events, how does a non-fiction filmmaker think about accuracy? authenticity? invention? What are the criteria you have in mind when you call a film like The Wonderful, Horrible Life of Leni Riefenstahl "dishonest"? How does the tension between making art and making history affect documentary filmmaking? Should documentary filmmakers think of themselves, in the phrase of Ken Burns, as "tribal storytellers"? What kind of historical consciousness is produced by documentary film? (shrink)
In November, 2009, a prominent group of privacy professionals, business leaders, information technology specialists, and academics gathered in Madrid to discuss how the next set of threats to privacy could best be addressed.The event, Privacy by Design: The Definitive Workshop, was co-hosted by my office and that of the Israeli Law, Information and Technology Authority. It marked the latest step in a journey that I began in the 1990’s, when I first focused on enlisting the support of technologies that could (...) enhance privacy. Back then, privacy protection relied primarily upon legislation and regulatory frameworks—in an effort to offer remedies for data breaches, after they had occurred. As information technology became increasingly interconnected and the volume of personal information collected began to explode, it became clear that a new way of thinking about privacy was needed.Privacy-Enhancing Technologies paved the way for that new direction, highlighting how the universal pr .. (shrink)