41 found
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  1.  9
    “Science and Proven Experience” : How Should the Epistemology of Medicine Inform the Regulation of Healthcare?Annika Wallin, Lena Wahlberg, Johannes Persson & Barry Dewitt - forthcoming - Health Policy.
    The Swedish medico-legal concept of "science and proven experience" is both legally important and ambiguous. The conceptual uncertainty associated with it can hamper effective assessment of medical evidence in legal proceedings and encourage medical professionals to distrust legal regulation. We examine normative criteria a functioning medico-legal notion should presumably meet, e.g. clarity, acceptability and consistency with existing laws. We also survey healthcare professionals to see how they understand science and proven experience and thus determine the extent to which their understanding (...)
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  2.  9
    Science and Proven Experience : A Swedish Variety of Evidence Based Medicine and a Way to Better Risk Analysis?Johannes Persson, Niklas Vareman, Annika Wallin, Lena Wahlberg & Nils-Eric Sahlin - forthcoming - Journal of Risk Research.
    A key question for evidence-based medicine is how best to model the way in which EBM should‘[integrate] individual clinical expertise and the best external evidence’. We argue that the formulations and models available in the literature today are modest variations on a common theme and face very similar problems when it comes to risk analysis, which is here understood as a decision procedure comprising a factual assessment of risk, the risk assessment, and the decision what to do based on this (...)
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  3. Understanding Risk in Forest Ecosystem Services: Implications for Effective Risk Management, Communication and Planning.Kristina Blennow, Johannes Persson, Annika Wallin, Niklas Vareman & Erik Persson - 2014 - Forestry 87:219-228.
    Uncertainty, insufficient information or information of poor quality, limited cognitive capacity and time, along with value conflicts and ethical considerations, are all aspects thatmake risk managementand riskcommunication difficult. This paper provides a review of different risk concepts and describes how these influence risk management, communication and planning in relation to forest ecosystem services. Based on the review and results of empirical studies, we suggest that personal assessment of risk is decisive in the management of forest ecosystem services. The results are (...)
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  4. Decision Science: From Ramsey to Dual Process Theories.Nils-Eric Sahlin, Annika Wallin & Johannes Persson - 2010 - Synthese 172 (1):129-143.
    The hypothesis that human reasoning and decision-making can be roughly modeled by Expected Utility Theory has been at the core of decision science. Accumulating evidence has led researchers to modify the hypothesis. One of the latest additions to the field is Dual Process theory, which attempts to explain variance between participants and tasks when it comes to deviations from Expected Utility Theory. It is argued that Dual Process theories at this point cannot replace previous theories, since they, among other things, (...)
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  5.  25
    A Peace Treaty for the Rationality Wars? External Validity and its Relation to Normative and Descriptive Theories of Rationality.Annika Wallin - unknown
    If we know that certain ways of making decisions are associated with real-life success, is this then how we should decide? In this paper the relationship between normative and descriptive theories of decision-making is examined. First, it is shown that the history of the decision sciences ensures that it is impossible to separate descriptive theories from normative ones. Second, recent psychological research implies new ways of arguing from the descriptive to the normative. The paper ends with an evaluation of how (...)
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  6.  6
    Climate Change, Values, and the Cultural Cognition Thesis.Johannes Persson, Nils-Eric Sahlin & Annika Wallin - 2015 - Environmental Science and Policy 52 (1-5).
    Recently the importance of addressing values in discussions of risk perception and adaptation to climate change has become manifest. Values-based approaches to climate change adaptation and the cultural cognition thesis both illustrate this trend. We argue that in the wake of this development it is necessary to take the dynamic relationship between values and beliefs seriously, to acknowledge the possibility of bi-directional relationships between values and beliefs, and to address the variety of values involved. The dynamic relationship between values and (...)
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  7.  1
    Evaluative Polarity Words in Risky Choice Framing.Annika Wallin, Carita Paradis & Katsikopoulos Konstantinos - 2016 - Journal of Pragmatics 106:20-38.
    This article is concerned with how we make decisions based on how problems are presented to us and the effect that the framing of the problem might have on our choices. Current philosophical and psychological accounts of the framing effect in experiments such as the Asian Disease Problem concern reference points and domains. We question the importance of reference points and domains. Instead, we adopt a linguistic perspective focussing on the role of the evaluative polarity evoked by the words - (...)
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  8.  8
    The Evolutionary Rationality of Social Learning.Richard McElreath, Annika Wallin & Barbara Fasolo - forthcoming - In Ralph Hertwig & Ulrich Hoffrage (eds.), Simple heuristics in a social world. Oxford University Press.
    We have analyzed the long-term success of various social learning heuristics. Specifically, we have examined their ability to persist and to replace other heuristics, and we have done this in two broadly different kinds of environments: environments in which the optimal behavior varies across space, or through time. Because each social learning heuristic also shapes its environment as individuals use it, our analysis has been at the same time ecological, game-theoretic, and evolutionary: The performance of each social learning heuristic depends (...)
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  9.  2
    Using Eye-Tracking to Trace a Cognitive Process: Gaze Behavior During Decision Making in a Natural Environment.Kerstin Gidlöf, Annika Wallin, Richard Dewhurst & Kenneth Holmqvist - 2013 - Journal of Eye Movement Research 6 (1):3-14.
    The visual behaviour of consumers buying products in a supermarket was measured and used to analyse the stages of their decision process. Traditionally metrics used to trace decision-making processes are difficult to use in natural environments that often contain many options and unstructured information. Unlike previous attempts in this direction, our methodology reveals differences between a decision-making task and a search task. In particular the second stage of a decision task contains more re-dwells than the second stage of a comparable (...)
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  10.  77
    Is Egocentric Bias Evidence for Simulation Theory.Annika Wallin - 2007 - Synthese 178 (3):503-514.
    Revised simulation theory allows mental state attributions containing some or all of the attributor's genuine, non-simulated mental states. It is thought that this gives the revised theory an empirical advantage, because unlike theory theory and rationality theory, it can explain egocentric bias. I challenge this view, arguing that theory theory and rationality theory can explain egocentricity by appealing to heuristic mindreading and the diagnosticity of attributors' own beliefs, and that these explanations are as simple and consistent as those provided by (...)
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  11.  41
    Smart People Who Make Simple Heuristics Work.Annika Wallin & Peter Gärdenfors - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):765-765.
    To evaluate the success of simple heuristics we need to know more about how a relevant heuristic is chosen and how we learn which cues are relevant. These meta-abilities are at the core of ecological rationality, rather than the individual heuristics.
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  12.  14
    Does Causal Knowledge Help Us Be Faster and More Frugal in Our Decisions?Rocio Garcia-Retamero, Annika Wallin & Anja Dieckmann - unknown
    One challenge that has to be addressed by the fast and frugal heuristics program is how people manage to select, from the abundance of cues that exist in the environment, those to rely on when making decisions. We hypothesize that causal knowledge helps people target particular cues and estimate their validities. This hypothesis was tested in three experiments. Results show that when causal information about some cues was available, participants preferred to search for these cues first and to base their (...)
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  13.  59
    The (Misconceived) Distinction Between Internal and External Validity.Johannes Persson & Annika Wallin - unknown
    Researchers often aim to make correct inferences both about that which is actually studied and about what the results generalize to. The language of internal and external validity is not used by everyone, but many of us would agree that intuitively the distinction makes a lot of sense. Two claims are commonly made with respect to internal and external validity. The first is that internal validity is prior to external validity since there is nothing to generalize if the findings obtained (...)
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  14.  3
    A Smorgasbord of Cognitive Science.Peter Gärdenfors & Annika Wallin (eds.) - unknown - Bokförlaget Nya Doxa.
    This book is intended as an introduction to the breadth of current research in cognitive science, with the research at Lund University Cognitive Science as our sample. The result is a smorgasbord for readers with some background in the neighbouring disciplines. Through the chapters we will follow some of the important cross-disciplinary issues in cognitive science. One is how the external world is represented, from cognitive maps in rats, to drawings made to enhance communication, or the organization of semantic knowledge. (...)
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  15.  65
    Why Internal Validity is Not Prior to External Validity.Johannes Persson & Annika Wallin - unknown
    We show that the common claim that internal validity should be understood as prior to external validity has, at least, three epistemologically problematic aspects: experimental artefacts, the implications of causal relations, and how the mechanism is measured. Each aspect demonstrates how important external validity is for the internal validity of the experimental result.
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  16.  4
    Effects of Anti- Vs. Pro-Vaccine Narratives on Responses by Recipients Varying in Numeracy : A Cross-Sectional Survey-Based Experiment.Wändi Bruine de Bruin, Annika Wallin, Andrew Parker, JoNell Strough & Janel Hamner - 2017 - Medical Decision Making 37 (8):860-870.
    Background. To inform their health decisions, patients may seek narratives describing other patients' evaluations of their treatment experiences. Narratives can provide anti-treatment or pro-treatment evaluative meaning that low-numerate patients may especially struggle to derive from statistical information. Here, we examined whether anti-vaccine narratives had relatively stronger effects on the perceived informativeness and judged vaccination probabilities reported among recipients with lower numeracy. Methods. Participants from a nationally representative US internet panel were randomly assigned to an anti-vaccine or pro-vaccine narrative, as presented (...)
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  17.  1
    Explaining Everyday Problem Solving.Annika Wallin - 2003 - Dissertation, Lund University
    How well can we explain natural occurrences of cognitive behaviours given the theoretical frameworks available to us today? The thesis explores what has to be assumed in cognitive theory in order to provide such an explanation, in contrast to being able to predict behaviour under controlled circumstances. The behaviours considered are all of the type described as involving higher level cognition or being representation hungry. Examples are problem solving and certain types of decision-making. Three different theoretical frameworks are examined: general (...)
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  18.  3
    Weighing Words: A New Approach to Framing Effects.Katsikopoulos Konstantinos, Annika Wallin & Stein Florian - unknown
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  19.  16
    Science and Proven Experience : A Swedish Variety of Evidence-Based Medicine?Johannes Persson, Niklas Vareman, Annika Wallin, Lena Wahlberg & Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
    A key question for evidence-based medicine is how best to model the way in which EBM should “[integrate] individual clinical expertise and the best external evidence”. We argue that the formulations and models available in the literature today are modest variations on a common theme and face very similar problems. For example, both the early and updated models of evidence-based clinical decisions presented in Haynes, Devereaux and Guyatt assume that EBM consists of, among other things, evidence from clinical research and (...)
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  20.  20
    From Meehl to Fast and Frugal Heuristics - New Insights Into How to Bridge the Clinical-Actuarial Divide.Konstantinos V. Katsikopoulos, Thorsten Pachur, Edouard Machery & Annika Wallin - unknown
    It is difficult to overestimate Paul Meehl's influence on judgment and decision-making research. His 'disturbing little book' Clinical versus Statistical Prediction: A Theoretical Analysis and a Review of the Evidence is known as an attack on human judgment and a call for replacing clinicians with actuarial methods. More than 40 years later, fast and frugal heuristics - proposed as models of human judgment - were formalized, tested, and found to be surprisingly accurate, often more so than the actuarial models that (...)
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  21.  49
    Out of the Theoretical Cul-de-Sac.Ralph Hertwig & Annika Wallin - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (3):342-343.
    A key premise of the heuristics-and-biases program is that heuristics are “quite useful.” Let us now pay more than lip service to this premise, and analyse the environmental structures that make heuristics more or less useful. Let us also strike from the long list of biases those phenomena that are not biases and explore to what degree those that remain are adaptive or can be understood as by-products of adaptive mechanisms.
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  22.  19
    From Meehl to Fast and Frugal Heuristics : New Insights Into How to Bridge the Clinical–Actuarial Divide.Katsikopoulos Konstantinos, Pachur Thorsten, Machery Eduard & Annika Wallin - unknown
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  23.  18
    The ‘Wicked’ and the ‘Kind’.Yaniv Hanoch & Annika Wallin - unknown
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  24.  2
    Do Gains and Losses Really Play a Role in the Framing Effect?Konstantinos Katsikopolous & Annika Wallin - unknown
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  25.  2
    Is There a Way for Constructivism to Distinguish What We Experience From What We Represent?Annika Wallin - 1997 - In Alexander Riegler & Markus F. Peschl (eds.), Understanding Representation in the Cognitive Sciences - Does Representation Need Reality?
    When constructivism gives up reality as a way of accounting for representations it looses a powerful tool of explanation. Why do we have the representations we have? How are they interrelated? This article attempts to investigate what possible means a constructivistic theory has to maintain the distinction between representations and experience, between memory and imagination, and between correct and mistaken perceptions. Phenomenological qualities and coherence are the solutions advocated, but how they are combined will have an impact on what sort (...)
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  26.  13
    Strategies for Advice Taking: The Role of Epistemic Social Information.Annika Wallin & Richard McElreath - 2015 - Economics and Philosophy 31 (1):67-91.
    How does an individual decision maker update his or her beliefs in the light of others’ beliefs? We present an empirical investigation that varies decision makers’ access to other peoples’ beliefs: whether they know what course of action others have taken and whether they know why this course of action was taken.We propose a number of process models of advice taking that do and do not accommodate the reasons given for belief, and evaluate which is used through model comparison techniques.
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  27.  9
    Can a Constructivist Distinguish Between Experience and Representation?Annika Wallin - unknown
  28.  1
    Causal Content of Information and Decision-Making.Rocio Garcia-Retamero, Annika Wallin & Anja Dieckmann - unknown
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  29.  1
    Central Fixation Bias in the Real World? : Evidence From the Supermarket.Kerstin Gidlöf, Annika Wallin & Kenneth Holmqvist - unknown
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  30.  1
    Material Distortion of Economic Behavior and Everyday Decision Making.Kerstin Gidlöf, Annika Wallin, Mögelvang-Hansen Peter & Kenneth Holmqvist - 2013 - Journal of Consumer Policy 36:389-402.
    Misleading information and unfair commercial practices have to be viewed against the background of what consumers otherwise do, i.e., what their purchase decisions look like when no misleading information or no unfair commercial practices are in place. This article provides some of this background by studying how consumers sample information when making an in-store purchase decision. This was done by an eye-tracking study which reveals to what extent consumers succeed in purchasing the products that best meet their purchase intentions when (...)
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  31.  1
    Visual Attention During Real-World Decision Making.Kerstin Gidlöf, Annika Wallin & Kenneth Holmqvist - unknown
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  32.  1
    Why Internal Validity is Not Prior to External Validity: Paper Presented at PSA 2012.Johannes Persson & Annika Wallin - 2012 - Brunswik Society Newsletter 27:37-38.
    In Persson & Wallin we show that the common claim that internal validity should be understood as prior to external validity has, at least, three epistemologically problematic aspects: experimental artefacts, the implications of causal relations, and how the mechanism is measured. Each aspect demonstrates how important external validity is for the internal validity of the experimental result. This note is an invited summary of these results.
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  33.  1
    Distinguishing Appearance From Reality – the Development of a Child’s Theory Formation?Annika Wallin - unknown
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  34.  1
    Errors in the Prediction of Preferences: Simulation and Theory in Adult Mind Reading.Annika Wallin - unknown
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  35.  1
    Strong and Practical Domain-Specificity.Annika Wallin - unknown
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  36.  1
    Shaky Constructions.Annika Wallin - unknown
    I aim to examine what should be demanded of a constructivistic theory trying to describe the construction of a human belief-system. My claim is that such a theory cannot allow entities in the description of how a human being constructs the world he or she lives, that are not allowed in the act of constructing the life-world. I will argue that the only coherent theories describing this activity are either phenomenological or social. That is, theories where the description of the (...)
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  37.  1
    Social Information in Decision Making.Annika Wallin, Fasolo Barbara & McElreath Richard - unknown
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  38.  1
    The Epistemic Nature of Conformity.Annika Wallin & Richard McElreath - unknown
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  39.  1
    The Informativness of Objects.Annika Wallin - unknown
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  40.  6
    Explanation and Environment: The Case of Psychology.Annika Wallin - 2005 - In Johannes Persson & Petri Ylikoski (eds.), Rethinking Explanation. Springer. pp. 163--175.
    The environment in which our cognitive processes operate is crucial for understanding their current form, their reliability, and their function. In the following pages I will look at the role the environment plays in psychological explanations of cognitive behaviour, also when the explanations are not of an evolutionary character. In particular, I will focus on how environmental considerations help us explain the form or the function of a psychological process.
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  41. Cognition - A Smorgasbord.Peter Gärdenfors & Annika Wallin (eds.) - 2008
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