Results for 'Ant��nio Melo'

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  1. PourRiol, Ollivier. Filosofando no cinema: 25 filmes para entender O desejo. Trad André telles. Rio de janeiro: Ed. Zahar, 2012. Isbn: 9788537807880. [REVIEW]Raíssa Marcelli Alves Rocha de Melo - 2017 - Cadernos Do Pet Filosofia 8 (15):74-76.
    A autoria da obra analisada pertence ao professor, ensaísta e filósofo francêsOllivierPourriol, cujas temáticas dos seus projetos circundam a relação entre filosofia e cinema. Antes desta obra, Pourriol já havia publicado “Cinefilô: as mais belas questões da filosofia no cinema” e “On-off comédie”.
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  2.  68
    Registro sintético de uma vida: entrevista com Fábio Alves dos Santos (Synthetic record of a life - Interview with Fabio Alves dos Santos).Fábio Alves dos Santos - 2013 - Horizonte 11 (32):1637-1649.
    Fábio Alves dos Santos (1954-2013) cursou Pedagogia, Ciências Sociais e Teologia, era Especialista em Filosofia da Religião (PUC Minas), Advogado (PUC Minas) e Mestre em Direito Constitucional (UFMG). Lecionou na PUC Minas como professor de Cultura Religiosa e depois como professor no Curso de Direito, atuando principalmente no Serviço de Assistência Judiciária – SAJ, especialmente cuidado de causas populares como as da ASMARE (Associação dos Catadores de Papel, Papelão e Material Reaproveitável de Belo Horizonte), da Pastoral de Rua, da Pastoral (...)
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  3.  5
    La salud en los pueblos indígenas: atención primaria e interculturalidad.Consuelo de Jesús Alban Meneses, Víctor Manuel Sellan Icaza & Consuelo Lorena Moran Alban - 2020 - Minerva 1 (3):23-34.
    Las naciones y pueblos indígenas presentan preocupantes índices respecto a la salud, así como otras carencias como la pérdida de sus tierras, la alimentación, la educación y, en general, el ejercicio de sus derechos, consagrados por organizaciones internacionales como la ONU y la OMS-OPS. En Ecuador, de acuerdo con el orden jurídico constitucional, se han instrumentado políticas de salud que incluyen el lineamiento general de un enfoque intercultural de la atenciónprimaria que incorpora los saberes y prácticas ancestrales. Mediante una revisión (...)
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  4. The Ant Trap: Rebuilding the Foundations of the Social Sciences.Brian Epstein - 2015 - Oxford University Press.
    We live in a world of crowds and corporations, artworks and artifacts, legislatures and languages, money and markets. These are all social objects — they are made, at least in part, by people and by communities. But what exactly are these things? How are they made, and what is the role of people in making them? In The Ant Trap, Brian Epstein rewrites our understanding of the nature of the social world and the foundations of the social sciences. Epstein explains (...)
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  5. Beyond Informed Consent: The Therapeutic Misconception and Trust.Inmaculada de Melo-Martin & A. Ho - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (3):202-205.
    The therapeutic misconception has been seen as presenting an ethical problem because failure to distinguish the aims of research participation from those receiving ordinary treatment may seriously undermine the informed consent of research subjects. Hence, most theoretical and empirical work on the problems of the therapeutic misconception has been directed to evaluate whether, and to what degree, this confusion invalidates the consent of subjects. We argue here that this focus on the understanding component of informed consent, while important, might be (...)
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  6.  62
    The Flight Against Doubt.Inmaculada de Melo-Martin & Kristen Intemann - 2018 - New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press.
    The lack of public support for climate change policies and refusals to vaccinate children are just two alarming illustrations of the impacts of dissent about scientific claims. Dissent can lead to confusion, false beliefs, and widespread public doubt about highly justified scientific evidence. Even more dangerously, it has begun to corrode the very authority of scientific consensus and knowledge. Deployed aggressively and to political ends, some dissent can intimidate scientists, stymie research, and lead both the public and policymakers to oppose (...)
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  7. Harmonia, Melos and Rhytmos. Aristotle on Musical Education.Elena Cagnoli Fiecconi - 2016 - Ancient Philosophy 36 (2):409-424.
    In this paper, I reconstruct the reasons why Aristotle thinks that musical education is important for moral education. Musical education teaches us to enjoy appropriately and to recognize perceptually fine melodies and rhythms. Fine melodies and rhythms are similar to the kind of movements fine actions consist in and fine characters display. By teaching us to enjoy and recognise fine melodies and rhythms, musical education can train us to recognize and to take pleasure in fine actions and characters. Thus, musical (...)
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  8. Ex Ante and Ex Post Contractualism: A Synthesis.Jussi Suikkanen - 2019 - The Journal of Ethics 23 (1):77-98.
    According to contractualist theories in ethics, whether an action is wrong is determined by whether it could be justified to others on grounds no one could reasonably reject. Contractualists then think that reasonable rejectability of principles depends on the strength of the personal objections individuals can make to them. There is, however, a deep disagreement between contractualists concerning from which temporal perspective the relevant objections to different principles are to be made. Are they to be made on the basis of (...)
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  9.  31
    Rethinking Reprogenetics: Enhancing Ethical Analyses of Reprogenetic Technologies.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2016 - New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press.
    Reprogenetic technologies, which combine the power of reproductive techniques with the tools of genetic science and technology, promise prospective parents a remarkable degree of control to pick and choose the likely characteristics of their offspring. Not only can they select embryos with or without particular genetically-related diseases and disabilities but also choose embryos with non-disease related traits such as sex. -/- Prominent authors such as Agar, Buchanan, DeGrazia, Green, Harris, Robertson, Savulescu, and Silver have flocked to the banner of reprogenetics. (...)
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  10.  42
    Melos e iubilus nelle Enarrationes in Psalmos di Agostino: Una questione di mistica agostiniana.M. Benedetta Zorzi - 2002 - Augustinianum 42 (2):383-413.
  11.  6
    Low Power Society-Continuous Hyperconsumption and The.Emanuel Dimas de Melo Pimenta - 2008
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  12. Nio Filosofiska Studier Tillägnade Konrad Marc-Wogau.Konrad Marc-Wogau - 1968 - Filosofiska Föreningen].
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  13. A Relação Entre Pós-Modernidade E Religião Segundo Gianni Vattimo.Marco César de Sousa Melo - 2013 - Cadernos Do Pet Filosofia 4 (7):30-37.
    Este trabalho apresenta algumas considerações do pensador italiano Gianni Vattimo acerca da religião na idade contemporânea. O referido filósofo tem como base de suas reflexões a ideia de uma filosofia pós-moderna que se caracteriza pela desconstrução da metafísica da tradição moderna. Nesse sentido, o autor visualiza nas filosofias de Nietzsche e Heidegger a inauguração de uma nova orientação do pensamento ocidental, marcada por esse rompimento com as filosofias totalizantes e pela consideração do ser como resultado das circunstancias eventuais que compõem (...)
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  14.  50
    Firing Up the Nature/Nurture Controversy: Bioethics and Genetic Determinism.Inmaculada de Melo-Martin - 2005 - Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (9):526-530.
    It is argued here that bioethicists might inadvertently be promoting genetic determinism: the idea that genes alone determine human traits and behaviours. Discussions about genetic testing are used to exemplify how they might be doing so. Quite often bioethicists use clinical cases to support particular moral obligations or rights as if these cases were representative of the kind of information we can acquire about human diseases through genetic testing, when they are not. On other occasions, the clinical cases are presented (...)
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  15.  2
    Being and Becoming Pregnant: Valuing Risks.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2022 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 65 (2):327-336.
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  16. ‘Half Victim, Half Accomplice’: Cat Person and Narcissism.Filipa Melo Lopes - 2021 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 7:701-729.
    At the end of 2017, Kristen Roupenian’s short story, Cat Person, went viral. Published at the height of the #MeToo movement, it depicted a ‘toxic date’ and a disturbing sexual encounter between Margot, a college student, and Robert, an older man she meets at work. The story was widely viewed as a relatable denunciation of women’s powerlessness and routine victimization. In this paper, I push against this common reading. I propose an alternative feminist interpretation through the lens of Simone de (...)
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  17.  22
    MELO, Amarildo José de. Jansenismo no Brasil: traços de uma Moral rigorista.Rodrigo Moreno Ribeiro Silva - 2014 - Horizonte 12 (34):634-637.
    Resenha: MELO, Amarildo José de. Jansenismo no Brasil : traços de uma Moral rigorista. Santuário em Aparecida/SP. 2014, 343p.
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  18. The Ant Colony as a Test for Scientific Theories of Consciousness.Daniel A. Friedman & Eirik Søvik - 2019 - Synthese (2):1-24.
    The appearance of consciousness in the universe remains one of the major mysteries unsolved by science or philosophy. Absent an agreed-upon definition of consciousness or even a convenient system to test theories of consciousness, a confusing heterogeneity of theories proliferate. In pursuit of clarifying this complicated discourse, we here interpret various frameworks for the scientific and philosophical study of consciousness through the lens of social insect evolutionary biology. To do so, we first discuss the notion of a forward test versus (...)
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  19.  7
    Designer Biology: The Ethics of Intensively Engineering Biological and Ecological Systems.Immaculada de Melo Martin, Valentina Urbanek, David Frank, William Kabasenche, Nicholas Agar, S. Matthew Liao, Anders Sandberg, Rebecca Roache, Allen Thompson, Stephen Jackson, Donald S. Maier, Nicole Hassoun, Benjamin Hale, Sune Holm & Scott Simmons (eds.) - 2013 - Lexington Books.
    Designer Biology: The Ethics of Intensively Engineering Biological and Ecological Systems consists of thirteen chapters that address the ethical issues raised by technological intervention and design across a broad range of biological and ecological systems. Among the technologies addressed are geoengineering, human enhancement, sex selection, genetic modification, and synthetic biology.
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  20. Taking Biology Seriously: What Biology Can and Cannot Tell Us About Moral and Public Policy Issues.De Inmaculada Melo-Martín - 2005 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Discussions of human biology and its consequences for ethics and public policy are often misguided. Both proponents and critics of behavioral genetics, reproductive cloning, and genetic testing have mistaken beliefs about the role of genes in human life. Taking Biology Seriously calls attention to the social context in which both the science and our ethical precepts and public policies play a role.
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  21.  30
    Ante Rem Structuralism and the No-Naming Constraint.Teresa Kouri - 2016 - Philosophia Mathematica 24 (1):117-128.
    Tim Räz has presented what he takes to be a new objection to Stewart Shapiro's ante rem structuralism. Räz claims that ARS conflicts with mathematical practice. I will explain why this is similar to an old problem, posed originally by John Burgess in 1999 and Jukka Keränen in 2001, and show that Shapiro can use the solution to the original problem in Räz's case. Additionally, I will suggest that Räz's proposed treatment of the situation does not provide an argument for (...)
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  22. Ex-Ante Prioritarianism Violates Sequential Ex-Ante Pareto.Johan E. Gustafsson - 2022 - Utilitas 34 (2):167-177.
    Prioritarianism is a variant of utilitarianism. It differs from utilitarianism in that benefiting individuals matters more the worse off these individuals are. On this view, there are two standard ways of handling risky prospects: Ex-Post Prioritarianism adjusts for prioritizing the worse off in final outcomes and then values prospects by the expectation of the sum total of those adjusted values, whereas Ex-Ante Prioritarianism adjusts for prioritizing the worse off on each individual's expectation and then values prospects by the sum total (...)
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  23.  29
    Corporate Social Responsibility and Organizational Psychology: An Integrative Review.Ante Glavas - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  24.  74
    The Risk of Using Inductive Risk to Challenge the Value-Free Ideal.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín & Kristen Intemann - 2016 - Philosophy of Science 83 (4):500-520.
    The argument from inductive risk has been embraced by many as a successful account of the role of values in science that challenges the value-free ideal. We argue that it is not obvious that the argument from inductive risk actually undermines the value-free ideal. This is because the inductive risk argument endorses an assumption held by proponents of the value-free ideal: that contextual values never play an appropriate role in determining evidence. We show that challenging the value-free ideal ultimately requires (...)
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  25.  86
    Creating Reflective Spaces: Interactions Between Philosophers and Biomedical Scientists.Inmaculada De Melo-Martin - 2008 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 52 (1):39-47.
  26. Biological Explanations and Social Responsibility.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2003 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 34 (2):345-358.
    The aim of this paper is to show that critics of biological explanations of human nature may be granting too much to those who propose such explanations when they argue that the truth of genetic determinism implies an end to critical evaluation and reform of our social institutions. This is the case because when we argue that biological determinism exempts us from social critique we are erroneously presupposing that our social values, practices, and institutions have nothing to do with what (...)
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  27. De Melo-Martín and Intemann's The Fight Against Doubt. [REVIEW]Katherine Furman - 2019 - BJPS Review of Books.
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  28.  58
    The Ant and the Peacock: Altruism and Sexual Selection From Darwin to Today.Helen Cronin - 1995 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 46 (1):122-138.
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  29.  23
    The Effects of Perceived Corporate Social Responsibility on Employee Attitudes.Ante Glavas & Ken Kelley - 2014 - Business Ethics Quarterly 24 (2):165-202.
    ABSTRACT:We explore the impact on employee attitudes of their perceptions of how others outside the organization are treated above and beyond the impact of how employees are directly treated by the organization. Results of a study of 827 employees in eighteen organizations show that employee perceptions of corporate social responsibility are positively related to organizational commitment with the relationship being partially mediated by work meaningfulness and perceived organizational support and job satisfaction with work meaningfulness partially mediating the relationship but not (...)
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  30. Social Values and Scientific Evidence: The Case of the HPV Vaccines.Kristen Intemann & Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2010 - Biology and Philosophy 25 (2):203-213.
    Several have argued that the aims of scientific research are not always independent of social and ethical values. Yet this is often assumed only to have implications for decisions about what is studied, or which research projects are funded, and not for methodological decisions or standards of evidence. Using the case of the recently developed HPV vaccines, we argue that the social aims of research can also play important roles in justifying decisions about (1) how research problems are defined in (...)
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  31. Od Nove Medicinske Etike Do Integrativne Bioetike: Posvećeno Ivanu Šegoti Povodom 70.Ante Čović, Nada Gosić & Luka Tomašević (eds.) - 2009 - Hrvatsko Bioetičko Društvo.
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  32.  43
    Moral Bioenhancement: Much Ado About Nothing?Inmaculada Melo‐Martin & Arleen Salles - 2015 - Bioethics 29 (4):223-232.
    Recently, some have proposed moral bioenhancement as a solution to the serious moral evils that humans face. Seemingly disillusioned with traditional methods of moral education, proponents of bioenhancement believe that we should pursue and apply biotechnological means to morally enhance human beings. Such proposal has generated a lively debate about the permissibility of moral bioenhancement. We argue here that such debate is specious. The claim that moral bioenhancement is a solution – whether permissible or not – to the serious moral (...)
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  33.  36
    Moral Bioenhancement: Much Ado About Nothing?Inmaculada de Melo-Martin & Arleen Salles - 2015 - Bioethics 29 (4):223-232.
    Recently, some have proposed moral bioenhancement as a solution to the serious moral evils that humans face. Seemingly disillusioned with traditional methods of moral education, proponents of bioenhancement believe that we should pursue and apply biotechnological means to morally enhance human beings. Such proposal has generated a lively debate about the permissibility of moral bioenhancement. We argue here that such debate is specious. The claim that moral bioenhancement is a solution - whether permissible or not - to the serious moral (...)
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  34. Perpetuating the Patriarchy: Misogyny and (Post-)Feminist Backlash.Filipa Melo Lopes - 2019 - Philosophical Studies 176 (9):2517-2538.
    How are patriarchal regimes perpetuated and reproduced? Kate Manne’s recent work on misogyny aims to provide an answer to this central question. According to her, misogyny is a property of social environments where women perceived as violating patriarchal norms are ‘kept down’ through hostile reactions coming from men, other women and social structures. In this paper, I argue that Manne’s approach is problematically incomplete. I do so by examining a recent puzzling social phenomenon which I call (post-)feminist backlash: the rise (...)
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  35.  61
    Is the Perception of 'Goodness' Good Enough? Exploring the Relationship Between Perceived Corporate Social Responsibility and Employee Organizational Identification.Ante Glavas & Lindsey N. Godwin - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 114 (1):15-27.
    Drawing on social identity theory and organizational identification theory, we develop a model of the impact of perceived corporate social responsibility on employees’ organizational identification. We argue that employees’ perceptions of their company’s social responsibility behaviors are more important than organizational reality in determining organizational identification. After defining perceived corporate social responsibility (PCSR), we postulate how PCSR affects organizational identification when perception and reality are aligned or misaligned. Implications for organizational practice and further research are discussed.
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  36. Integrative Bioethik: Beiträge des 1.Ante Čović & Thomas Sören Hoffmann (eds.) - 2007 - Academia Verlag.
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  37. Identity, Indiscernibility, and Ante Rem Structuralism: The Tale of I and –I.Stewart Shapiro - 2008 - Philosophia Mathematica 16 (3):285-309.
    Some authors have claimed that ante rem structuralism has problems with structures that have indiscernible places. In response, I argue that there is no requirement that mathematical objects be individuated in a non-trivial way. Metaphysical principles and intuitions to the contrary do not stand up to ordinary mathematical practice, which presupposes an identity relation that, in a sense, cannot be defined. In complex analysis, the two square roots of –1 are indiscernible: anything true of one of them is true of (...)
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  38. When the Milk of Human Kindness Becomes a Luxury Good.Inmaculada de Melo-Martin - 2017 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 26 (1):159-165.
    A new reprogenetic technology, mitochondrial replacement, is making its appearance and, unsurprisingly given its promise to wash off our earthly stains --or at least the scourges of sexual reproduction--, John Harris finds only reasons to celebrate this new scientific feat.1 In fact, he finds mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRTs) so “unreservedly welcome” that he believes those who reject them suffer from “a large degree of desperation and not a little callousness.”2 Believing myself to be neither desperate nor callous, but finding myself (...)
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  39.  18
    Corporate Social Responsibility and Employee Engagement: Enabling Employees to Employ More of Their Whole Selves at Work.Ante Glavas - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  40.  17
    Social Values and Scientific Evidence: The Case of the HPV Vaccines.Kristen Intemann & Inmaculada Melo-martín - 2010 - Biology and Philosophy 25 (2):203-213.
    Several have argued that the aims of scientific research are not always independent of social and ethical values. Yet this is often assumed only to have implications for decisions about what is studied, or which research projects are funded, and not for methodological decisions or standards of evidence. Using the case of the recently developed HPV vaccines, we argue that the social aims of research can also play important roles in justifying decisions about (1) how research problems are defined in (...)
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  41.  85
    Are There Limits to Scientists' Obligations to Seek and Engage Dissenters?Kristen Intemann & Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2014 - Synthese 191 (12):2751-2765.
    Dissent is thought to play a valuable role in science, so that scientific communities ought to create opportunities for receiving critical feedback and take dissenting views seriously. There is concern, however, that some dissent does more harm than good. Dissent on climate change and evolutionary theory, for example, has confused the public, created doubt about existing consensus, derailed public policy, and forced scientists to devote resources to respond. Are there limits to the extent to which scientific communities have obligations to (...)
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  42. What Do Incels Want? Explaining Incel Violence Using Beauvoirian Otherness.Filipa Melo Lopes - forthcoming - Hypatia.
    In recent years, online ‘involuntary celibate’ or ‘incel’ communities have been linked to various deadly attacks targeting women. Why do these men react to romantic rejection with, not just disappointment, but murderous rage? Feminists have claimed this is because incels desire women as objects or, alternatively, because they feel entitled to women’s attention. I argue that both of these explanatory models are insufficient. They fail to account for incels’ distinctive ambivalence towards women — for their oscillation between obsessive desire and (...)
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  43. Addressing Problems in Profit-Driven Research: How Can Feminist Conceptions of Objectivity Help?Kristen Intemann & Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2014 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 4 (2):135-151.
    Although there is increased recognition of the inevitable--and perhaps sometimes beneficial-- role of values in scientific inquiry, there are also growing concerns about the potential for commercial values to lead to bias. This is particularly evident in biomedical research. There is a concern that conflicts of interest created by commercialization may lead to biased reasoning or methodological choices in testing drugs and medical interventions. In addition, such interests may lead research in directions that are unresponsive to pressing social needs, when (...)
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  44.  4
    Conducting Epigenetics Research with Refugees and Asylum Seekers: Attending to the Ethical Challenges.Faten Taki & Inmaculada de Melo-Martin - 2021 - Clinical Epigenetics 13 (1):105-.
    An increase in global violence has forced the displacement of more than 70 million people, including 26 million refugees and 3.5 asylum seekers. Refugees and asylum seekers face serious socioeconomic and healthcare barriers and are therefore particularly vulnerable to physical and mental health risks, which are sometimes exacerbated by immigration policies and local social discriminations. Calls for a strong evidence base for humanitarian action have encouraged conducting research to address the barriers and needs of refugees and asylum seekers. Given the (...)
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  45. Jus Ante Bellum.Roger Wertheimer - 2015 - In George Lucas (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Military Ethics. Routledge. pp. 54-68.
    Critical analysis of development of concept of jus ante bellum.
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  46.  39
    Assisted Reproductive Technology in Spain: Considering Women's Interests.Inmaculada de Melo-martín - 2009 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 18 (3):228.
    It might come as a surprise to many that Spain, a country with a strong Catholic tradition that officially banned contraceptive technologies until 1978, has some of the most liberal regulations in assisted reproduction in the world. Law No. 35/1988 was one of the first and most detailed acts of legislation undertaken on the subject of assisted-conception procedures. Indeed, not only did the law permit research on nonviable embryos, it made assisted reproductive technologies available to any woman, whether married or (...)
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  47.  5
    Los conocimientos tradicionales en el ejercicio de la soberanía y seguridad alimentaria de las comunidades rurales, indígenas y campesinas, una alternativa para la sustentabilidad comunitaria.Mónica Patricia Melo Herrera & Rubinsten Hernández Barbosa - 2021 - Odeere 6 (2):07-15.
    En el texto se exponen algunas reflexiones sobre la importancia que tiene el rescatar los conocimientos tradicionales de las comunidades rurales, indígenas y campesinas sobre las prácticas agrícolas y alimenticias como recurso y mecanismo para favorecer la seguridad alimnetaria y de esta manera la sustentabilidad comunitaria. Se parte de una revisión bibliográfica sobre el tema, y se exponen casos específicos, como ejemplo, donde la experiencia se ha convertido en una oportunidad de algunas comunidades para hacer valer sus derechos de manejo (...)
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  48.  4
    The Liar Paradox: Between Evidence and Truth.Jonas Becker Arenhart & Ederson Safra Melo - forthcoming - Logic and Logical Philosophy:1-23.
    Systems of paraconsistent logics violate the law of explosion: from contradictory premises not every formula follows. One of the philosophical options for interpreting the contradictions allowed as premises in these cases was put forward recently by Carnielli and Rodrigues, with their epistemic approach to paraconsistent logics. In a nutshell, the plan consists in interpreting the contradictions in epistemic terms, as indicating the presence of non-conclusive evidence for both a proposition and its negation. Truth, in this approach, is consistent and is (...)
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  49. Can Ante Rem Structuralism Solve the Access Problem?Fraser MacBride - 2008 - Philosophical Quarterly 58 (230):155-164.
    Ante rem structuralism is the doctnne that mathematics descubes a realm of abstract (structural) universab. According to its proponents, appeal to the exutence of these universab provides a source distinctive insight into the epistemology of mathematics, in particular insight into the so-called 'access problem' of explaining how mathematicians can reliably access truths about an abstract realm to which they cannot travel andfiom which they recave no signab. Stewart Shapiro offers the most developed version of this view to date. Through an (...)
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  50.  28
    The Role of Culture and Acculturation in Researchers’ Perceptions of Rules in Science.Alison L. Antes, Tammy English, Kari A. Baldwin & James M. DuBois - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (2):361-391.
    Successfully navigating the norms of a society is a complex task that involves recognizing diverse kinds of rules as well as the relative weight attached to them. In the United States, different kinds of rules—federal statutes and regulations, scientific norms, and professional ideals—guide the work of researchers. Penalties for violating these different kinds of rules and norms can range from the displeasure of peers to criminal sanctions. We proposed that it would be more difficult for researchers working in the U.S. (...)
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