19 found
Order:
  1.  78
    The Weirdest People in the World?Joseph Henrich, Steven J. Heine & Ara Norenzayan - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (2-3):61-83.
    Behavioral scientists routinely publish broad claims about human psychology and behavior in the world's top journals based on samples drawn entirely from Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic (WEIRD) societies. Researchers assume that either there is little variation across human populations, or that these are as representative of the species as any other population. Are these assumptions justified? Here, our review of the comparative database from across the behavioral sciences suggests both that there is substantial variability in experimental results across (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   278 citations  
  2.  23
    Culture and Systems of Thought: Holistic Versus Analytic Cognition.Richard E. Nisbett, Kaiping Peng, Incheol Choi & Ara Norenzayan - 2001 - Psychological Review 108 (2):291-310.
    The authors find East Asians to be holistic, attending to the entire field and assigning causality to it, making relatively little use of categories and formal logic, and relying on "dialectical" reasoning, whereas Westerners, are more analytic, paying attention primarily to the object and the categories to which it belongs and using rules, including formal logic, to understand its behavior. The 2 types of cognitive processes are embedded in different naive metaphysical systems and tacit epistemologies. The authors speculate that the (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   171 citations  
  3.  14
    The Cultural Evolution of Prosocial Religions.Ara Norenzayan, Azim F. Shariff, Will M. Gervais, Aiyana K. Willard, Rita A. McNamara, Edward Slingerland & Joseph Henrich - 2016 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39:1-86.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   24 citations  
  4.  90
    Religion's Evolutionary Landscape: Counterintuition, Commitment, Compassion, Communion.Scott Atran & Ara Norenzayan - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (6):713-730.
    Religion is not an evolutionary adaptation per se, but a recurring by-product of the complex evolutionary landscape that sets cognitive, emotional and material conditions for ordinary human interactions. Religion involves extraordinary use of ordinary cognitive processes to passionately display costly devotion to counterintuitive worlds governed by supernatural agents. The conceptual foundations of religion are intuitively given by task-specific panhuman cognitive domains, including folkmechanics, folkbiology, folkpsychology. Core religious beliefs minimally violate ordinary notions about how the world is, with all of its (...)
    Direct download (11 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   53 citations  
  5.  78
    Cognitive Biases Explain Religious Belief, Paranormal Belief, and Belief in Life’s Purpose.Aiyana K. Willard & Ara Norenzayan - 2013 - Cognition 129 (2):379-391.
  6.  20
    Memory and Mystery: The Cultural Selection of Minimally Counterintuitive Narratives.Ara Norenzayan, Scott Atran, Jason Faulkner & Mark Schaller - 2006 - Cognitive Science 30 (3):531-553.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   38 citations  
  7.  39
    The Origins of Religious Disbelief.Ara Norenzayan & Will M. Gervais - 2013 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 17 (1):20-25.
  8.  32
    Cultural Preferences for Formal Versus Intuitive Reasoning.Ara Norenzayan, Edward E. Smith, Beom Jun Kim & Richard E. Nisbett - 2002 - Cognitive Science 26 (5):653-684.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   33 citations  
  9.  30
    Beyond WEIRD: Towards a Broad-Based Behavioral Science.Joseph Henrich, Steven J. Heine & Ara Norenzayan - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (2-3):111-135.
    In our response to the 28 (largely positive) commentaries from an esteemed collection of researchers, we (1) consolidate additional evidence, extensions, and amplifications offered by our commentators; (2) emphasize the value of integrating experimental and ethnographic methods, and show how researchers using behavioral games have done precisely this; (3) present our concerns with arguments from several commentators that separate variable from or ; (4) address concerns that the patterns we highlight marking WEIRD people as psychological outliers arise from aspects of (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  10.  7
    Weighing Outcome Vs. Intent Across Societies: How Cultural Models of Mind Shape Moral Reasoning.Rita Anne McNamara, Aiyana K. Willard, Ara Norenzayan & Joseph Henrich - 2019 - Cognition 182:95-108.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  11.  4
    Memory and Belief in the Transmission of Counterintuitive Content.Aiyana K. Willard, Joseph Henrich & Ara Norenzayan - 2016 - Human Nature 27 (3):221-243.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  12.  7
    Parochial Prosocial Religions: Historical and Contemporary Evidence for a Cultural Evolutionary Process.Ara Norenzayan, Azim F. Shariff, Will M. Gervais, Aiyana K. Willard, Rita A. McNamara, Edward Slingerland & Joseph Henrich - 2016 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  13.  23
    The Evolution of Religious Misbelief.Ara Norenzayan, Azim F. Shariff, Will M. Gervais, Ryan T. McKay & Daniel C. Dennett - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (6):531.
    Inducing religious thoughts increases prosocial behavior among strangers in anonymous contexts. These effects can be explained both by behavioral priming processes as well as by reputational mechanisms. We examine whether belief in moralizing supernatural agents supplies a case for what McKay & Dennett (M&D) call evolved misbelief, concluding that they might be more persuasively seen as an example of culturally evolved misbelief.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  14. Why We Believe : Religion as a Human Universal.Ara Norenzayan - 2010 - In Henrik Høgh-Olesen (ed.), Human Morality and Sociality: Evolutionary and Comparative Perspectives. Palgrave-Macmillan.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  15.  11
    A Question of Reliability or of Boundary Conditions? Comment on Gomes and McCullough.Azim F. Shariff & Ara Norenzayan - 2015 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 144 (6):e105-e106.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  16.  86
    Why Minds Create Gods: Devotion, Deception, Death, and Arational Decision Making.Scott Atran & Ara Norenzayan - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (6):754-770.
    The evolutionary landscape that canalizes human thought and behavior into religious beliefs and practices includes naturally selected emotions, cognitive modules, and constraints on social interactions. Evolutionary by-products, including metacognitive awareness of death and possibilities for deception, further channel people into religious paths. Religion represents a community's costly commitment to a counterintuitive world of supernatural agents who manage people's existential anxieties. Religious devotion, though not an adaptation, informs all cultures and most people.
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  17.  31
    Culture and Cognition.Richard E. Nisbett & Ara Norenzayan - 2002 - In J. Wixted & H. Pashler (eds.), Stevens' Handbook of Experimental Psychology. Wiley.
  18.  13
    “Spiritual but Not Religious”: Cognition, Schizotypy, and Conversion in Alternative Beliefs.Aiyana K. Willard & Ara Norenzayan - 2017 - Cognition 165:137-146.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  19.  4
    Cultural Variation in Reasoning.Ara Norenzayan - 2006 - In Riccardo Viale, D. Andler & Lawrence A. Hirschfeld (eds.), Biological and Cultural Bases of Human Inference. Lawerence Erlbaum. pp. 71--95.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark