Results for 'Arja S����kslahti'

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  1.  32
    Education of Research Ethics for Clinical Investigators with Moodle Tool.Arja Halkoaho, Mari Matveinen, Ville Leinonen, Kirsi Luoto & Tapani Keränen - 2013 - BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):53.
    In clinical research scientific, legal as well as ethical aspects are important. It is well known that clinical investigators at university hospitals have to undertake their PhD-studies alongside their daily work and reconciling work and study can be challenging. The aim of this project was to create a web based course in clinical research bioethics (5 credits) and to examine whether the method is suitable for teaching bioethics. The course comprised of six modules: an initial examination (to assess knowledge in (...)
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  2.  14
    The Authenticity and Ethics of Phenomenological Research: How to Overcome the Researcher's Own Views.Arja Häggman-Laitila - 1999 - Nursing Ethics 6 (1):12-22.
    This article is based on the assumption that the researcher cannot detach from his or her own view in phenomenological research. The researcher is assumed to be able to understand the experiences of an individual only through the points of departure created by the researcher's own view. The goal of this article is to describe practical aspects and their theoretical grounds that are of crucial importance in overcoming a researcher's views in data gathering and analysis. Its purpose is to clarify (...)
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  3.  20
    The Right to Touch and Be Touched.Pirkko Routasalo & Arja Isola - 1996 - Nursing Ethics 3 (2):165-176.
    Touching is an integral part of human behaviour; from the moment of birth until they die, people need to be touched and to touch others. Touching is an intimate action that implies an invasion of the individual's personal, private space. In ethical terms, the ques tion of touching is closely related to the patient's right to integrity and inviolability. The purpose of this study was to describe touching as it is experienced by elderly patients and nurses in long-term care. Touching (...)
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  4.  26
    Duties of the Patient: A Tentative Model Based on Metasynthesis.Mari Kangasniemi, Arja Halkoaho, Helena Länsimies-Antikainen & Anna-Maija Pietilä - 2012 - Nursing Ethics 19 (1):58-67.
    Patient’s duties are a topical but little researched area in nursing ethics. However, patient’s duties are closely connected to nursing practice in terms of autonomy, the best purpose of care and rethinking from the patient’s perspective. This article is a metasynthesis (N = 11 original articles) of patient’s duties, aimed to create a tentative model. In this article, a tentative model called ‘right-based duties of a patient’ was constructed. With its aid, a coherent structure of patient’s duties within different roles (...)
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  5.  20
    Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Healthcare Ethics Among Resident Doctors and Ward Nurses From a Resource Poor Setting, Nepal.Samaj Adhikari, Kumar Paudel, Arja R. Aro, Tara Ballav Adhikari, Bipin Adhikari & Shiva Raj Mishra - 2016 - BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):68.
    BackgroundHealthcare ethics is neglected in clinical practice in LMICs such as Nepal. The main objective of this study was to assess the current status of knowledge, attitude and practice of healthcare ethics among resident doctors and ward nurses in a tertiary teaching hospital in Nepal.MethodsThis was a cross sectional study conducted among resident doctors and ward nurses in the largest tertiary care teaching hospital of Nepal during January- February 2016 with a self-administered questionnaire. A Cramer’s V value was assessed to (...)
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  6.  59
    Linear Aggregation of SSB Utility Functionals.Arja H. Turunen-Red & John A. Weymark - 1999 - Theory and Decision 46 (3):281-294.
    A necessary and sufficient condition for linear aggregation of SSB utility functionals is presented. Harsanyi's social aggregation theorem for von Neumann–Morgenstern utility functions is shown to be a corollary to this result. Two generalizations of Fishburn and Gehrlein's conditional linear aggregation theorem for SSB utility functionals are also established.
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  7.  20
    Factors Influencing Mistimed and Unwanted Pregnancies Among Nepali Women.Pawan Acharya, Rupesh Gautam & Arja R. Aro - 2016 - Journal of Biosocial Science 48 (2):249-266.
    SummaryThis paper assesses the factors influencing mistimed and unwanted pregnancies in Nepal separately using data from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey. Women who had given birth within the five years before the survey were interviewed about the intendedness of their last pregnancy. The data were analysed with a chi-squared test, followed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Among the total 5391 participants, 11.29% and 13.13% reported their last pregnancy as mistimed and unwanted respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that women (...)
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  8.  6
    By Rens Lj Vandenberg & Wouter Pc Boon 1-21.Thomas Lemke, Theo Papaioannou, Lyn Turney, Elina Hemminki, Aaro Tupasela, Piia Jallinoja, Arja J. Aro, Karoliina Snell, Sinikka Sihvo & Almut Caspary - 2009 - Genomics, Society and Policy 5 (2):1-13.
    The purpose of the research was to study Finnish people's attitudes towards biomedical research and whether the research sponsor makes a difference to those attitudes. A survey questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 25-64 years old. Respondents had a positive attitude towards biomedical research and there were only small variations by population group. When asked whether one's own clinical blood samples could be used in scientific biomedical research, 84 per cent of the respondents would allow it. The most (...)
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  9.  2
    Correlates of Mistimed and Unwanted Pregnancy Among Women in the Democratic Republic of Congo.Tara Ballav Adhikari, Pawan Acharya, Anupa Rijal, Mala Ali Mapatano & Arja R. Aro - 2020 - Journal of Biosocial Science 52 (3):382-399.
    Unwanted and mistimed pregnancies impose threats on the health and well-being of the mother and child and limit the acquisition of optimal sexual and reproductive health services, especially in resource-constrained settings like the Democratic Republic of Congo. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of mistimed and unwanted pregnancies among women in the DRC. Data were drawn from the 2013–14 DRC Demographic Health Survey. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify correlates of mistimed and unwanted (...)
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  10.  20
    Ethical Aspects in Tissue Research: Thematic Analysis of Ethical Statements to the Research Ethics Committee.Arja Halkoaho, Anna-Maija Pietilä, Mari Vesalainen & Kirsi Vähäkangas - 2012 - BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):20.
    Many studies have been published about ethics committees and the clarifications requested about the submitted applications. In Finland, ethics committees require a separate statement on ethical aspects of the research in applications to the ethics committee. However, little is known about how researchers consider the ethical aspects of their own studies.
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  11. Aristotle's Metaphysics.S. Marc Cohen - 2016 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The first major work in the history of philosophy to bear the title "Metaphysics" was the treatise by Aristotle that we have come to know by that name. But Aristotle himself did not use that title or even describe his field of study as 'metaphysics'; the name was evidently coined by the first century C.E. editor who assembled the treatise we know as Aristotle's Metaphysics out of various smaller selections of Aristotle's works. The title 'metaphysics' -- literally, 'after the Physics' (...)
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  12.  50
    Godel's Proof.S. R. Peterson - 1961 - Philosophical Quarterly 11 (45):379.
    In 1931 the mathematical logician Kurt Godel published a revolutionary paper that challenged certain basic assumptions underpinning mathematics and logic. A colleague of Albert Einstein, his theorem proved that mathematics was partly based on propositions not provable within the mathematical system and had radical implications that have echoed throughout many fields. A gripping combination of science and accessibility, Godel’s Proof by Nagel and Newman is for both mathematicians and the idly curious, offering those with a taste for logic and philosophy (...)
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  13.  18
    Collaborative Partnership and the Social Value of Clinical Research: A Qualitative Secondary Analysis.Sanna-Maria Nurmi, Arja Halkoaho, Mari Kangasniemi & Anna-Maija Pietilä - 2017 - BMC Medical Ethics 18 (1):57.
    Protecting human subjects from being exploited is one of the main ethical challenges for clinical research. However, there is also a responsibility to protect and respect the communities who are hosting the research. Recently, attention has focused on the most efficient way of carrying out clinical research, so that it benefits society by providing valuable research while simultaneously protecting and respecting the human subjects and the communities where the research is conducted. Collaboration between partners plays an important role and that (...)
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  14.  6
    Berkeley's Thought.George S. Pappas - 2018 - Cornell University Press.
    In this highly original account of Bishop George Berkeley's epistemological and metaphysical theories, George S. Pappas seeks to determine precisely what doctrines the philosopher held and what arguments he put forward to support them. Specifically, Pappas overturns accepted opinions about Berkeley's famous attack on the Lockean doctrine of abstract ideas. Berkeley's criticism of these ideas had been thought relevant only to his views on language and to his nominalism; Pappas persuasively argues that Berkeley's ideas about abstraction are crucial to nearly (...)
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  15.  21
    Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials: How Trial Documents Justify the Use of Randomisation and Placebo.Tapani Keränen, Arja Halkoaho, Emmi Itkonen & Anna-Maija Pietilä - 2015 - BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):2.
    Randomised clinical trials involve procedures such as randomisation, blinding, and placebo use, which are not part of standard medical care. Patients asked to participate in RCTs often experience difficulties in understanding the meaning of these and their justification.
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  16. Carnap’s Dream: Gödel, Wittgenstein, and Logical, Syntax.S. Awodey & A. W. Carus - 2007 - Synthese 159 (1):23-45.
    In Carnap’s autobiography, he tells the story how one night in January 1931, “the whole theory of language structure” in all its ramifications “came to [him] like a vision”. The shorthand manuscript he produced immediately thereafter, he says, “was the first version” of Logical Syntax of Language. This document, which has never been examined since Carnap’s death, turns out not to resemble Logical Syntax at all, at least on the surface. Wherein, then, did the momentous insight of 21 January 1931 (...)
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  17. Moore’s Paradox: New Essays on Belief, Rationality, and the First Person.Mitchell S. Green & John N. Williams (eds.) - 2007 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
    G. E. Moore observed that to assert, 'I went to the pictures last Tuesday but I don't believe that I did' would be 'absurd'. Over half a century later, such sayings continue to perplex philosophers. In the definitive treatment of the famous paradox, Green and Williams explain its history and relevance and present new essays by leading thinkers in the area.
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  18.  23
    Plato’s Democratic Entanglements: Athenian Politics and the Practice of Philosophy.S. Sara Monoson - 2000 - Princeton University Press.
    In this book, Sara Monoson challenges the longstanding and widely held view that Plato is a virulent opponent of all things democratic. She does not, however, offer in its place the equally mistaken idea that he is somehow a partisan of democracy. Instead, she argues that we should attend more closely to Plato's suggestion that democracy is horrifying and exciting, and she seeks to explain why he found it morally and politically intriguing.Monoson focuses on Plato's engagement with democracy as he (...)
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  19.  4
    Newton's Principia for the Common Reader.S. Chandrasekhar - 1995 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica provides a coherent and deductive presentation of his discovery of the universal law of gravitation. It is very much more than a demonstration that 'to us it is enough that gravity really does exist and act according to the laws which we have explained and abundantly serves to account for all the motions of the celestial bodies and the sea'. It is important to us as a model of all mathematical physics.Representing a decade's work from (...)
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  20.  65
    “Here's My Dilemma”. Moral Case Deliberation as a Platform for Discussing Everyday Ethics in Elderly Care.S. Dam, T. A. Abma, M. J. M. Kardol & G. A. M. Widdershoven - 2012 - Health Care Analysis 20 (3):250-267.
    Our study presents an overview of the issues that were brought forward by participants of a moral case deliberation (MCD) project in two elderly care organizations. The overview was inductively derived from all case descriptions (N = 202) provided by participants of seven mixed MCD groups, consisting of care providers from various professional backgrounds, from nursing assistant to physician. The MCD groups were part of a larger MCD project within two care institutions (residential homes and nursing homes). Care providers are (...)
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  21. Aristotle's Physics. [REVIEW]R. S. - 1936 - Journal of Philosophy 33 (9):246-247.
  22.  6
    Herodes Attikos and the City of Athens: Patronage and Conflict Under the Antonines. [REVIEW]Arja Karivieri & J. Tobin - 1999 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 119:211-212.
  23.  24
    Plato's Cosmology. [REVIEW]R. S. & Francis Macdonald Cornford - 1937 - Journal of Philosophy 34 (26):717.
  24.  11
    Deliberate Play and Preparation Jointly Benefit Motor and Cognitive Development: Mediated and Moderated Effects.Caterina Pesce, Ilaria Masci, Rosalba Marchetti, Spyridoula Vazou, Arja Sääkslahti & Phillip D. Tomporowski - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  25.  53
    Aristotle's Criticism of Presocratic Philosophy. [REVIEW]R. S. & Harold Cherniss - 1935 - Journal of Philosophy 32 (22):610.
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  26.  20
    The Creative Process as an Act.Arja Merikallio - 1979 - Dialectics and Humanism 6 (1):81-83.
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  27. Penrose's Gödelian Argument A Review of Shadows of the Mind by Roger Penrose. [REVIEW]S. Feferman - 1995 - PSYCHE: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Research On Consciousness 2:21-32.
    In his book Shadows of the Mind: A search for the missing science of con- sciousness [SM below], Roger Penrose has turned in another bravura perfor- mance, the kind we have come to expect ever since The Emperor’s New Mind [ENM ] appeared. In the service of advancing his deep convictions and daring conjectures about the nature of human thought and consciousness, Penrose has once more drawn a wide swath through such topics as logic, computa- tion, artificial intelligence, quantum physics (...)
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  28.  11
    The Effect of Study Type on Research Ethics Committees’ Queries in Medical Studies.Saara M. Happo, Arja Halkoaho, Soili M. Lehto & Tapani Keränen - 2017 - Research Ethics 13 (3-4):115-127.
    Background:Medical research involving human subjects must be evaluated by a research ethics committee before a study is initiated. However, knowledge of REC decision processes, particularly in relation to evaluating the risk–benefit balance in various study types, appears scant.Methods:The study protocols and records of a Finnish university hospital REC were surveyed for a time span of 5 years. All study procedures in each study plan were examined, and the studies were divided into clinical drug trials, clinical trials with medical devices, studies (...)
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  29. That's Interesting!: Towards a Phenomenology of Sociology and a Sociology of Phenomenology.Murray S. Davis - 1971 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 1 (2):309-344.
  30. Sartre's "Being and Nothingness".S. Gardner - unknown
    Sebastian Gardner competently tackles one of Sartre's more complex and challenging works in this new addition to the Reader's Guides series.
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  31.  8
    Stages on Life's Way: Studies by Various Persons.Søren Kierkegaard - 1940 - New York: Schocken Books.
    Stages on Life's Way, the sequel to Either/Or, is an intensely poetic example of Kierkegaard's vision of the three stages, or spheres, of existence: the esthetic, the ethical, and the religious. With characteristic love for mystification, he presents the work as a bundle of documents fallen by chance into the hands of "Hilarius Bookbinder," who prepared them for printing. The book begins with a banquet scene patterned on Plato's Symposium. (George Brandes maintained that "one must recognize with amazement that it (...)
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  32.  64
    “Here’s My Dilemma”. Moral Case Deliberation as a Platform for Discussing Everyday Ethics in Elderly Care.S. van der Dam, T. A. Abma, M. J. M. Kardol & G. A. M. Widdershoven - 2012 - Health Care Analysis 20 (3):250-267.
    Our study presents an overview of the issues that were brought forward by participants of a moral case deliberation (MCD) project in two elderly care organizations. The overview was inductively derived from all case descriptions (N = 202) provided by participants of seven mixed MCD groups, consisting of care providers from various professional backgrounds, from nursing assistant to physician. The MCD groups were part of a larger MCD project within two care institutions (residential homes and nursing homes). Care providers are (...)
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  33. Hempel's Paradox and Wason's Selection Task: Logical and Psychological Puzzles of Confirmation.Raymond S. Nickerson - 1996 - Thinking and Reasoning 2 (1):1 – 31.
    Hempel's paradox of the ravens has to do with the question of what constitutes confirmation from a logical point of view; Wason 's selection task has been used extensively to investigate how people go about attempting to confirm or disconfirm conditional claims. This paper presents an argument that the paradox is resolved, and that people's typical performance in the selection task can be explained, by consideration of what constitutes an effective strategy for seeking evidence of the tenability of universal or (...)
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  34. Plato's Euthyphro, Apology of Socrates, and Crito.J. L. S., John Burnet & Plato - 1925 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 45 (4):150.
  35. Bertlmann's Socks and the Nature of Reality.J. S. Bell - 2004 - In Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum Mechanics. Cambridge University Press. pp. 139--158.
     
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  36. Berkeley's "Defense" of "Commonsense".S. Seth Bordner - 2011 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 49 (3):315-338.
    Nearly as famous as his denial of the existence of matter is Berkeley's insistence that his philosophy is somehow a defense of commonsense. This is most often taken to mean that Berkeley thinks of his philosophy as supporting commonsense beliefs. However, the inadequacies of such views have persuaded some to disregard entirely Berkeley's claims about commonsense. Both readings are undesirable. Extant interpretations misunderstand the relationship between Berkeley's philosophy and commonsense. In this paper, I present a new account of how to (...)
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  37. Gibson's Theory of Perception: A Case of Hasty Epistemologizing?Edward S. Reed & Rebecca K. Jones - 1978 - Philosophy of Science 45 (4):519-530.
    Hintikka has criticized psychologists for "hasty epistemologizing," which he takes to be an unwarranted transfer of ideas from psychology (a discipline dealing with questions of fact) into epistemology (a discipline dealing with questions of method and theory). Hamlyn argues, following Hintikka, that Gibson's theory of perception is an example of such an inappropriate transfer, especially insofar as Hamlyn feels Gibson does not answer several important questions. However, Gibson's theory does answer the relevant questions, albeit in a new and radical way, (...)
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  38.  11
    What's New? Children Prefer Novelty in Referent Selection.Bob McMurray Jessica S. Horst, Larissa K. Samuelson, Sarah C. Kucker - 2011 - Cognition 118 (2):234.
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  39.  26
    Plato's Cratylus: The Comedy of Language.S. Montgomery Ewegen - 2013 - Indiana University Press.
    Plato’s dialogue Cratylus focuses on being and human dependence on words, or the essential truths about the human condition. Arguing that comedy is an essential part of Plato's concept of language, S. Montgomery Ewegen asserts that understanding the comedic is key to an understanding of Plato's deeper philosophical intentions. Ewegen shows how Plato’s view of language is bound to comedy through words and how, for Plato, philosophy has much in common with playfulness and the ridiculous. By tying words, language, and (...)
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  40. Simpson's Paradox and Causality.Prasanta S. Bandyopadhyay, Mark Greenwood, Don Dcruz & Venkata Raghavan - 2015 - American Philosophical Quarterly 52 (1):13-25.
    There are three questions associated with Simpson’s Paradox (SP): (i) Why is SP paradoxical? (ii) What conditions generate SP?, and (iii) What should be done about SP? By developing a logic-based account of SP, it is argued that (i) and (ii) must be divorced from (iii). This account shows that (i) and (ii) have nothing to do with causality, which plays a role only in addressing (iii). A counterexample is also presented against the causal account. Finally, the causal and logic-based (...)
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  41.  26
    Godel's Theorem in Focus.S. G. Shanker (ed.) - 1990 - Routledge.
    A layman's guide to the mechanics of Gödel's proof together with a lucid discussion of the issues which it raises. Includes an essay discussing the significance of Gödel's work in the light of Wittgenstein's criticisms.
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  42.  37
    Leibniz's 'New System' and Associated Contemporary Texts.R. S. Woolhouse & Richard Francks (eds.) - 1997 - Oxford University Press.
    This volume gathers together for the first time are all the key texts in a crucial debate in modern philosophy, centered on Leibniz's famous 1695 essay, the "New System of the Nature of Substances and their Communication," in which he introduced his strikingly original theory of metaphysics. His "system" became increasingly famous and drew him into discussion and development of these ideas, both in public and in private, with a variety of thinkers, most notably the great French philosopher Pierre Bayle. (...)
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  43. Darwin's Argument in the Origin.M. J. S. Hodge - 1992 - Philosophy of Science 59 (3):461-464.
    Various claims have been made, recently, that Darwin's argumentation in the Origin instantiates and so supports some general philosophical proposal about scientific theorizing, for example, the "semantic view". But these claims are grounded in various incorrect analyses of that argumentation. A summary is given here of an analysis defended at greater length in several papers by the present author. The historical and philosophical advantages of this analysis are explained briefly. Darwin's argument comprises three distinct evidential cases on behalf of natural (...)
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  44.  11
    “It’s Just Another Added Benefit”: Women’s Experiences with Employment-Based Egg Freezing Programs.S. A. Miner, W. K. Miller, C. Grady & B. E. Berkman - 2021 - AJOB Empirical Bioethics 12 (1):41-52.
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  45. Plato's Method of Division.S. Marc Cohen - 1973 - In J. M. E. Moravcsik (ed.), Patterns in Plato's Thought. Reidel. pp. 181--191.
    Critical discussion of J.M.E. Moravcsik's paper on Plato's method of division.
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  46.  89
    Stanford’s Unconceived Alternatives From the Perspective of Epistemic Obligations.Matthew S. Sample - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (5):856-866.
    Kyle Stanford’s reformulation of the problem of underdetermination has the potential to highlight the epistemic obligations of scientists. Stanford, however, presents the phenomenon of unconceived alternatives as a problem for realists, despite critics’ insistence that we have contextual explanations for scientists’ failure to conceive of their successors’ theories. I propose that responsibilist epistemology and the concept of “role oughts,” as discussed by Lorraine Code and Richard Feldman, can pacify Stanford’s critics and reveal broader relevance of the “new induction.” The possibility (...)
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  47.  30
    Understanding Children's and Adults' Limitations in Mental State Reasoning.S. Birch - 2004 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (6):255-260.
  48. Søren Kierkegaard's Journals and Papers, 3.1: L-P.Søren Kierkegaard - 1975 - Indiana University Press.
    The incidental writings of Søren Kierkegaard, published in the twenty-volume Danish edition of the Papirer, provide direct access to the thought of the many-faceted nineteenth-century philosopher who exerted so profound an influence on Protestant theology and modern existentialism. This important material, which Danish scholars regard as the "key to the scriptures" of Kierkegaard’s other work, spans his entire productive life, the last entry of the Papirer being dated only a few days before his death. These writings have been previously inaccessible (...)
     
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  49. Newcomb's Problem, Prisoners' Dilemma, and Collective Action.S. L. Hurley - 1991 - Synthese 86 (2):173 - 196.
    Among various cases that equally admit of evidentialist reasoning, the supposedly evidentialist solution has varying degrees of intuitive attractiveness. I suggest that cooperative reasoning may account for the appeal of apparently evidentialist behavior in the cases in which it is intuitively attractive, while the inapplicability of cooperative reasoning may account for the unattractiveness of evidentialist behaviour in other cases. A collective causal power with respect to agreed outcomes, not evidentialist reasoning, makes cooperation attractive in the Prisoners' Dilemma. And a natural (...)
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  50.  79
    Motivating Wittgenstein's Perspective on Mathematical Sentences as Norms.S. Friederich - 2011 - Philosophia Mathematica 19 (1):1-19.
    The later Wittgenstein’s perspective on mathematical sentences as norms is motivated for sentences belonging to Hilbertian axiomatic systems where the axioms are treated as implicit definitions. It is shown that in this approach the axioms are employed as norms in that they function as standards of what counts as using the concepts involved. This normative dimension of their mode of use, it is argued, is inherited by the theorems derived from them. Having been motivated along these lines, Wittgenstein’s perspective on (...)
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