Results for 'Armin Nikkhah Shirazi'

428 found
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  1. Frühe Šaiḫī- Und Bābī-Theologie: Die Darlegung der Beweise Für Muḥammads Besonderes Prophetentum.Armin Eschraghi - 2004 - Brill.
    This book is the first general introduction to the theological and philosophical writings of Aḥmad al-Aḥsāʾī and Kāẓim ar-Ra sh tī, the founders of the Sh ay kh iyya, and ʿAlī-Muḥammad Shīrāzī , the initiator of the Bābiyyah.
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  2.  16
    Armin Erlinghagen Karl Heinrich Heydenreich Als Philosophischer Schriftsteller.Armin Erlinghagen - 2014 - Kant-Studien 105 (1):125-144.
  3.  13
    Computability of String Functions Over Algebraic Structures Armin Hemmerling.Armin Hemmerling - 1998 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 44 (1):1-44.
    We present a model of computation for string functions over single-sorted, total algebraic structures and study some basic features of a general theory of computability within this framework. Our concept generalizes the Blum-Shub-Smale setting of computability over the reals and other rings. By dealing with strings of arbitrary length instead of tuples of fixed length, some suppositions of deeper results within former approaches to generalized recursion theory become superfluous. Moreover, this gives the basis for introducing computational complexity in a BSS-like (...)
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  4.  32
    Frontier Science Philosophies for Quality Lives.Akbar Nikkhah - 2012 - Open Journal of Philosophy 2 (2):128-129.
    The optimum science benefits to routine life have insufficiently been proved. Science progress is not merely reflected in machinery and technological breakthroughs. Subordinate impacts of science and scientists on global interactions are an evidence for the major deficiencies and futility of the many current science designations. A primary objective is to describe postmodern global interrelations of science mentoring policies and life quality. Also, global programs are proposed that will aid in the timely achievement of optimal real-life science goals. The global (...)
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  5.  24
    Al-Shīrāzī and the Empirical Origin of Ptolemy's Equant in His Model of the Superior Planets.Amir Mohammad Gamini & Hossein Masoumi Hamedani - 2013 - Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 23 (1):47-67.
    Ptolemy presents only one argument for the eccentricity in his models of the superior planets, while each one of them has two eccentricities: one for center of the uniform motion, the other for the center of the constant distance. To take into account the first eccentricity, he introduces the equant point, but he provides no argument for the eccentricity of the center of the deferent. Why is the second eccentricity different from the first one? The 13 th century astronomer Quṭb (...)
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  6.  4
    Leading by Example: Testing a Moderated Mediation Model of Ethical Leadership, Value Congruence, and Followers' Openness to Ethical Influence.Armin Pircher Verdorfer & Claudia Peus - 2020 - Business Ethics: A European Review 29 (2):314-332.
    Business Ethics: A European Review, EarlyView.
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  7. Speech Acts, Meaning, and Intentions: Critical Approaches to the Philosophy of John R. Searle.Armin Burkhardt (ed.) - 1990 - W. De Gruyter.
    Introduction The analytical way of thinking has been one of the most fruitful paradigms in this century in philosophy and in different sciences, ...
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  8.  73
    From Speculative Nanoethics to Explorative Philosophy of Nanotechnology.Armin Grunwald - 2010 - NanoEthics 4 (2):91-101.
    In the wake of the emergence and rapid development of nanoethics there swiftly followed fundamental criticism: nanoethics was said to have become much too involved with speculative developments and was concerning itself too little with actually pending questions of nanotechnology design and applications. If this diagnosis is true, then large parts of nanoethics are misguided. Such fundamental criticism must surely either result in a radical reorientation of nanoethics or be refuted for good reasons. In this paper, I will examine the (...)
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  9.  17
    The Confabulating Mind: How the Brain Creates Reality.Armin Schnider - 2008 - Oxford University Press.
    Confabulations are memories of events and experiences that have never actually happened. Such false memories have fascinated scientists for over a century, and in recent years been the subject of much debate. This is the first book to provide an in-depth analysis of an extraordinary and controversial subject.
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  10. .Dashtakī Shīrāzī & Ghiyāth al-Dīn Manṣūr - 2011
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  11.  57
    Nanotechnology — a New Field of Ethical Inquiry?Armin Grunwald - 2005 - Science and Engineering Ethics 11 (2):187-201.
    Parallel to the public discussion on the benefits and risks of nanotechnology, a debate on the ethics of nanotechnology has begun. It has been postulated that a new “nano-ethics” is necessary. In this debate, the — positive as well as negative — visionary and speculative innovations which are brought into connection with nanotechnology stand in the foreground. In this contribution, an attempt is made to discover new ethical aspects of nanotechnology in a more systematic manner than has been the case. (...)
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  12.  47
    Bolzano's Theory of Ground and Consequence.Armin Tatzel - 2002 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 43 (1):1-25.
    The aim of the paper is to present and evaluate Bolzano's theory of grounding, that is, his theory of the concept expressed and the relation brought into play by 'because'. In the first part of the paper (Sections 1-4) the concept of grounding is distinguished from and related to three other concepts: the concept of an epistemic reason}, the concept of causality, and the concept of deducibility (i.e., logical consequence). In its second part (Sections 5-7) Bolzano's positive account of grounding (...)
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  13. Sober & Wilson’s Evolutionary Arguments for Psychological Altruism: A Reassessment.Armin Schulz - 2011 - Biology and Philosophy 26 (2):251-260.
    In their book Unto Others, Sober and Wilson argue that various evolutionary considerations (based on the logic of natural selection) lend support to the truth of psychological altruism. However, recently, Stephen Stich has raised a number of challenges to their reasoning: in particular, he claims that three out of the four evolutionary arguments they give are internally unconvincing, and that the one that is initially plausible fails to take into account recent findings from cognitive science and thus leaves open a (...)
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  14.  55
    Postmodern Science Edification Philosophy.Akbar Nikkhah - 2011 - Open Journal of Philosophy 1 (1):37.
    The objective is to introduce and describe a new philosophy for global science edification that will determine the extent and nature of humans’ accomplishments. These will affect life quality worldwide. Science as an ultimate essence encircles theoretical and applied findings and discoveries. These can only contribute to forming a trivial core, whilst the most crucial are insightful moral surroundings. Morality is most concerned with mentorship commitments. To sustain a dense and rigid shape that progressively improves science and life quality, imagination (...)
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  15.  49
    Against Over-Estimating the Role of Ethics in Technology Development.Armin Grunwald - 2000 - Science and Engineering Ethics 6 (2):181-196.
    The role of ethics in technology development has been often questioned, especially in the early days of societal reflection of technology. However, the situation has changed dramatically. Ethical consideration now is generally declared to be indispensable in shaping technology in a socially acceptable and sustainable way. The expectations of ethics are large; often even a kind of “New Ethics” is postulated. In the present paper an over-estimation of the role of ethics for technology development is rejected. It is argued that (...)
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  16.  30
    On the Origins of Novelty in Development and Evolution.Armin P. Moczek - 2008 - Bioessays 30 (5):432-447.
  17.  89
    The Application of Ethics to Engineering and the Engineer’s Moral Responsibility: Perspectives for a Research Agenda.Armin Grunwald - 2001 - Science and Engineering Ethics 7 (3):415-428.
    There are different possibilities for defining the areas for the application of ethics to engineering. They range from descriptive analysis of engineers’ relationship to moral criteria and extend to normative issues on how engineers should design more “sustainable” technology. In this paper, a frame of reference is proposed, which makes it possible to elaborate in a transparent manner goals for analysis of the scope of ethics in engineering. Its point of departure is marked by two questions: 1) which types of (...)
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  18.  40
    Gigerenzer’s Evolutionary Arguments Against Rational Choice Theory: An Assessment.Armin Schulz - 2011 - Philosophy of Science 78 (5):1272-1282.
    I critically discuss a recent innovation in the debate surrounding the plausibility of rational choice theory : the appeal to evolutionary theory. Specifically, I assess Gigerenzer and colleagues’ claim that considerations based on natural selection show that, instead of making decisions in a RCT-like way, we rely on ‘simple heuristics’. As I try to make clearer here, though, Gigerenzer and colleagues’ arguments are unconvincing: we lack the needed information about our past to determine whether the premises on which they are (...)
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  19.  33
    The Adaptive Importance of Cognitive Efficiency: An Alternative Theory of Why We Have Beliefs and Desires.Armin Schulz - 2011 - Biology and Philosophy 26 (1):31-50.
    Finding out why we have beliefs and desires is important for a thorough understanding of the nature of our minds (and those of other animals). It is therefore unsurprising that several accounts have been presented that are meant to answer this question. At least in the philosophical literature, the most widely accepted of these are due to Kim Sterelny and Peter Godfrey-Smith, who argue that beliefs and desires evolved due to their enabling us to be behaviourally flexible in a way (...)
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  20.  14
    Vernunft als Epiphänomen der Naturkausalität.Armin G. Wildfeuer - 1997 - Fichte-Studien 9:61-82.
  21.  48
    The Financialisation of Business Ethics.Armin Beverungen, Stephen Dunne & Casper Hoedemaekers - 2013 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 22 (1):102-117.
    Business schools have become implicated in the widespread demonisation of the financial classes. By educating those held most responsible for the crisis – financial traders and speculators – they are said to have produced ruthlessly talented graduates who have ambition in abundance but little sense for social responsibility or ethics. This ethical lack thrives upon the trading floor within a compelling critique of the complicity of the pedagogy of the business school with the financial crisis of the global economy. An (...)
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  22.  85
    Risky Business.Armin Schulz - 2008 - Journal of Philosophy 105 (3):156-165.
  23.  5
    Mullā Ṣadrā Shīrāzī: His Life and Works and the Sources for Safavid Philosophy.Sajjad Rizvi (ed.) - 2007 - Oxford University Press.
    This is the first reliable biography of Mulla Sadra Shirazi that examines his influences and legacy and includes an extensive survey of his work.
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  24.  11
    Neurolaw in Australia: The Use of Neuroscience in Australian Criminal Proceedings.Armin Alimardani & Jason Chin - 2019 - Neuroethics 12 (3):255-270.
    Recent research has detailed the use of neuroscience in several jurisdictions, but Australia remains a notable omission. To fill this substantial void we performed a systematic review of neuroscience in Australian criminal cases. The first section of this article reports the results of our review by detailing the purposes for which neuroscience is admitted into Australian criminal courts. We found that neuroscience is being admitted pre-trial, at trial, and during sentencing. In the second section, we evaluate these applications. We generally (...)
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  25.  92
    Beyond the Hype: The Value of Evolutionary Theorizing in Economics.Armin W. Schulz - 2013 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 43 (1):46-72.
    In this paper, I consider the recent resurgence of “evolutionary economics”—the idea that evolutionary theory can be very useful to push forward key debates in economics—and assess the extent to which it rests on a plausible foundation. To do this, I first distinguish two ways in which evolutionary theory can, in principle, be brought to bear on an economic problem—namely, evidentially and heuristically—and then apply this distinction to the three major hypotheses that evolutionary economists have come to defend: the implausibility (...)
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  26.  38
    Nanotechnology – Steps Towards Understanding Human Beings as Technology?Armin Grunwald & Yannick Julliard - 2007 - NanoEthics 1 (2):77-87.
    Far-reaching promises made by nanotechnology have raised the question of whether we are on the way to understanding human beings more and more as belonging to the realm of technology. In this paper, an increasing need to understand the technological re-conceptualization of human beings is diagnosed whenever increasingly “technical” interpretations of humans as mechanical entities are disseminated. And this can be observed at present in the framework of nanobiotechnology, a foremost “technical” self-description where a technical language is adopted. The arena (...)
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  27.  95
    Structural Flaws: Massive Modularity and the Argument From Design.Armin Schulz - 2008 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 59 (4):733-743.
    recent defence of the massive modularity thesis. However, as this paper seeks to show, there are major flaws in its structure. If construed deductively, it is unsound: modular mental architecture is not necessarily the best architecture, and even if it were, this alone would not show that this architecture evolved. If construed inductively, it is not much more convincing, as it then appears to be too weak to support the kind of modularity Carruthers is concerned with. The upshot of this (...)
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  28.  13
    The Financialisation of Business Ethics.Armin Beverungen, Stephen Dunne & Casper Hoedemaekers - 2013 - Business Ethics: A European Review 22 (1):102-117.
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  29.  55
    The Benefits of Rule Following: A New Account of the Evolution of Desires.Armin Schulz - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (4 A):595-603.
    A key component of much current research in behavioral ecology, cognitive science, and economics is a model of the mind at least partly based on beliefs and desires. However, despite this prevalence, there are still many open questions concerning both the structure and the applicability of this model. This is especially so when it comes to its ‘desire’ part: in particular, it is not yet entirely clear when and why we should expect organisms to be desire-based—understood so as to imply (...)
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  30.  28
    Business Managers and Moral Sanctuaries.Armin Richard Konrad - 1982 - Journal of Business Ethics 1 (3):195 - 200.
    Moral Sanctuary is used in this paper as a metaphor for any theory which makes actions immune from moral criticism. Three arguments favoring moral sanctuaries for business activities are countered. Two of the arguments rest on faulty analogies. One compares business activities to games, another to the behavior of machines. The third rests on the claim that business is a unique activity. This position is rejected by a reductio ad absurdum argument; it entails the immunity of all professional activities from (...)
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  31. Technology Assessment or Ethics of Technology?Armin Grunwald - 1999 - Ethical Perspectives 6 (2):170-182.
    Handling the impacts and consequences of technology has become a problem of political, social and scientific relevance since the Sixties. The earlier assumption that technological evolution would automatically lead to social and human progress in an emphatic sense can no longer be sustained. The ambivalence of technology has become a standing topic in the public, philosophical and scientific debate .In this situation new challenges to technology policy are emerging. Functions of an `early warning' with respect to the risks or potentials (...)
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  32.  30
    The Normative Basis of (Health) Technology Assessment and the Role of Ethical Expertise.Armin Grunwald - 2004 - Poiesis and Praxis 2 (s 2-3):175-193.
    The role of normative reflection and the possibilities of ethical inquiry in technology assessment have been under discussion in the TA community for several years. As an outcome of this discussion the necessity of explicitly dealing with normativity in TA has widely been acknowledged. However, it is still quite unclear in which way this should be done. This paper is dedicated to the role (and limitations) of ethical expertise in this field, especially in HTA. By methodological analysis an approach is (...)
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  33.  25
    Applying a Modified Prochaska?S Model of Readiness to Change for General Practitioners on Depressive Disorders in CME Programmes: Validation of Tool.Mandana Shirazi, Seyed Mohammad Assadi, Majid Sadeghi, Ali A. Zeinaloo, Ahmad S. Kashani, Mohammad Arbabi, Farshid Alaedini, Kirsti Lonka & Rolf Wahlstrom - 2007 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 13 (2):298-302.
  34.  87
    Simulation, Simplicity, and Selection: An Evolutionary Perspective on High-Level Mindreading. [REVIEW]Armin Schulz - 2011 - Philosophical Studies 152 (2):271 - 285.
    In this paper, I argue that a natural selection-based perspective gives reasons for thinking that the core of the ability to mindread cognitively complex mental states is subserved by a simulationist process—that is, that it relies on nonspecialised mechanisms in the attributer's cognitive architecture whose primary function is the generation of her own decisions and inferences. In more detail, I try to establish three conclusions. First, I try to make clearer what the dispute between simulationist and non-simulationist theories of mindreading (...)
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  35.  1
    The Relationship Between Physical Activity and Quality of Life During the Confinement Induced by COVID-19 Outbreak: A Pilot Study in Tunisia.Maamer Slimani, Armin Paravlic, Faten Mbarek, Nicola L. Bragazzi & David Tod - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  36.  6
    Structural Flaws: Massive Modularity and the Argument From Design: Articles.Armin Schulz - 2008 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 59 (4):733-743.
    The ‘argument from design’ plays a pivotal role in Carruthers’ recent defence of the massive modularity thesis. However, as this paper seeks to show, there are major flaws in its structure. If construed deductively, it is unsound: modular mental architecture is not necessarily the best architecture, and even if it were, this alone would not show that this architecture evolved. If construed inductively, it is not much more convincing, as it then appears to be too weak to support the kind (...)
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  37.  30
    Niche Construction, Adaptive Preferences, and the Differences Between Fitness and Utility.Armin W. Schulz - 2014 - Biology and Philosophy 29 (3):315-335.
    A number of scholars have recently defended the claim that there is a close connection between the evolutionary biological notion of fitness and the economic notion of utility: both are said to refer to an organism’s success in dealing with its environment, and both are said to play the same theoretical roles in their respective sciences. However, an analysis of two seemingly disparate but in fact structurally related phenomena—‘niche construction’ (the case where organisms change their environment to make it fit (...)
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  38.  52
    Overextension: The Extended Mind and Arguments From Evolutionary Biology. [REVIEW]Armin W. Schulz - 2013 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 3 (2):241-255.
    I critically assess two widely cited evolutionary biological arguments for two versions of the ‘Extended Mind Thesis’ (EMT): namely, an argument appealing to Dawkins’s ‘Extended Phenotype Thesis’ (EPT) and an argument appealing to ‘Developmental Systems Theory’ (DST). Specifically, I argue that, firstly, appealing to the EPT is not useful for supporting the EMT (in either version), as it is structured and motivated too differently from the latter to be able to corroborate or elucidate it. Secondly, I extend and defend Rupert’s (...)
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  39. Technik als Reflexionsbegriff: überlegungen zur semantischen Struktur des Redens über Technik.Armin Grunwald & Yannick Julliard - 2005 - Philosophia Naturalis 42 (1):127-157.
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  40.  19
    Risky Business: Evolutionary Theory and Human Attitudes Toward Risk—A Reply to Okasha.Armin Schulz - 2008 - Journal of Philosophy 105 (3):156-165.
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  41.  67
    Editorial Introduction: Where is Business Ethics?Armin Beverungen & Peter Case - 2011 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 20 (3):229-232.
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  42.  13
    The Benefits of Rule Following: A New Account of the Evolution of Desires.Armin Schulz - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (4):595-603.
    A key component of much current research in behavioral ecology, cognitive science, and economics is a model of the mind at least partly based on beliefs and desires. However, despite this prevalence, there are still many open questions concerning both the structure and the applicability of this model. This is especially so when it comes to its ‘desire’ part: in particular, it is not yet entirely clear when and why we should expect organisms to be desire-based—understood so as to imply (...)
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  43.  32
    Altruism, Egoism, or Neither: A Cognitive-Efficiency-Based Evolutionary Biological Perspective on Helping Behavior.Armin W. Schulz - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 56:15-23.
  44. Condorcet and Communitarianism: Boghossian’s Fallacious Inference.Armin Schulz - 2009 - Synthese 166 (1):55 - 68.
    This paper defends the communitarian account of meaning against Boghossian’s (Wittgensteinian) arguments. Boghossian argues that whilst such an account might be able to accommodate the infinitary characteristic of meaning, it cannot account for its normativity: he claims that, since the dispositions of a group must mirror those of its members, the former cannot be used to evaluate the latter. However, as this paper aims to make clear, this reasoning is fallacious. Modelling the issue with four (justifiable) assumptions, it shows that (...)
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  45.  5
    Jenseits von Ethik. Zur Kritik der neuroethischen Enhancement-Debatte.Armin Hoyer & Jan Slaby - 2014 - Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 62 (5).
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  46.  52
    Preferences Vs. Desires: Debating the Fundamental Structure of Conative States.Armin W. Schulz - 2015 - Economics and Philosophy 31 (2):239-257.
  47.  24
    Firms, Agency, and Evolution.Armin W. Schulz - 2016 - Journal of Economic Methodology 23 (1):57-76.
    A recent trend in economics has been to appeal to evolutionary theory when addressing various open questions in the subject. I here further investigate one particular such appeal to evolutionary biology: the argument that, since markets select firms as coherent units, firms should be seen to be genuine economic agents. To assess this argument, I present a model of firm/office selection in a competitive market, and show that there are cases where markets can select for firms/offices as collective units – (...)
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  48.  14
    Editorial Introduction: Where is Business Ethics?Armin Beverungen & Peter Case - 2011 - Business Ethics: A European Review 20 (3):229-232.
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  49. The Elixir of the Gnostics =.Ṣadr al-Dīn Shīrāzī & Muḥammad ibn Ibrāhīm - 2003 - Brigham Young University Press.
    Sadr al-Din Muhammad Shirazi (1572-1640), more commonly called Mulla Sadra, was one of the grand scholars of later-period Islamic philosophy and has grown to become one of the best-known Muslim philosophers. Iksir al-'arifin , or Elixir of the Gnostics , is unique among Sadra's writings in that it reworks and amplifies an earlier Persian work, the Jawidan-nama ( Book of the Everlasting ) by Afdal al-Din Kashani, or Baba Afdal. The underlying theme of Sadra's amplification is emblematic of Muslim (...)
     
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  50.  22
    Participation as a Means of Enhancing the Legitimacy of Decisions on Technology? A Sceptical Analysis.Armin Grunwald - 2004 - Poiesis and Praxis 3 (s 1-2):106-122.
    The legitimacy of technology as a whole, of individual fields of technology, and of concrete decisions on technology has become problematic. Traditional methods and elements for the legitimization of technological development and of the application of technology have been increasingly called into question since the 1980s. There are great expectations in participatory procedures to improving the legitimization of technology decisions. Those expectations, however, might not be justified. In the paper, the hypothesis is proposed that legitimacy can be brought about through (...)
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