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Armin W. Schulz
University of Kansas
  1.  33
    The Adaptive Importance of Cognitive Efficiency: An Alternative Theory of Why We Have Beliefs and Desires.Armin W. Schulz - 2011 - Biology and Philosophy 26 (1):31-50.
    Finding out why we have beliefs and desires is important for a thorough understanding of the nature of our minds (and those of other animals). It is therefore unsurprising that several accounts have been presented that are meant to answer this question. At least in the philosophical literature, the most widely accepted of these are due to Kim Sterelny and Peter Godfrey-Smith, who argue that beliefs and desires evolved due to their enabling us to be behaviourally flexible in a way (...)
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  2.  90
    Beyond the Hype: The Value of Evolutionary Theorizing in Economics.Armin W. Schulz - 2013 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 43 (1):46-72.
    In this paper, I consider the recent resurgence of “evolutionary economics”—the idea that evolutionary theory can be very useful to push forward key debates in economics—and assess the extent to which it rests on a plausible foundation. To do this, I first distinguish two ways in which evolutionary theory can, in principle, be brought to bear on an economic problem—namely, evidentially and heuristically—and then apply this distinction to the three major hypotheses that evolutionary economists have come to defend: the implausibility (...)
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  3.  83
    Risky Business.Armin W. Schulz - 2008 - Journal of Philosophy 105 (3):156-165.
  4.  30
    Niche Construction, Adaptive Preferences, and the Differences Between Fitness and Utility.Armin W. Schulz - 2014 - Biology and Philosophy 29 (3):315-335.
    A number of scholars have recently defended the claim that there is a close connection between the evolutionary biological notion of fitness and the economic notion of utility: both are said to refer to an organism’s success in dealing with its environment, and both are said to play the same theoretical roles in their respective sciences. However, an analysis of two seemingly disparate but in fact structurally related phenomena—‘niche construction’ (the case where organisms change their environment to make it fit (...)
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  5.  51
    Overextension: The Extended Mind and Arguments From Evolutionary Biology. [REVIEW]Armin W. Schulz - 2013 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 3 (2):241-255.
    I critically assess two widely cited evolutionary biological arguments for two versions of the ‘Extended Mind Thesis’ (EMT): namely, an argument appealing to Dawkins’s ‘Extended Phenotype Thesis’ (EPT) and an argument appealing to ‘Developmental Systems Theory’ (DST). Specifically, I argue that, firstly, appealing to the EPT is not useful for supporting the EMT (in either version), as it is structured and motivated too differently from the latter to be able to corroborate or elucidate it. Secondly, I extend and defend Rupert’s (...)
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  6.  18
    Risky Business: Evolutionary Theory and Human Attitudes Toward Risk—A Reply to Okasha.Armin W. Schulz - 2008 - Journal of Philosophy 105 (3):156-165.
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  7.  30
    Altruism, Egoism, or Neither: A Cognitive-Efficiency-Based Evolutionary Biological Perspective on Helping Behavior.Armin W. Schulz - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 56:15-23.
  8. Condorcet and Communitarianism: Boghossian’s Fallacious Inference.Armin W. Schulz - 2009 - Synthese 166 (1):55 - 68.
    This paper defends the communitarian account of meaning against Boghossian’s (Wittgensteinian) arguments. Boghossian argues that whilst such an account might be able to accommodate the infinitary characteristic of meaning, it cannot account for its normativity: he claims that, since the dispositions of a group must mirror those of its members, the former cannot be used to evaluate the latter. However, as this paper aims to make clear, this reasoning is fallacious. Modelling the issue with four (justifiable) assumptions, it shows that (...)
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  9.  43
    Preferences Vs. Desires: Debating the Fundamental Structure of Conative States.Armin W. Schulz - 2015 - Economics and Philosophy 31 (2):239-257.
  10.  55
    It Takes Two: Sexual Strategies and Game Theory.Armin W. Schulz - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 41 (1):41-49.
    David Buss’s Sexual Strategies Theory is one of the major evolutionary psychological research programmes, but, as I try to show in this paper, its theoretical and empirical foundations cannot yet be seen to be fully compelling. This lack of cogency comes about due to Buss’s failure to attend to the interactive nature of his subject matter, which leads him to overlook two classic and well known issues of game theoretic and evolutionary biological analysis. Firstly, Buss pays insufficient attention to the (...)
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  11. Introduction: The Biology of Psychological Altruism.Justin Garson & Armin W. Schulz - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 56:1-2.
    I develop a distinction between two types of psychological hedonism. Inferential hedonism (or “I-hedonism”) holds that each person only has ultimate desires regarding his or her own hedonic states (pleasure and pain). Reinforcement hedonism (or “R–hedonism”) holds that each person's ultimate desires, whatever their contents are, are differentially reinforced in that person’s cognitive system only by virtue of their association with hedonic states. I’ll argue that accepting R-hedonism and rejecting I-hedonism provides a conciliatory position on the traditional altruism debate, and (...)
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  12.  70
    It Just Looks the Same: An Evolutionary Psychological Account of Differences in Racial Cognition Among Infants and Older Humans.Kamuran Osmanoglu & Armin W. Schulz - 2019 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 10 (3):631-647.
    Forms of racial cognition begin early: from about 3 months onwards, many human infants prefer to look at own-race faces over other-race faces. What is not yet fully clear is what the psychological mechanisms are that underlie racial thoughts at this early age, and why these mechanisms evolved. In this paper, we propose answers to these questions. Specifically, we use recent experimental data and evolutionary biological insights to argue that early racial cognition is simply the result of a “facial familiarity (...)
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  13.  17
    By Genes Alone: A Model Selectionist Argument for Genetical Explanations of Cooperation in Non-Human Organisms.Armin W. Schulz - 2017 - Biology and Philosophy 32 (6):951-967.
    I distinguish two versions of kin selection theory—a purely genetic version and a version that also appeals to cultural forms of cooperation —and present an argument in favor of using the former when it comes to accounting for the evolution of cooperation in non-human organisms. Specifically, I first show that both GKST and WKST are equally mathematically coherent—they can both be derived from the Price equation—but not necessarily equally empirically plausible, as they are based on different assumptions about the inheritance (...)
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  14.  6
    Externalization of Moral Demands Does Not Motivate Exclusion of Non-Cooperators: A Defense of a Subjectivist Moral Psychology.Armin W. Schulz - 2018 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 41.
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  15.  7
    Enhancing Thoughts: Culture, Technology, and the Evolution of Human Cognitive Uniqueness.Armin W. Schulz - forthcoming - Wiley: Mind and Language.
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  16.  24
    Firms, Agency, and Evolution.Armin W. Schulz - 2016 - Journal of Economic Methodology 23 (1):57-76.
    A recent trend in economics has been to appeal to evolutionary theory when addressing various open questions in the subject. I here further investigate one particular such appeal to evolutionary biology: the argument that, since markets select firms as coherent units, firms should be seen to be genuine economic agents. To assess this argument, I present a model of firm/office selection in a competitive market, and show that there are cases where markets can select for firms/offices as collective units – (...)
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  17.  37
    Interdisciplinary Thinking About Mechanisms and Causes. [REVIEW]Armin W. Schulz - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 50:94-97.
  18.  16
    Kim Sterelny, Richard Joyce, Brett Calcott, and Ben Fraser (Eds) Cooperation and its Evolution.Armin W. Schulz - 2014 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 65 (4):893-897.
  19.  11
    P. Hammerstein and J. R. Stevens: ‘Evolution and the Mechanisms of Decision Making’.Armin W. Schulz - 2014 - Acta Biotheoretica 62 (4):527-530.
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  20.  97
    Selection, Drift, and Independent Contrasts: Defending the Methodological Foundations of the FIC. [REVIEW]Armin W. Schulz - 2013 - Biological Theory 7 (1):38-47.
    Felsenstein’s method of independent contrasts (FIC) is one of the most widely used approaches to the study of correlated evolution. However, it is also quite controversial: numerous researchers have called various aspects of the method into question. Among these objections, there is one that, for two reasons, stands out from the rest: first, it is rather philosophical in nature; and second, it has received very little attention in the literature thus far. This objection concerns Sober’s charge that the FIC is (...)
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  21.  16
    Signals: Evolution, Learning, and Information.Armin W. Schulz - 2012 - Journal of Economic Methodology 19 (1):84-88.
    Journal of Economic Methodology, Volume 19, Issue 1, Page 84-88, March 2012.
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  22.  17
    The Heuristic Defense of Scientific Models: An Incentive-Based Assessment.Armin W. Schulz - 2015 - Perspectives on Science 23 (4):424-442.
    It is undeniable that much scientific work is model-based. Despite this, the justification for this reliance on models is still controversial. A particular difficulty here is the fact that many scientific models are based on assumptions that do not describe the exact details of many or even any empirical situations very well. This raises the question of why it is that, despite their frequent lack of descriptive accuracy, employing models is scientifically useful.One..
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