One of the most important threats to today’s civilization is terrorism. Terrorism not only disturbs the law and order situations in a society but also affects the quality of lives of humans and makes them suppressed physically and emotionally and deprives them of enjoying life. The more the civilizations have advanced, the more the people are working towards exploring different mechanisms to protect the mankind from terrorism. Different techniques have been used as counterterrorism to protect the lives of individuals in (...) society and to improve the quality of life in general. Machine learning methods have been recently explored to develop techniques for counterterrorism based on artificial intelligence. Since deep learning has recently gained more popularity in machine learning domain, in this paper, these techniques are explored to understand the behavior of terrorist activities. Five different models based on deep neural network are created to understand the behavior of terrorist activities such as is the attack going to be successful or not? Or whether the attack is going to be suicide or not? Or what type of weapon is going to be used in the attack? Or what type of attack is going to be carried out? Or what region is going to be attacked? The models are implemented in single-layer neural network, five-layer DNN, and three traditional machine learning algorithms, i.e., logistic regression, SVM, and Naïve Bayes. The performance of the DNN is compared with NN and the three machine learning algorithms, and it is demonstrated that the performance in DNN is more than 95% in terms of accuracy, precision, recall, and F1-Score, while ANN and traditional machine learning algorithms have achieved a maximum of 83% accuracy. This concludes that DNN is a suitable model to be used for predicting the behavior of terrorist activities. Our experiments also demonstrate that the dataset for terrorist activities is big data; therefore, a DNN is a suitable model to process big data and understand the underlying patterns in the dataset. (shrink)
We compute the energy tensor and the energy-momentum tensor for electrodynamics coupled to the current of a charged scalar field and for electrodynamics coupled tothe current of a Dirac spinor field, without using the equations of motion.
Development of decision-support and intelligent agent systems necessitates mathematical descriptions of uncertainty and fuzziness in order to model vagueness. This paper seeks to present an outline of Peirce’s triadic logic as a practical new way to model vagueness in the context of artificial intelligence. Charles Sanders Peirce was an American scientist–philosopher and a great logician whose triadic logic is a culmination of the study of semiotics and the mathematical study of anti-Cantorean model of continuity and infinitesimals. After presenting Peircean semiotics (...) within AI perspective, a mathematical formulation of a Peircean triadic set is given in relationship with classical and fuzzy sets. Using basic logical operators, all possible respective implication operators, bi-equivalence operators, valid rules of inference, and associative, distributive and commutative logical properties are derived and verified through the truth function approach. In order to suggest practical directions, aggregation operators for Peirce’s triadic logic have been formulated. A mathematical formulation of a medical diagnostic problem and ER diagram of a library management system using Peirce’s triadic relation show potential for further applications of the proposed triadic set and triadic logic. Alongside, a classical AI game—The Wumpus World—is implemented to show practical efficacy in comparison with binary implementation. Besides giving some preliminary formulations for trichotomous set theory and definition of finite automaton, development of hybrid architectures for intelligent agents and evolutionary computations are discussed as potential practical avenues for Peirce’s triadic logic. (shrink)
This commentary defines an additional characteristic of human learning. The nature of this test is different from the ones by Newell: This is a hard, pass/fail type of test. Thus a theory of cognition cannot partially satisfy this test ; it either conforms to the requirement fully, or it doesn't. If a theory of cognition cannot satisfy this property of human learning, then the theory is not valid at all.
Honesty and integrity are key attributes of an ethically competent physician. However, academic misconduct, which includes but is not limited to plagiarism, cheating, and falsifying documentation, is common in medical colleges across the world. The purpose of this study is to describe differences in the self-reported attitudes and behaviours of medical students regarding academic misconduct depending on gender, year of study and type of medical institution in Pakistan.
Research is an integral part of evidence-based practice in the emergency department and critical care unit that improves patient management. It is important to understand the need and major obstacles for conducting research in emergency settings. Herein, we review the literature for the obligations, ethics and major implications of emergency research and the associated limiting factors influencing research activities in critical care and emergency settings. We reviewed research engines such as PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE for the last two decades using (...) the key words “emergency department”, “critical care”, “research”, “consent”, and “ethics” as the search terms. Research within emergency settings is slow or non-existent due to time and financial constraints as well as the lack of a research tradition. There are several barriers to conducting research studies in emergency situations such as who, what, when, and how to obtain patient consent. The emergency environment is highly pressurized, emotional, and overburdened. The time taken for research is a particular risk that could delay the desired immediate interventions. Ethical issues abound, particularly relating to informed consent. Research in emergency settings is still in its infancy. Thus, there is a strong need for extensive research in the emergency setting through community awareness, resource management, ethics, collaborations, capacity building, and the development of a research interest for the improvement of patient care and outcomes. We need to establish a well-structured plan to assess and track the decision-making capacity, consider a multistep enrolment and consent strategy, and develop an integrated approach for recruitment into studies. (shrink)
Humor is a tool to develop and to strengthen mutual relationships among people. Humor sometimes is used to show superiority of a person, sect, caste or gender to other. This particular study about the linguistic structure of randomly selected jokes is made in order to highlight different stereotypes that are associated with the Pakistani wives. For this purpose a corpus of 60 jokes is developed by collecting jokes randomly in Urdu languge related to wives, using facebook pages,“Husband & Wife jokes” (...) and “Laughing colours” and then twenty jokes are further selected under specific themes for analysis. These jokes are translated into English language and then analyzed using the Atordo’s and Raskin’s model of general theory of verbal humour. This study also throws light on the fact that the stigmas attached with pakistani wives in the form of jokes are widely accepted and enjoyed even by wives themselves that is giving way to their disparaged identity in our society. Hence, the aim of this study is to make the Pakistani women and the wives aware of the intensity of this situation and to provoke them to reject this practice of their disrespect and exploitation through verbal humour. This study will also prove helpful for the future reserch in order to check and make variations in the attitude of the participants and the receivers of the jokes to discourage jokes which are the source of disresopect for any other sect or gender. Key words: Verbal humor, GTVH, wives in jokes. (shrink)
This study aims to observe the influence of inclusion of mobile learning in Business Schools on students’ performance and gender based faculty members’ performance in business schools in Karachi, Pakistan. The functions offered in mobile phones include the access to information of real-time, medium of communication, and host of affordances. Nevertheless, along with the opportunities and incentives the mobile devices carry opportunities for students to involve in academic dishonesty, deviation and distraction from the assigned tasks. By employing quantitative research method, (...) this study tends to conduct an experiment to explore if faculty members in business schools perform differently based on their different genders with the inclusion of mobile learning. The result of the study reveals no difference between the performance of male and female faculty members with the inclusion of mobile learning by implementing the Google Class into their regular classes. Therefore, this study recommends the academic leaders, curriculum designers, and educationists in the field of business education to pay attention on the inclusion of mobile learning, as it is equally beneficial to students and faculty members regardless of their different genders. (shrink)
Universities are specialized units aimed to deliver quality education and shaping future leadership to provide competent professionals to the industry. The establishment of ORIC in universities and significant increase in academia-industry linkage activities is strategic move towards achievement of the mentioned objectives. Bridging up the gap between academia and industry by adopting such strategies defines the successful role of HEIs. In view of increasing number of universities and continuous outflow of graduates it seems imperative to analyze and capitalize their potential (...) towards the growth of economy. However, the unemployment ratio and limited growth in SME sector reflect the insignificant absorption of graduates in corporate sector. The study aims to determine the factors that serve as barriers in achieving goals of HEIs by understanding the problems faced by university students in general and business graduates in particular on the basis of data gathered from 100 students from different universities present in Karachi. It shall also assists the policy makers in devising policy as per market demands, level of quality attained by universities, their involvement with corporate sector and in turn need of the industry to keep both parties at par in the fluctuating and contemporary era. (shrink)
In 2014, the worldwide context is that the population is increasingly both expanding and aging in industrial countries. In contrast, the personal health levels of individuals could decrease. Although retirement homes and health-care centers assume most of the demand, they will most probably overflow in the next few years. One of the current solutions is e-Health, which involves biomedical monitoring but also home automation functions to compensate for disabilities that tend to increase with age. In this context, several domains have (...) to be merged while respecting the entire ecosystem: the users, their needs and environment, but also all the various actors/experts involved in this process. The issue, however, is that enormous effort is required to combine the multiple expert domains because these can be antinomic. Hence, this paper proposes a collaborative workflow that brings together these different actors and generates the control/command application. Applying model-driven engineering, this workflow makes a clear distinction between people’s health requirements, the home automation functions, and the user interface points of view. Thus, it allows experts in each field to adapt their system in terms of the user’s needs, disability, and health state. (shrink)
To this day, a hundred and fifty years after Mendeleev's discovery, the overal structure of the periodic system remains unaccounted for in quantum-mechanical terms. Given this dire situation, a handful of scientists in the 1970s embarked on a quest for the symmetries that lie hidden in the periodic table. Their goal was to explain the table's structure in group-theoretical terms. We argue that this symmetry program required an important paradigm shift in the understanding of the nature of chemical elements. The (...) idea, in essence, consisted of treating the chemical elements, not as particles, but as states of a superparticle. We show that the inspiration for this came from elementary particle physics, and in particular from Heisenberg's suggestion to treat the proton and neutron as different states of the nucleon. We provide a careful study of Heisenberg's last paper on the nature of elementary particles, and explain why the Democritean picture of matter no longer applied in modern physics and a Platonic symmetry-based picture was called for instead. We show how Heisenberg's Platonic philosophy came to dominate the field of elementary particle physics, and how it found its culmination point in Gell-Mann's classification of the hadrons in the eightfold way. We argue that it was the success of Heisenberg's approach in elementary particle physics that sparked the group-theoretical approach to the periodic table. We explain how it was applied to the set of chemical elements via a critical examination of the work of the Russian mathematician Abram Ilyich Fet the Turkish-American physicist Asim Orhan Barut, before giving some final reflections. (shrink)
One of the ṣaḥābīs of Prophet Muḥammad is ʿUrwa b. Masʿūd from the Ṭāʾif tribe of Thaqīf. He belongs to the Ahlâf part of the Thaqīf tribe and he is the ruler of this part. ʿUrwa’s ancestry is known without any controversy until Kasî (Thaqīf). According to a narrative his epithet was Abū Yaʿfur and another of his epithet was Abū Masʿūd. Father of ʿUrwa an important person too. He is one of the leaders of his tribe and he commanded (...) his part (Aḥlāf) in wars of Fijār. Mother of ʿUrwa is Subay’a bt. ʿAbd Shams from Banū Umayya. In this way ʿUrwa has kinship both with Banū Umayya and Prophet Muḥammad. So ʿUrwa has a very important position because of his lineage, his mother and father. Thefore, his connections with Mecca and Quraysh strengthens his position. In our sources there is no information about his dates of birth and death. It is likely to be over middle age when he became a muslim, considering that he was the leader of his tribe and his son become a muslim after he died. There is too little information about weddings of ʿUrwa. According to narratives, he had ten wives before becoming Muslim. After becoming a Muslim Prophet Muḥammad warned from him to prefer four out of ten wives. One of his four wives is the daughter of Abū Sufyān. Howev-er, there is no information about the names of his wives. Names of his sons: ʿĀṣim, Abū Murra, Abū Mulayḥ, Dāwūd, Hammām and Hishām and names of his daughters: Umm Saʿīd (married with Ḥaẓrat ʿAlī) and Ḥalīma. We could see he served as embassy before the treaty of Hudaybiyah. His embassy duty shows us the superiority of his position. Also, this embassy duty was very effective at peace negotiations. He mentioned kinship relations which connects about Mecca. He said that it could be beneficial to talk to Prophet Muḥammad himself. The Meccans mentioned about their trust in ʿUrwa. During the time of his embassy, he expressed that both sides should be away from war. In this context, he told the Meccans: The people around Prophet Muḥammad are very loyal to him and he told to Prophet Muḥammad: People around him could disintegrate easily. This mission shows us he is intelligent, respectable and had high persuasion skills. ʿUrwa, observed loyalty of ṣaḥābīs to Prophet Muḥammad. He confessed this loyalty can not be for any ruler. This observa-tion probably affected ʿUrwa’s conversion to Islam. Because of the conquest of Meccah and the events that followed, the people of Ṭāʾif were very worried. Because of this reason people of Ṭāʾif took part in the side of Hawāzin’s and they bat-tled with Muslims. In this time they sent ʿUrwa b. Masʿūd and Ghaylān b. Salama to the city of D̲j̲aras̲h̲ of Yemen, to learn about some war machines and techniques. Therefore they did not join wars of Hunayn and Ṭāʾif. Prophet Muḥammad ended the siege of Ṭāʾif and went to Medina. Meanwhile, ʿUrwa and his friend returned from Yemen. According to narratives when the Prophet Muḥammad returned Medina or he was way in Medina ʿUrwa visited him and became Muslim. Some people tell about the date of ʿUrwa’s being Muslim at before or after Abū Bakr’s emirate of Hadj. However, when the narrations are examined, it can be said he became Muslim after four or five months from Prophet’s siege of Ṭāʾif and before three or four months from Tabūk expedition of Rabīʿ al-awwal or “Rabīʿ al-ākhir” (July or August) in the year 9/630. As for the conversion of ʿUrwa, basic sources report that “Allah, inspired Islam to the heart of ʿUrwa and he changed his situation. He went to the Messenger of Allah and he became Muslim.” They do not give a specific reason. But after this period the narratives tell the reason for ʿUrwa’s becoming a Muslim as due to an experience he had while travelling to Najrān for trade. In this travel, two mysterious young girls and the priest in Najrān said the last prophet came and ʿUrwa must be subject to him and ʿUrwa became Muslim after he returned. But this narrative is prob-lematic with regard to evidence and text. After being Muslim, ʿUrwa wanted permission from the Prophet to invite his tribe to accept Islam. The prophet did not want to accept this at first. Because the people of Ṭāʾif had an arro-gant stance against Islam, and he said that the people of Thaqīf could kill ʿUrwa. Eventually ʿUrwa went to his hometown with permission of Prophet and invited people to Islam and they did not accept this invitation and cursed ʿUrwa. The next morning ʿUrwa read adhan of fajr and people of Ṭāʾif killed him. ʿUrwa b. Masʿūd was likened to Prophet Jesus by the Prophet Muḥammad. It is generally accept-ed that ʿUrwa b. Masʿūd el-Thaqafī is “one of the biggest from two cities” expressed in sūra Zukhruf. Only two weak narrations were reported of Urwa who could live as a Muslim for a few days and was matyred by his tribe. (shrink)
This paper explore two topics namely qirā’at and tarannum and how they can be used as Islamic dakwah methods in modern era. Among the methods that are quite interesting is through reading the verses of the holy al-Qur’an with tarannum or intone reading the Qur’an. Intoning the reading of the Qur’an will be able to compensate the modern society that is infatuated in music and contemporary art. In line with the influence of globalization, reading the Qur’an experienced a paradigm shift. (...) While in the past, Muslims were accustomed to one type of reading, namely the reading of Imam ‘Āṣim transmitted by Ḥafṣ, then at this time, especially after globalization, the moslims community recognized other readings beside the transmission of Ḥafṣ, namely the reading contained in Qirā’at sevent’s Imams and Qirā’at Ten Imams. Both of these types of reading eventually become quite interesting trends to be learned. (shrink)
In this paper—dedicated to Prof. Asim O. Barut—we generalize the Diracnon-linear electrodynamics by introducing two potentials(namely, the vector potential A and the pseudo-vector potential γ5B of the electromagnetic theorywith charges and magnetic monopoles) and by imposing the pseudoscalar part of the product ωω* to be zero, with ω≡A+γ5B. We show that the field equations of such a theory possess a soliton-like solution which can representa priori a “charged particle,” since it is endowed with a Coulomb field plus the field (...) of a magneticdipole. The rest energy of the soliton is finite, and the angular momentum stored in its electromagnetic field can be identified—for suitable choices of the parameters—with the spin of the charged particle. Thus, this approach seems to yield a classical model for the charged (spinning) particle which does not encounter the problems met by earlier attempts in the same direction. (shrink)
Ant colony optimization, which is one of the metaheuristics imitating real ant foraging behavior, is an eﬀective method to ﬁnd a solution for the traveling salesman problem. The rank-based ant system has been proposed as a developed version of the fundamental model AS of ACO. In the ASrank, since only ant agents that have found one of some excellent solutions are let to regulate the pheromone, the pheromone concentrates on a specific route. As a result, although the ASrank can find (...) a relatively good solution in a short time, it has the disadvantage of being prone falling into a local solution because the pheromone concentrates on a specific route. This problem seems to come from the loss of diversity in route selection according to the rapid accumulation of pheromones to the specific routes. Some ACO models, not just the ASrank, also suffer from this problem of loss of diversity in route selection. It can be considered that the diversity of solutions as well as the selection of solutions is an important factor in the solution system by swarm intelligence such as ACO. In this paper, to solve this problem, we introduce the ant system using individual memories aiming to improve the ability to solve TSP while maintaining the diversity of the behavior of each ant. We apply the existing ACO algorithms and ASIM to some TSP benchmarks and compare the ability to solve TSP. (shrink)