Results for 'Associative Processes'

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  1. Schemata and Associative Processes in Pragmatics.Marco Mazzone - 2011 - Journal of Pragmatics 43 (8):2148-2159.
    The notion of schema has been given a major role by Recanati within his conception of primary pragmatic processes, conceived as a type of associative process. I intend to show that Recanati’s considerations on schemata may challenge the relevance theorist’s argument against associative explanations in pragmatics, and support an argument in favor of associative (versus inferential) explanations. More generally, associative relations can be shown to be schematic, that is, they have enough structure to license inferential (...)
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  2.  2
    Some Complications of Associative Processes.E. L. Thorndike - 1943 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 32 (6):501.
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    Retrieval Processes in Recognition Memory: Effects of Associative Context.Endel Tulving & Donald M. Thomson - 1971 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 87 (1):116.
  4. Rational Versus Associative Processes.Colin Allen - unknown
    It is widely accepted that many species of non-human animals appear to engage in transitive inference, producing appropriate responses to novel pairings of non-adjacent members of an ordered series without previous experience of these pairings. Some researchers have taken this capability as providing direct evidence that these animals reason. Others resist such declarations, favouring instead explanations in terms of associative conditioning. Associative accounts of transitive inference have been refined in application to a simple five-element learning task that is (...)
     
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  5.  35
    Associative Processes in Intuitive Judgment.Carey K. Morewedge & Daniel Kahneman - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (10):435-440.
  6. Associative Processes Controlling the Persistence of Operant Responding: S-S* and R-S.Roger L. Mellgren & Mark W. Olson - 1980 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 16 (4):279-282.
  7. Animal Intelligence: An Experimental Study of the Associative Processes in Animals.E. L. Thorndike - 1898 - Psychological Review 5 (5):551-553.
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  8. The Refractory Period in Associative Processes.E. L. Thorndike - 1927 - Psychological Review 34 (3):234-236.
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  9. Correlations Among Perceptive and Associative Processes.H. A. Aikens, E. L. Thorndike & Elizabeth Hubbell - 1902 - Psychological Review 9 (4):374-382.
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    Operating Principles Versus Operating Conditions in the Distinction Between Associative and Propositional Processes.Bertram Gawronski & Galen V. Bodenhausen - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (2):207-208.
    Drawing on our Associative-Propositional Evaluation (APE) Model, we argue for the usefulness of distinguishing between basic operating principles of learning processes (associative linking vs. propositional reasoning) and secondary features pertaining to the conditions of their operation (automatic vs. controlled). We review empirical evidence that supports the joint operation of associative and propositional processes in the formation of new associations.
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  11.  8
    Cognitive Processes in Associative and Categorical Priming: A Diffusion Model Analysis.Andreas Voss, Klaus Rothermund, Anne Gast & Dirk Wentura - 2013 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 142 (2):536.
  12.  1
    Search Processes for Associative Structures in Long-Term Memory.Richard C. Mohs, Keith T. Wescourt & Richard C. Atkinson - 1975 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 104 (2):103-121.
  13.  1
    Word Association Tests of Associative Memory and Implicit Processes: Theoretical and Assessment Issues.Alan W. Stacy, Susan L. Ames & J. Grenard - 2006 - In Reinout W. Wiers & Alan W. Stacy (eds.), Handbook of Implicit Cognition and Addiction. Sage Publications. pp. 75--90.
  14. The Kamin Effect as a Function of Time of Training and Associative-Nonassociative Processes.Jeffrey A. Seybert, Mark A. Wilson & Alan L. Archer - 1982 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 19 (4):227-230.
  15. The Self-Organizing Consciousness.Pierre Perruchet & Annie Vinter - 2002 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (3):297-388.
    We propose that the isomorphism generally observed between the representations composing our momentary phenomenal experience and the structure of the world is the end-product of a progressive organization that emerges thanks to elementary associative processes that take our conscious representations themselves as the stuff on which they operate, a thesis that we summarize in the concept of Self-Organizing Consciousness (SOC). Key Words: Associative learning; automatism; consciousness; development; implicit learning; incubation; language; mental representation; perception; phenomenal experience.
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  16.  17
    Event-Related Brain Correlates of Associative Learning Without Awareness.Philip S. Wong, Edward Bernat, Michael Snodgrass & Howard Shevrin - 2004 - International Journal of Psychophysiology 53 (3):217-231.
  17.  35
    The Propositional Nature of Human Associative Learning.Chris J. Mitchell, Jan De Houwer & Peter F. Lovibond - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (2):183-198.
    The past 50 years have seen an accumulation of evidence suggesting that associative learning depends on high-level cognitive processes that give rise to propositional knowledge. Yet, many learning theorists maintain a belief in a learning mechanism in which links between mental representations are formed automatically. We characterize and highlight the differences between the propositional and link approaches, and review the relevant empirical evidence. We conclude that learning is the consequence of propositional reasoning processes that cooperate with the (...)
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  18.  2
    Learning During Processing: Word Learning Doesn't Wait for Word Recognition to Finish.Keith S. Apfelbaum & Bob McMurray - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (8).
    Previous research on associative learning has uncovered detailed aspects of the process, including what types of things are learned, how they are learned, and where in the brain such learning occurs. However, perceptual processes, such as stimulus recognition and identification, take time to unfold. Previous studies of learning have not addressed when, during the course of these dynamic recognition processes, learned representations are formed and updated. If learned representations are formed and updated while recognition is ongoing, the (...)
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  19. The Empirical Case for Two Systems of Reasoning.Steven A. Sloman - 1996 - Psychological Bulletin 119 (1):3-22.
    Distinctions have been proposed between systems of reasoning for centuries. This article distills properties shared by many of these distinctions and characterizes the resulting systems in light of recent findings and theoretical developments. One system is associative because its computations reflect similarity structure and relations of temporal contiguity. The other is "rule based" because it operates on symbolic structures that have logical content and variables and because its computations have the properties that are normally assigned to rules. The systems (...)
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  20. In Two Minds: Dual Processes and Beyond.Keith Frankish & Jonathan St B. T. Evans (eds.) - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
    This book explores the idea that we have two minds - automatic, unconscious, and fast, the other controlled, conscious, and slow. In recent years there has been great interest in so-called dual-process theories of reasoning and rationality. According to such theories, there are two distinct systems underlying human reasoning - an evolutionarily old system that is associative, automatic, unconscious, parallel, and fast, and a more recent, distinctively human system that is rule-based, controlled, conscious, serial, and slow. Within the former, (...)
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  21.  51
    Can Amnesic Patients Learn Without Awareness? New Evidence Comparing Deterministic and Probabilistic Sequence Learning.Muriel Vandenberghe, Nicolas Schmidt, Patrick Fery & Axel Cleeremans - 2006 - Neuropsychologia 44 (10):1629-1641.
    Can associative learning take place without awareness? We explore this issue in a sequence learning paradigm with amnesic and control participants, who were simply asked to react to one of four possible stimuli on each trial. Unknown to them, successive stimuli occurred in a sequence. We manipulated the extent to which stimuli followed the sequence in a deterministic manner (noiseless condition) or only probabilistically so (noisy condition). Through this paradigm, we aimed at addressing two central issues: first, we asked (...)
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  22.  27
    Partial Blocking and Associative Learning.Anton Benz - 2006 - Linguistics and Philosophy 29 (5):587 - 615.
    We are going to explain partial blocking as the result of diachronic processes based on what we will call associative learning. Especially, we argue that the task posed by partial blocking phenomena is to explain their emergence from unambiguous and fully expressive languages. This contrasts with approaches that presuppose underspecified semantic meanings or ineffability like Bidirectional Optimality Theory (Bi–OT) and some game theoretic explanations. We introduce a formal framework based on learning, speaker’s preferences and pure semantics for describing (...)
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    Dual Psychological Processes Underlying Public Stigma and the Implications for Reducing Stigma.D. Reeder Glenn & B. Pryor John - 2008 - Mens Sana Monographs 6 (1):175-186.
    People with serious illness or disability are often burdened with social stigma that promotes a cycle of poverty via unemployment, inadequate housing and threats to mental health. Stigma may be conceptualized in terms of self-stigma or public stigma . This article examines two psychological processes that underlie public stigma: associative processes and rule-based processes. Associative processes are quick and relatively automatic whereas rule-based processes take longer to manifest themselves and involve deliberate thinking. (...) and rule-based thinking require different assessment instruments, follow a different time course and lead to different effects . Of greatest importance is the fact that each process may require a different stigma-prevention strategy. (shrink)
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  24. Visual Orienting, Learning and Conscious Awareness.T. Lambert - 2003 - In Luis Jimenez (ed.), Attention and Implicit Learning. John Benjamins.
  25.  1
    Reasoning About Relations.Geoffrey P. Goodwin & Philip Johnson-Laird - 2005 - Psychological Review 112 (2):468-493.
    Inferences about spatial, temporal, and other relations are ubiquitous. This article presents a novel model-based theory of such reasoning. The theory depends on 5 principles. The structure of mental models is iconic as far as possible. The logical consequences of relations emerge from models constructed from the meanings of the relations and from knowledge. Individuals tend to construct only a single, typical model. They spontaneously develop their own strategies for relational reasoning. Regardless of strategy, the difficulty of an inference depends (...)
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  26. Using the Implicit Association Test Does Not Rule Out an Impact of Conscious Propositional Knowledge on Evaluative Conditioning.Jan de Houwer - 2006 - Learning and Motivation 37 (2):176-187.
  27.  14
    How the Hierarchical Organization of the Brain and Increasing Cognitive Abilities May Result in Consciousness.B. M. Spruijt - 2001 - Animal Welfare Supplement 10:77- 87.
  28.  2
    Effect of Overlearning of a Verbal Response on Transfer of Training.George Mandler & Shirley H. Heinemann - 1956 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 52 (1):39.
  29. Unconscious Responses to "Mommy and I Are One": Does Gender Matter?Staffan Sohlberg & Billy Jansson - 2002 - In Robert F. Bornstein & Joseph M. Masling (eds.), The Psychodynamics of Gender and Gender Role. Empirical Studies in Psychoanalytic Theories, Vol. 10. American Psychological Association. pp. 165-201.
  30.  32
    Beyond Dual-Process Models: A Categorisation of Processes Underlying Intuitive Judgement and Decision Making.Cilia Witteman & Andreas Glöckner - 2011 - Thinking and Reasoning 16 (1):1-25.
    Intuitive-automatic processes are crucial for making judgements and decisions. The fascinating complexity of these processes has attracted many decision researchers, prompting them to start investigating intuition empirically and to develop numerous models. Dual-process models assume a clear distinction between intuitive and deliberate processes but provide no further differentiation within both categories. We go beyond these models and argue that intuition is not a homogeneous concept, but a label used for different cognitive mechanisms. We suggest that these mechanisms (...)
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  31.  67
    Beyond Dual-Process Models: A Categorisation of Processes Underlying Intuitive Judgement and Decision Making.Andreas Glöckner & Cilia Witteman - 2010 - Thinking and Reasoning 16 (1):1 – 25.
    Intuitive-automatic processes are crucial for making judgements and decisions. The fascinating complexity of these processes has attracted many decision researchers, prompting them to start investigating intuition empirically and to develop numerous models. Dual-process models assume a clear distinction between intuitive and deliberate processes but provide no further differentiation within both categories. We go beyond these models and argue that intuition is not a homogeneous concept, but a label used for different cognitive mechanisms. We suggest that these mechanisms (...)
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  32.  10
    Crossing the Associative/Inferential Divide: Ad Hoc Concepts and the Inferential Power of Schemata.Marco Mazzone - 2014 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 5 (4):583-599.
    How do we construct ad hoc concepts, especially those characterised by emergent properties? A reasonable hypothesis, suggested both in psychology and in pragmatics , is that some sort of inferential processing must be involved. I argue that this inferential processing can be accounted for in associative terms. My argument is based on the notion of inference as associative pattern completion based on schemata, with schemata being conceived in turn as patterns of concepts and their relationships. The possible role (...)
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  33.  17
    The Transition to Experiencing: II. The Evolution of Associative Learning Based on Feelings.Simona Ginsburg & Eva Jablonka - 2007 - Biological Theory 2 (3):231-243.
    We discuss the evolutionary transition from animals with limited experiencing to animals with unlimited experiencing and basic consciousness. This transition was, we suggest, intimately linked with the evolution of associative learning and with flexible reward systems based on, and modifiable by, learning. During associative learning, new pathways relating stimuli and effects are formed within a highly integrated and continuously active nervous system. We argue that the memory traces left by such new stimulus-effect relations form dynamic, flexible, and varied (...)
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  34.  16
    Synthetic Semiotics: On Modelling and Simulating the Emergence of Sign Processes.Angelo Loula & Joao Queiroz - unknown
    Based on formal-theoretical principles about the sign processes involved, we have built synthetic experiments to investigate the emergence of communication based on symbols and indexes in a distributed system of sign users, following theoretical constraints from C.S.Peirce theory of signs, following a Synthetic Semiotics approach. In this paper, we summarize these computational experiments and results regarding associative learning processes of symbolic sign modality and cognitive conditions in an evolutionary process for the emergence of either symbol-based or index-based (...)
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    Associative Learning: A Generalisation Too Far.Martin Redington - 2002 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (3):351-352.
    I argue that Perruchet & Vinter's claim that representations are conscious, and processes unconscious, gives too much ground to the cognitive unconscious; and that the boundary between conscious and unconscious mental phenomena is unlikely to fall neatly along these lines. I also propose that in the absence of more detailed models that demonstrably provide a reasonable account of the data, claims that associative mechanisms may underlie all cognition are premature.
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  36. Out of Control: An Associative Account of Congruency Effects in Sequence Learning.Tom Beesley, Fergal W. Jones & David R. Shanks - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):413-421.
    The demonstration of a sequential congruency effect in sequence learning has been offered as evidence for control processes that act to inhibit automatic response tendencies via unconscious conflict monitoring. Here we propose an alternative interpretation of this effect based on the associative learning of chains of sequenced contingencies. This account is supported by simulations with a Simple Recurrent Network, an associative model of sequence learning. We argue that the control- and associative-based accounts differ in their predictions (...)
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  37. Why Private Events Are Associative: Automatic Chaining and Associationism.Robert Epstein - 2008 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 29 (3):269-282.
    That every response is also a stimulus has important implications for how we characterize the private experiences of both people and non-human animals. Acting as stimuli, responses, whether covert or overt, change the probability of subsequent responses. Hence, all behavior, covert and overt, is necessarily associative in some sense, and thinking may be characterized as “covert autochaining.” According to this view, animals capable of responding to temporally remote stimuli and to characteristics of their own bodies necessarily engage in some (...)
     
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  38.  18
    Beyond Potentiation: Synergistic Conditioning in Flavor-Aversion Learning. [REVIEW] Batsell Jr & Aaron G. Blankenship - 2002 - Brain and Mind 3 (3):383-408.
    Taste-aversion learning has been a popular paradigm for examining associative processes because it often produces outcomes that are different from those observed in other classical conditioning paradigms. One such outcome is taste-mediated odor potentiation in which aversion conditioning with a weak odor and a strong taste results in increased or synergistic conditioning to the odor. Because this strengthened odor aversion was not anticipated by formal models of learning, investigation of taste-mediated odor potentiation was a hot topic in the (...)
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    Beyond Potentiation: Synergistic Conditioning in Flavor-Aversion Learning. [REVIEW]W. Robert Batsell Jr & Aaron G. Blankenship - 2002 - Brain and Mind 3 (3):383-408.
    Taste-aversion learning has been a popular paradigm for examining associative processes because it often produces outcomes that are different from those observed in other classical conditioning paradigms. One such outcome is taste-mediated odor potentiation in which aversion conditioning with a weak odor and a strong taste results in increased or synergistic conditioning to the odor. Because this strengthened odor aversion was not anticipated by formal models of learning, investigation of taste-mediated odor potentiation was a hot topic in the (...)
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    Beyond Potentiation: Synergistic Conditioning in Flavor-Aversion Learning. [REVIEW]W. Robert Batsell & Aaron G. Blankenship - 2002 - Brain and Mind 3 (3):383-408.
    Taste-aversion learning has been a popular paradigm for examining associative processes because it often produces outcomes that are different from those observed in other classical conditioning paradigms. One such outcome is taste-mediated odor potentiation in which aversion conditioning with a weak odor and a strong taste results in increased or synergistic conditioning to the odor. Because this strengthened odor aversion was not anticipated by formal models of learning, investigation of taste-mediated odor potentiation was a hot topic in the (...)
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  41.  40
    Base-Rate Respect: From Ecological Rationality to Dual Processes.Aron K. Barbey & Steven A. Sloman - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (3):241-254.
    The phenomenon of base-rate neglect has elicited much debate. One arena of debate concerns how people make judgments under conditions of uncertainty. Another more controversial arena concerns human rationality. In this target article, we attempt to unpack the perspectives in the literature on both kinds of issues and evaluate their ability to explain existing data and their conceptual coherence. From this evaluation we conclude that the best account of the data should be framed in terms of a dual-process model of (...)
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  42.  92
    Theory of Mind in Nonhuman Primates.C. M. Heyes - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (1):101-114.
    Since the BBS article in which Premack and Woodruff (1978) asked “Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind?,” it has been repeatedly claimed that there is observational and experimental evidence that apes have mental state concepts, such as “want” and “know.” Unlike research on the development of theory of mind in childhood, however, no substantial progress has been made through this work with nonhuman primates. A survey of empirical studies of imitation, self-recognition, social relationships, deception, role-taking, and perspective-taking suggests (...)
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  43.  84
    A Model of Heuristic Judgment.Daniel Kahneman & Shane Frederick - 2005 - In K. Holyoak & B. Morrison (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning. Cambridge University Press. pp. 267--293.
    The program of research now known as the heuristics and biases approach began with a study of the statistical intuitions of experts, who were found to be excessively confident in the replicability of results from small samples. The persistence of such systematic errors in the intuitions of experts implied that their intuitive judgments may be governed by fundamentally different processes than the slower, more deliberate computations they had been trained to execute. The ancient idea that cognitive processes can (...)
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  44.  7
    Integrating the Automatic and the Controlled: Strategies in Semantic Priming in an Attractor Network With Latching Dynamics.Itamar Lerner, Shlomo Bentin & Oren Shriki - 2014 - Cognitive Science 38 (8):1562-1603.
    Semantic priming has long been recognized to reflect, along with automatic semantic mechanisms, the contribution of controlled strategies. However, previous theories of controlled priming were mostly qualitative, lacking common grounds with modern mathematical models of automatic priming based on neural networks. Recently, we introduced a novel attractor network model of automatic semantic priming with latching dynamics. Here, we extend this work to show how the same model can also account for important findings regarding controlled processes. Assuming the rate of (...)
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  45.  20
    Language at Three Timescales: The Role of Real‐Time Processes in Language Development and Evolution.Bob McMurray - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (2):393-407.
    Evolutionary developmental systems theory stresses that selection pressures operate on entire developmental systems rather than just genes. This study extends this approach to language evolution, arguing that selection pressure may operate on two quasi-independent timescales. First, children clearly must acquire language successfully and evolution must equip them with the tools to do so. Second, while this is developing, they must also communicate with others in the moment using partially developed knowledge. These pressures may require different solutions, and their combination may (...)
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    Dissociation of Processes Underlying Spatial S-R Compatibility: Evidence for the Independent Influence of What and Where.Jeffrey P. Toth, Brian Levine, Donald T. Stuss, Alfred Oh, Gordon Winocur & Nachshon Meiran - 1995 - Consciousness and Cognition 4 (4):483-501.
    The process-dissociation procedure was used to estimate the influence of spatial and form-based processing in the Simon task. Subjects made manual responses to the direction of arrows . The results provide evidence that the form and spatial location of a single stimulus can have functionally independent effects on performance. They also indicate the existence of two kinds of automaticity—an associative component that reflects prior S-R mappings and a nonassociative component that reflects the correspondence between stimulus and response codes.
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  47.  26
    The Associative Nature of Human Associative Learning.David R. Shanks - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (2):225-226.
    The extent to which human learning should be thought of in terms of elementary, automatic versus controlled, cognitive processes is unresolved after nearly a century of often fierce debate. Mitchell et al. provide a persuasive review of evidence against automatic, unconscious links. Indeed, unconscious processes seem to play a negligible role in any form of learning, not just in Pavlovian conditioning. But a modern connectionist framework, in which phenomena are emergent properties, is likely to offer a fuller account (...)
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    Associative Learning and Pain? Why Stop There?Marcus Munafo' - 1997 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (3):459-460.
    It is argued by berkley that there are theoretical reasons why sex differences in pain may result from specific learning processes. I argue that Berkley has not gone far enough in pursuing this suggestion, and that the evidence that learning is a major determinant of pain behaviour is substantial. Moreover, sex differences in pain may represent only a special case of individual differences in pain resulting from learning processes.
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  49. Attitude, Inference, Association: On the Propositional Structure of Implicit Bias.Eric Mandelbaum - 2016 - Noûs 50 (3):629-658.
    The overwhelming majority of those who theorize about implicit biases posit that these biases are caused by some sort of association. However, what exactly this claim amounts to is rarely specified. In this paper, I distinguish between different understandings of association, and I argue that the crucial senses of association for elucidating implicit bias are the cognitive structure and mental process senses. A hypothesis is subsequently derived: if associations really underpin implicit biases, then implicit biases should be modulated by counterconditioning (...)
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  50. The Sensory Core and the Medieval Foundations of Early Modern Perceptual Theory.Gary Hatfield & William Epstein - 1979 - Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 70 (3):363-384.
    This article seeks the origin, in the theories of Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), Descartes, and Berkeley, of two-stage theories of spatial perception, which hold that visual perception involves both an immediate representation of the proximal stimulus in a two-dimensional ‘‘sensory core’’ and also a subsequent perception of the three dimensional world. The works of Ibn al-Haytham, Descartes, and Berkeley already frame the major theoretical options that guided visual theory into the twentieth century. The field of visual perception was the first area (...)
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