Results for 'Assurance'

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  1. Assurance and Warrant.Edward Hinchman - 2014 - Philosophers' Imprint 14:1-58.
    Previous assurance-theoretic treatments of testimony have not adequately explained how the transmission of warrant depends specifically on the speaker’s mode of address – making it natural to suspect that the interpersonal element is not epistemic but merely psychological or action-theoretic. I aim to fill that explanatory gap: to specify exactly how a testifier’s assurance can create genuine epistemic warrant. In doing so I explain (a) how the illocutionary norm governing the speech act proscribes not lies but a species (...)
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  2.  34
    Assurance: An Austinian View of Knowledge and Knowledge Claims.Krista Lawlor - 2013 - Oxford University Press.
    What is an assurance? What do we do when we claim to know? Krista Lawlor offers an original account based on the work of J. L. Austin. She addresses challenges to contextualist semantic theories; resolves closure-based skeptical paradoxes; and helps us tread the line between acknowledging our fallibility and skepticism.
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  3.  55
    Assurance Services for Sustainability Reports: Standards and Empirical Evidence. [REVIEW]Giacomo Manetti & Lucia Becatti - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 87 (1):289 - 298.
    This article contributes to the growing scholarship on the topic of assurance services for sustainability reports. We first synthetically illustrate the main international standards for the implementation of assurance services regarding the subject documents. The second part of our article is an empirical analysis of reports drawn up on the basis of the current Global Reporting Initiative 2006 guidelines, and looks at how effectively these standards have been implemented, analyzing the different typologies of assurance statement.
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  4. Assure and Threaten.David Gauthier - 1994 - Ethics 104 (4):690-721.
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  5. The Assurance View of Testimony.Frederick F. Schmitt - 2010 - In Adrian Haddock, Alan Millar & Duncan Pritchard (eds.), Social Epistemology. Oxford University Press. pp. 216--242.
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  6.  13
    Sustainability Assurance and Cost of Capital: Does Assurance Impact on Credibility of Corporate Social Responsibility Information?Jennifer Martínez-Ferrero & Isabel-María García-Sánchez - 2017 - Business Ethics: A European Review 26 (3):223-239.
    This paper aims to examine the credibility value of sustainability assurance and the type of assurance provider on cost of capital. A large sample of international companies from the period 2007–2014 was used to develop our models of analysis. We find a greater decrease in cost of capital for companies that publish and assure their social and environmental reports. Thus, voluntary sustainability disclosures decrease the cost of capital. However, companies also have the opportunity to reinforce this decrease by (...)
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  7.  38
    Sustainability Reporting and Assurance: A Historical Analysis on a World-Wide Phenomenon.Renzo Mori Junior, Peter J. Best & Julie Cotter - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 120 (1):1-11.
    Sustainability reporting and assurance of sustainability reports have been used by organizations in an attempt to provide accountability to their stakeholders. A better understanding of current practices is important to provide a base for comparative and trend analyses. This paper aims to consolidate and provide information on sustainability reporting, assurance of sustainability reports and types of assurance providers. Another aim of this paper is to provide a descriptive analysis of these practices for a global sample, comparing results (...)
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  8.  63
    Transparency and Assurance Minding the Credibility Gap.Nicole Dando & Tracey Swift - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 44 (2/3):195 - 200.
    There is a growing realisation that the current upward trend in levels of disclosure of social, ethical and environmental performance by corporations and other organisations is not being accompanied by simultaneous greater levels of public trust. Low levels of confidence in the information communicated in public reporting is probably undermining the impetus for this disclosure. This article suggests that this credibility gap can be narrowed through the use of third party independent assurance. However, this is not an unqualified panacea. (...)
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  9. Quality Assurance in Legal Translation: Evaluating Process, Competence and Product in the Pursuit of Adequacy.Fernando Prieto Ramos - 2015 - International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 28 (1):11-30.
    Building on a functionalist framework for decision-making in legal translation, a holistic approach to quality is presented in order to respond to the specificities of this field and overcome the shortcomings of general models of translation quality evaluation. The proposed approach connects legal, contextual, macrotextual and microtextual variables for the definition of the translation adequacy strategy, which guides problem-solving and the rest of the translation process. The same parameters remain traceable between the translation brief and the translation product both in (...)
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  10.  66
    Intellectual Assurance: Essays on Traditional Epistemic Internalism.Brett Coppenger & Michael Bergmann (eds.) - 2016 - Oxford University Press.
    Ordinarily, people take themselves to know a lot. I know where I was born, I know that I have two hands, I know that two plus two equals four, and I also think I know a lot of other stuff too. However, the project of trying to provide a philosophically satisfying account of knowledge, one that holds up against skeptical challenges, has proven surprisingly difficult. Either one aims for an account of justification (and knowledge) that is epistemologically demanding, in an (...)
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  11. A Conceptual Framework for Investigating ‘Capture’ in Corporate Sustainability Reporting Assurance.John Smith, Ros Haniffa & Jenny Fairbrass - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 99 (3):425-439.
    The assurance of corporate sustainability reporting has long been a controversial field. Corporate management and assurance providers are routinely accused of 'capturing' what should be an exercise in public accountability. This article responds to recent calls for an analysis of the process by which Capture' takes place. Integrating elements of neo-institutional theory and the arena concept, the article sets out a fresh conceptual framework for investigating the dynamics of the interactions between the various bodies active in the (...) field in the UK. (shrink)
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  12. Promises Beyond Assurance.Nicholas Southwood & Daniel Friedrich - 2009 - Philosophical Studies 144 (2):261 - 280.
    Breaking a promise is generally taken to involve committing a certain kind of moral wrong, but what (if anything) explains this wrong? According to one influential theory that has been championed most recently by T.M. Scanlon, the wrong involved in breaking a promise is a matter of violating an obligation that one incurs to a promisee in virtue of giving her assurance that one will perform or refrain from performing certain acts. In this paper, we argue that the “ (...) View”, as we call it, is susceptible to two kinds of counterexamples. The first show that giving assurance is not sufficient for incurring the kind of obligation of fulfillment that one violates in breaking a promise. The second show that giving assurance is not necessary. Having shown that the Assurance View fails in these ways, we then very briefly sketch the outline of what we take to be a better view—a view that we claim is not only attractive in its own right and that avoids the earlier counterexamples, but that also affords us a deeper explanation of why the Assurance View seems initially plausible, yet nonetheless turns out to be ultimately inadequate. (shrink)
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  13.  40
    Ethical Assurance Statements in Political Science Journals.Sara R. Jordan & Kim Q. Hill - 2012 - Journal of Academic Ethics 10 (3):243-250.
    Many journals in the physical sciences require authors to submit assurances of compliance with human subjects and other research ethics standards. These requirements do not cover all disciplines equally, however. In this paper we report on the findings of a survey of perceptions of ethical and managerial problems from journal editors in political science and related disciplines. Our results show that few journals in political science require assurance statements common to journals for other scientific disciplines. We offer some reasons (...)
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  14. Rawls, Self-Respect, and Assurance: How Past Injustice Changes What Publicly Counts as Justice.Timothy Waligore - 2016 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 15 (1):42-66.
    This article adapts John Rawls’s writings, arguing that past injustice can change what we ought to publicly affirm as the standard of justice today. My approach differs from forward-looking approaches based on alleviating prospective disadvantage and backward-looking historical entitlement approaches. In different contexts, Rawls’s own concern for the ‘social bases of self-respect’ and equal citizenship may require public endorsement of different principles or specifications of the standard of justice. Rawls’s difference principle focuses on the least advantaged socioeconomic group. I argue (...)
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  15. Assuring, Threatening, a Fully Maximizing Theory of Practical Rationality, and the Practical Duties of Agents.Duncan MacIntosh - 2013 - Ethics 123 (4):625-656.
    Theories of practical rationality say when it is rational to form and fulfill intentions to do actions. David Gauthier says the correct theory would be the one our obeying would best advance the aim of rationality, something Humeans take to be the satisfaction of one’s desires. I use this test to evaluate the received theory and Gauthier’s 1984 and 1994 theories. I find problems with the theories and then offer a theory superior by Gauthier’s test and immune to the problems. (...)
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  16.  81
    Assuring Adequate Protections in International Health Research: A Principled Justification and Practical Recommendations for the Role of Community Oversight.D. Buchanan, S. Sifunda, N. Naidoo, S. James & P. Reddy - 2008 - Public Health Ethics 1 (3):246-257.
    The analysis presented here lays out the ethical warrants for requiring community oversight of health research conducted in international settings. It reviews the inadequacies with the current standards of individual informed consent and research ethics committee review, and then, shows how a broader population-based public health perspective raises new demands on justice involving due consideration of the rights, harms and benefits to the community as a whole. As developed here, an ethical standard that requires community oversight of health research is (...)
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  17.  67
    The Assurance of Faith.Nicholas Wolterstorff - 1990 - Faith and Philosophy 7 (4):396-417.
    In this paper I discuss an issue concerning how faith ought to be held. Traditionally there have been those who contended that faith should be held with full certainty, with great firmness. John Calvin is an example. John Locke offered both epistemological and pragmatic considerations in favor of the view that faith should be held with distinctly less than maximal firmness. He proposed a Principle of Proportionality. I assess the tenability of Locke’s proposal-while also suggesting that Calvin’s position is different (...)
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  18. The Assurance View of Testimony.Matthew Weiner - manuscript
    This essay critically examines the Assurance View of testimony as put forth by Angus Ross (1986) and Richard Moran (1999). The Assurance View holds that someone who offers testimony gives the hearer a non-evidential justification for belief by assuming responsibility for the truth of her testimony. I agree that testimonial justification depends on the teller’s assumption of her responsibility for her testimony, but argue that it is nevertheless evidential justification. Testimonial justification is a sort of evidence that is (...)
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  19.  13
    Assuring the Quality of Medical Care: The Impact of Outcome Measurement and Practice Standards.Maxwell J. Mehlman - 1990 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 18 (4):368-384.
  20.  8
    Assuring the Quality of Medical Care: The Impact of Outcome Measurement and Practice Standards.Maxwell J. Mehlman - 1990 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 18 (4):368-384.
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  21.  14
    The Level of Sustainability Assurance: The Effects of Brand Reputation and Industry Specialisation of Assurance Providers.Jennifer Martínez-Ferrero & Isabel-María García-Sánchez - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 150 (4):971-990.
    This research focuses on examining the relationship between some attributes of assurance providers and the level of sustainability assurance. By using the propensity to issue negative conclusions in the assurance statement as an indicator of the level of assurance, we examine whether the brand name and industry specialisation of the practitioners have an impact on the assurance opinion issued. Using an international sample of 1233 firm-year observations over the period 2007–2014, the findings document the impact (...)
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  22.  11
    Ethical Issues in the Assurance of Sustainability Reports: Perspectives From Assurance Providers.Olivier Boiral, Iñaki Heras-Saizarbitoria, Marie-Christine Brotherton & Julie Bernard - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 159 (4):1111-1125.
    The objective of this paper is to investigate, through a qualitative study based on 38 semi-structured interviews with agents who provide assurance of sustainability reports, how they perceive and manage ethical issues underlying the verification of sustainability reports. Most of the ethical issues observed involve four interconnected aspects: the commercialism underlying sustainability assurance, the symbolic nature of the verification process, interdependency between auditing and consulting activities, and familiarity with the audited companies. The findings shed light on the reflexivity (...)
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  23. Acquaintance and Assurance.Nathan Ballantyne - 2012 - Philosophical Studies 161 (3):421-431.
    I criticize Richard Fumerton’s fallibilist acquaintance theory of noninferential justification.
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  24.  3
    Assuring Quality for the Future.Valerye M. Milleson & Claire I. Horner - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (3):54-55.
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  25.  65
    Multinationals' Accountability on Sustainability: The Evolution of Third-Party Assurance of Sustainability Reports. [REVIEW]Paolo Perego & Ans Kolk - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 110 (2):173-190.
    In this article we explore how multinational corporations (MNCs) adopt assurance practices to develop and sustain organizational accountability for sustainability. Using a panel of Fortune Global 250 firms over a period of 10 years, we document the diffusion patterns of third-party assurance of sustainability reports. We specifically investigate how evolving auditing practices, namely diversity of assurance standards and type of assurance providers, shape the quality of sustainability assurance statements. The results illustrate great variability in the (...)
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  26. Should CSR Give Atheists Epistemic Assurance? On Beer-Goggles, BFFs, and Skepticism Regarding Religious Beliefs.Justin L. Barrett & Ian M. Church - 2013 - The Monist 96 (3):311-324.
    Recent work in cognitive science of religion (CSR) is beginning to converge on a very interesting thesis—that, given the ordinary features of human minds operating in typical human environments, we are naturally disposed to believe in the existence of gods, among other religious ideas (e.g., seeAtran [2002], Barrett [2004; 2012], Bering [2011], Boyer [2001], Guthrie [1993], McCauley [2011], Pyysiäinen [2004; 2009]). In this paper, we explore whether such a discovery ultimately helps or hurts the atheist position—whether, for example, it lends (...)
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  27.  22
    Safety Assurance of Foods: Risk Management Depends on Good Science but It is Not a Scientific Activity. [REVIEW]Beniamino T. Cenci Goga & Francesca Clementi - 2002 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 15 (3):303-313.
    We make many decisions in our livesand we weigh the benefits against thedrawbacks. Our decisions are based on whatbenefits are most important to us and whatdrawbacks we are willing to accept. Decisionsabout what we eat are made in the same way; butwhen it comes to safety, our decisions areusually made more carefully. Food containsnatural chemicals and it can come into contactwith many natural and artificial substancesduring harvest, production, processing, andpreparation. They include microorganisms,chemicals, either naturally present or producedby cooking, environmental contaminants, (...)
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  28.  51
    Assertion and Assurance: Some Empirical Evidence.John Turri - 2015 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 90 (1):214-222.
    I report three experiments relevant to evaluating Krista Lawlor's theory of assurance, respond to her criticism of the knowledge account of assertion, and propose an alternative theory of assurance.
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  29.  59
    The Role of Stakeholders in Sustainability Reporting Assurance.Giacomo Manetti & Simone Toccafondi - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 107 (3):363-377.
    The main purpose of this exploratory analysis is to understand whether, based on evidence gathered from international best practices selected among corporations which adopt the Global Reporting Initiative guidelines in sustainability reporting (SR), stakeholders are significantly consulted and involved—as international literature would indicate—by assurance providers, during assurance processes of SR. We aim at verifying if this practice—known as stakeholder assurance—is in fact widespread in SR assurance by carrying out empirical research, through content analysis, into a sample (...)
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  30.  36
    Making the Grade: Assuring Trustworthiness in Evidence.Ross Upshur - 2009 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 52 (2):264-275.
  31.  6
    Quality Assurance 1992–2012.Roger Brown - 2011 - Perspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education:1-5.
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  32. Assurance Views of Testimony.Philip J. Nickel - 2019 - In P. J. Graham M. Fricker (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Social Epistemology. pp. 96-102.
    Assurance theories of testimony attempt to explain what is distinctive about testimony as a form of epistemic warrant or justification. The most characteristic assurance theories hold that a distinctive subclass of assertion (acts of “telling”) involves a real commitment given by the speaker to the listener, somewhat like a promise to the effect that what is asserted is true. This chapter sympathetically explains what is attractive about such theories: instead of treating testimony as essentially similar to any other (...)
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  33.  13
    The Role of Sustainability Performance and Accounting Assurors in Sustainability Assurance Engagements.Katrin Hummel, Christian Schlick & Matthias Fifka - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 154 (3):733-757.
    Research on sustainability assurance is still in its beginnings. One of the key questions in this field that also is of the highest practical relevance is concerned with the quality of the assurance process. However, a common understanding of assurance quality and how it should be measured is still missing. We try to close this gap by building on the financial audit literature. We introduce a definition of assurance quality that comprises two key aspects: the depth (...)
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  34.  1
    Assurance of Corporate Social Responsibility Reports: Does It Reduce Decoupling Practices?Isabel-María García-Sánchez, Nazim Hussain, Cristina Aibar-Guzmán & Beatriz Aibar-Guzmán - forthcoming - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility.
    Business Ethics, the Environment & Responsibility, EarlyView.
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  35.  19
    “On the Risks of Resting Assured: An Assurance Theory of Trust”.Edward Hinchman - 2017 - In Paul Faulkner & Thomas W. Simpson (eds.), The Philosophy of Trust. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    An assurance theory of trust begins from the act of assurance – whether testimonial, advisorial or promissory – and explains trust as a cognate stance of resting assured. My version emphasizes the risks and rewards of trust. On trust’s rewards, I show how an assurance can give a reason to the addressee through a twofold exercise of ‘normative powers’: (i) the speaker thereby incurs an obligation to be sincere; (ii) if the speaker is trustworthy, she thereby gives (...)
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  36. Why Hobbes' State of Nature is Best Modeled by an Assurance Game.Michael Moehler - 2009 - Utilitas 21 (3):297-326.
    In this article, I argue that if one closely follows Hobbes' line of reasoning in Leviathan, in particular his distinction between the second and the third law of nature, and the logic of his contractarian theory, then Hobbes' state of nature is best translated into the language of game theory by an assurance game, and not by a one-shot or iterated prisoner's dilemma game, nor by an assurance dilemma game. Further, I support Hobbes' conclusion that the sovereign must (...)
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  37.  44
    Reflective Knowledge and Intellectual Assurance.Richard Fumerton - 2011 - International Journal for the Study of Skepticism 1 (2):113-123.
    In this discussion of Sosa's second volume on reflective knowledge, I focus on the question of whether Sosa's account of knowledge is flawed for failing to capture a connection between possessing knowledge and gaining assurance of truth. In particular, I worry that if there is no more to reflective knowledge than apt belief about apt belief, where the understanding of aptness is the same at both the first and the second level, Sosa hasn't given us a way of gaining (...)
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  38.  12
    Leibniz : assurance, risque et mortalité.Jean-Marc Rohrbasser - 2007 - Astérion 5.
    Dès 1678, Leibniz, dans plusieurs manuscrits, propose la fondation d’une caisse d’assurance. Il évoque également un fonds de réserve et un mont-de-piété. Selon une approche à la fois théorique et pratique, le philosophe pose et explicite les deux principes fondateurs de l’assurance : précaution et équité. Il recommande par ailleurs la constitution de rentes viagères. Afin de déterminer leur taux, il approfondit la notion d’espérance de vie, elle-même dépendante d’une estimation des probabilités ou risques de décéder. Leibniz conçoit (...)
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  39.  33
    Evidence and Assurance.N. M. L. Nathan - 1980 - Cambridge University Press.
    A systematic study of rational or justified belief, which throws fresh light on current debates about foundations and coherence theories of knowledge, the validation of induction and moral scepticism. Dr Nathan focuses attention on the largely unsatisfiable desires for active and self-conscious assurance of truth liable to be engendered by philosophical reflection about total belief-systems and the sources of knowledge. He extracts a kernel of truth from the doctrine that a regress of justification is both necessary and impossible, contrasts (...)
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  40.  18
    Enhancing the Role and Effectiveness of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Reports: The Missing Element of Content Verification and Integrity Assurance.S. Prakash Sethi, Terrence F. Martell & Mert Demir - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 144 (1):59-82.
    Corporate Social Responsibility reporting by large corporations has witnessed phenomenal growth over the last two decades. The voluntary nature of these disclosures, however, has led to inconsistencies in reporting formats, treatment, and inclusion of various contextual elements, and a lack of robust measures pertaining to the quality and accuracy of the reports’ content. Efforts to address these drawbacks such as Global Reporting Initiative and ISO 26000 have proven unsatisfactory due to their primary emphasis on process for creating CSR reports without (...)
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  41. Précis of Assurance.Krista Lawlor - 2015 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 90 (1):194-204.
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  42.  9
    CEO Compensation and Sustainability Reporting Assurance: Evidence From the UK.Habiba Al-Shaer & Mahbub Zaman - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 158 (1):233-252.
    Companies are expected to monitor sustainable behaviour to help improve performance, enhance reputation and increase chances of survival. This paper examines the relationship between sustainability committees and independent external assurance on the inclusion of sustainability-related targets in CEO compensation contracts. Using a sample of UK FTSE350 companies for 2011–2015 and controlling for governance and firm characteristics, we find both board-level sustainability committees and sustainability reporting assurance have a positive and significant association with the inclusion of sustainability terms in (...)
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  43.  1
    A Quality Assuring, Cost Optimal Multi-Armed Bandit Mechanism for Expertsourcing.Shweta Jain, Sujit Gujar, Satyanath Bhat, Onno Zoeter & Y. Narahari - 2018 - Artificial Intelligence 254:44-63.
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  44.  1
    Quality Assurance in Higher Education in the Maldives: Past, Present, and Future.Mariyam Shahuneeza Naseer & Dawood Abdulmalek Yahya Al-Hidabi - 2019 - Intellectual Discourse 27 (2):353-372.
    Quality assurance in higher education is a hot topic with theincreased number of students graduating from postgraduate programmesoffered by the higher education institutions. This qualitative study aimed tolook at the history and the current status of the quality assurance mechanismsin the Maldives; identify its strengths and weaknesses; and make informedrecommendations. Critical event narrative inquiry was used and data werecollected through interviews and analysis of documents. Content analysis ofdata collected revealed that Maldives was one of the very first countries (...)
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  45.  22
    Reviving the Assurance Conception of Promising.Erik Encarnacion - 2014 - Journal of Value Inquiry 48 (1):107-129.
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  46. Mutually Assured Support: A Security Doctrine for Terrorist Nuclear Weapons Threats.Baruch Fischhoff, Scott Atran & Marc Sageman - unknown
    If the United States were subject to a terrorist nuclear attack, its president would face overwhelming political pressure to respond decisively. A well-prepared response could help both to prevent additional attacks and to bring the perpetrators to justice. An instinctive response could be cataclysmically ineffective, inflicting enormous collateral damage without achieving either deterrence or justice. An international security doctrine of Mutually Assured Support can make the response to such attacks more effective as well as less likely—by requiring preparations that reduce (...)
     
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  47.  20
    Corporate Board and Corporate Social Responsibility Assurance: Evidence From China.Lin Liao, Teng Lin & Yuyu Zhang - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 150 (1):211-225.
    This paper investigates the association between board characteristics and the company’s corporate social responsibility assurance decision in China. By examining 2054 firm-years of Chinese listed companies with CSR reports from 2008 to 2012, we find that firms with a large board size, more female directors, and separation of CEO and chairman positions are more likely to engage in CSR assurance. Gender diversity also influences the CSR assurance provider choice. However, board independence and overseas background of the CEO (...)
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  48.  84
    Assurance and Scanlon's Theory of Promises.Richard Parkhill - 2008 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 108 (1pt3):385-392.
    I offer a reading of the first clause of T. M. Scanlon's principle of fidelity to assurances. A circularity problem is created by his way of differentiating promises from other assurances which comply with this principle. When the clause is read in the way here proposed, all assurances complying with the principle are promises, and so this problem no longer arises.
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  49.  61
    Moral Assurance Problems in Global Context.Aaron James - unknown
    There is much in Thomas Hobbes’s political theory that contemporary political philosophy cannot readily accept—including Hobbes’s egoism, his unconditional right of self-defense, and his insistence that peace is only possible under absolute sovereign rule.[1] Nevertheless, we can and should embrace one of Hobbes’s central insights: that problems of assurance are of fundamental importance for questions of social justice, even, or especially, justice questions of global scale. In general, agents face normatively significant problems of assurance because they have imperfect (...)
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  50. Quality Assured Science: Managerialism in Forensic Biology.Myles Leslie - 2010 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 35 (3):283-306.
    This article takes as its point of departure the idea that the adoption of managerial principles to ensure the quality of DNA evidence is an accident of history which has changed the ways forensic biology is conducted and forensic biologists think. I begin by defining managerialism and tracking its entry into the contentious world of forensic biology, asking how it is that a focus on efficiency and precise process control is affecting these labs. My analysis unfolds in two parts. I (...)
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