Results for 'Asymmetry'

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  1. Hume's Dictum and the Asymmetry of Counterfactual Dependence.Jessica M. Wilson - 2014 - In Alastair Wilson (ed.), Chance and Temporal Asymmetry. Oxford University Press. pp. 258-279.
    Why believe Hume's Dictum, according to which there are, roughly speaking, no necessary connections between wholly distinct entities? Schaffer suggests that HD, at least as applied to causal or nomological connections, is motivated as required by the best account of of counterfactuals---namely, a similarity-based possible worlds account, where the operative notion of similarity requires 'miracles'---more specifically, worlds where entities of the same type that actually exist enter into different laws. The main cited motivations for such an account of similarity are (...)
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  2.  27
    A Portable Defense of the Procreation Asymmetry.Jake Earl - 2017 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 47 (2-3):178-199.
    The Procreation Asymmetry holds that we have strong moral reasons not to create miserable people for their own sakes, but no moral reasons to create happy people for their own sakes. To defend this conjunction against an argument that it leads to inconsistency, I show how recognizing ‘creation’ as a temporally extended process allows us to revise the conjuncts in a way that preserves their intuitive force. This defense of the Procreation Asymmetry is preferable to others because it (...)
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  3.  82
    The Asymmetry: A Solution.Melinda A. Roberts - 2011 - Theoria 77 (4):333-367.
    The Asymmetry consists of two claims. (A) That a possible person's life would be abjectly miserable –less than worth living – counts against bringing that person into existence. But (B) that a distinct possible person's life would be worth living or even well worth living does not count in favour of bringing that person into existence. In recent years, the view that the two halves of the Asymmetry are jointly untenable has become increasingly entrenched. If we say all (...)
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  4.  43
    Unraveling the Asymmetry in Procreative Ethics.Trevor Hedberg - 2016 - APA Newsletter on Philosophy and Medicine 15 (2):18-21.
    The Asymmetry in procreative ethics consists of two claims. The first is that it is morally wrong to bring into existence a child who will have an abjectly miserable life; the second is that it is permissible not to bring into existence a child who will enjoy a very happy life. In this paper, I distinguish between two variations of the Asymmetry. The first is the Abstract Asymmetry, the idealized variation of the Asymmetry that many philosophers (...)
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  5. The Asymmetry Objection to Political Liberalism: Evaluation of a Defence.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    This paper evaluates Jonathan Quong’s attempt to defend a version of political liberalism from the asymmetry objection. I object that Quong’s defence relies on a premise that has not been adequately supported and does not look as if it can be given adequate support.
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  6. Mechanistic Explanation: Asymmetry Lost.Samuel Schindler - 2013 - In Karakostas and Dieks (ed.), “Recent Progress in Philosophy of Science: Perspectives and Foundational Problems”. Springer.
    In a recent book and an article, Carl Craver construes the relations between different levels of a mechanism, which he also refers to as constitutive relations, in terms of mutual manipulability (MM). Interpreted metaphysically, MM implies that inter-level relations are symmetrical. MM thus violates one of the main desiderata of scientific explanation, namely explanatory asymmetry. Parts of Craver’s writings suggest a metaphysical interpretation of MM, and Craver explicitly commits to constitutive relationships being symmetrical. The paper furthermore explores the option (...)
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  7.  39
    Information Asymmetry and Socially Responsible Investment.Mark Jonathan Rhodes - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 95 (1):145 - 151.
    Selecting, applying and reporting on investment screens for socially responsible investing (SRI) presents challenges for companies, investors and fund managers. This article seeks to clarify the nature of these challenges in developing an understanding of the foundations of ethical investment screens. At a conceptual level this work argues that there is a common element to the ethical foundations of SRI, even with very different apparent motivations and investment restrictions. Establishing this commonality assists in explaining the information asymmetry problem inherent (...)
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  8. What Asymmetry? Knowledge of Self, Knowledge of Others, and the Inferentialist Challenge.Quassim Cassam - 2015 - Synthese:1-19.
    There is widely assumed to be a fundamental epistemological asymmetry between self-knowledge and knowledge of others. They are said to be ’categorically different in kind and manner’ , and the existence of such an asymmetry is taken to be a primitive datum in accounts of the two kinds of knowledge. I argue that standard accounts of the differences between self-knowledge and knowledge of others exaggerate and misstate the asymmetry. The inferentialist challenge to the asymmetry focuses on (...)
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  9.  8
    The Asymmetry of Counterfactual Dependence.Christian Loew - forthcoming - Philosophy of Science.
    A certain type of counterfactual is thought to be intimately related to causation, control, and explanation. The time asymmetry of these phenomena therefore plausibly arises from a time asymmetry of counterfactual dependence. But why is counterfactual dependence time asymmetric? The most influential account of the time asymmetry of counterfactual dependence is David Albert’s account, which posits a new, time-asymmetric fundamental physical law, the so-called “past hypothesis.” Albert argues that the time asymmetry of counterfactual dependence arises from (...)
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  10.  60
    Smilansky, Arneson, and the Asymmetry of Desert.Jeffrey Moriarty - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 162 (3):537-545.
    Desert plays an important role in most contemporary theories of retributive justice, but an unimportant role in most contemporary theories of distributive justice. Saul Smilansky has recently put forward a defense of this asymmetry. In this study, I argue that it fails. Then, drawing on an argument of Richard Arneson’s, I suggest an alternative consequentialist rationale for the asymmetry. But while this shows that desert cannot be expected to play the same role in distributive justice that it can (...)
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  11.  37
    Ethical Considerations of the Human–Animal-Relationship Under Conditions of Asymmetry and Ambivalence.Silke Schicktanz - 2005 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 19 (1):7-16.
    Ethical reflection deals not only with the moral standing and handling of animals, it should also include a critical analysis of the underlying relationship. Anthropological, psychological, and sociological aspects of the human–animal-relationship should be taken into account. Two conditions, asymmetry and ambivalence, are taken as the historical and empirical basis for reflections on the human–animal-relationship in late modern societies. These conditions explain the variety of moral practice, apart from paradoxes, and provide a framework to systematize animal ethical problems in (...)
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  12.  57
    A Defence of the Asymmetry in Population Ethics.Per Algander - 2012 - Res Publica 18 (2):145-157.
    A common intuition is that there is a moral difference between ‘making people happy’ and ‘making happy people.’ This intuition, often referred to as ‘the Asymmetry,’ has, however, been criticized on the grounds that it is incoherent. Why is there, for instance, not a corresponding difference between ‘making people unhappy’ and ‘making unhappy people’? I argue that the intuition faces several difficulties but that these can be met by introducing a certain kind of reason that is favouring but non-requiring. (...)
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  13.  8
    Institutional Argumentation and Institutional Rules: Effects of Interactive Asymmetry on Argumentation in Institutional Contexts.Mark Andrew Thompson - 2017 - Argumentation 31 (1):1-21.
    Recent approaches to studying argumentation in institutions have pointed out the role of institutional rules in constraining argumentation that takes place in institutional contexts. However, few studies explain how these rules concretely affect actual argumentation. In particular, little work has been done as to the consequences of interactional asymmetry which often exists between participants in institutional contexts. While previous studies have suggested that this asymmetry exists as an aberration in the deliberative process, this paper argues that asymmetry (...)
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  14.  2
    When is a Choice Not a Choice? ‘Sham Offers’ and the Asymmetry of Adolescent Consent and Refusal.Neil C. Manson - 2016 - Bioethics 31 (3).
    In some jurisdictions there is a puzzling asymmetry between consent and refusal, where, for some kinds of treatment, the adolescent patient has the power to permit her own treatment but her refusal does not have the same kind of normative significance as refusal of treatment by a competent adult. In this journal I recently offered a clarification and defence of this asymmetry in terms of a paternalistic justification of the sharing of normative powers between adolescents and other parties. (...)
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  15.  46
    The Selfish Gender, or the Reproduction of Gender Asymmetry in Gender Studies.T. V. Barchunova - 2003 - Studies in East European Thought 55 (1):3-25.
    Gender discrimination can be overt anddeliberate. It can be covert and indeliberate.In the latter case it is called `asymmetry'.The gender studies community aims to reveal andeliminate any forms of gender asymmetry.However, insufficient methodological andtheoretical reflection implies the reproductionof gender asymmetry throughout genderstudies.
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  16.  4
    The Asymmetry Thesis and the Diversity of "Invalid" Argument-Forms.George Bowles - 1999 - Informal Logic 19 (1).
    According to the Asymmetry Thesis, whereas there are many kinds of argument-forms that make at least some of their instances valid, there is none that makes any of its instances invalid. To refute this thesis, a counterexample has been produced in the form of an argument-form whose premise-form's instances are all logically true and whose conclusion form's instances are all logically false. The purpose of this paper is to show that there are many more kinds of argument-forms that make (...)
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  17.  4
    Fluctuating Asymmetry and Aggression in Boys.J. T. Manning & D. Wood - 1998 - Human Nature 9 (1):53-65.
    Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is small deviations from perfect symmetry in normally bilaterally symmetrical traits. We examined the relationship between FA of five body traits (ear height, length of three digits, and ankle circumference) and self-reported scores of physical and verbal aggression in a sample of 90 boys aged 10 to 15 years. The relationships between FA and scores of aggression (particularly physical aggression) were found to be negative; in other words, the most symmetrical boys showed highest aggression. One trait (...)
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  18. When is a Choice Not a Choice? ‘Sham Offers’ and the Asymmetry of Adolescent Consent and Refusal.Neil C. Manson - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (4):296-304.
    In some jurisdictions there is a puzzling asymmetry between consent and refusal, where, for some kinds of treatment, the adolescent patient has the power to permit her own treatment but her refusal does not have the same kind of normative significance as refusal of treatment by a competent adult. In this journal I recently offered a clarification and defence of this asymmetry in terms of a paternalistic justification of the sharing of normative powers between adolescents and other parties. (...)
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  19.  23
    Sex Differences in Human Brain Asymmetry: A Critical Survey.Jeannette McGlone - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (2):215.
  20.  88
    Avoiding the Asymmetry Problem.Travis Timmerman - 2017 - Ratio 30 (2).
    If earlier-than-necessary death is bad because it deprives individuals of additional good life, then why isn't later-than-necessary conception bad for the same reason? Deprivationists have argued that prenatal non-existence is not bad because it is impossible to be conceived earlier, but postmortem non-existence is bad because it is possible to live longer. Call this the Impossibility Solution. In this paper, I demonstrate that the Impossibility Solution does not work by showing how it is possible to be conceived earlier in the (...)
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  21.  6
    Hemispheric Asymmetry: Verbal and Spatial Encoding of Visual Stimuli.Gina Geffen, John L. Bradshaw & Norman C. Nettleton - 1972 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 95 (1):25.
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  22. Asymmetry, Scope, and Rational Consistency.Julian Fink - 2010 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 10 (2):109-130.
    Suppose rationality requires you to A if you believe you ought to A. Suppose you believe that you ought to A. How can you satisfy this requirement? One way seems obvious. You can satisfy this requirement by A-ing. But can you also satisfy it by stopping to believe that you ought to A? Recently, it has been argued that this second option is not a genuine way of satisfying the above requirement. Conditional requirements of rationality do not have two ‘symmetric’, (...)
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  23.  3
    Ear Asymmetry and Delayed Auditory Feedback: Effects of Task Requirements and Competitive Stimulation.John L. Bradshaw, Norman C. Nettleton & Gina Geffen - 1972 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 94 (3):269.
  24.  38
    Asymmetry of Access to Intentional States.N. Georgalis - 1994 - Erkenntnis 40 (2):185-211.
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    Retrieval Asymmetry in the Recall of Adjectives and Nouns.Robert S. Lockhart - 1969 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 79 (1p1):12.
  26.  21
    Truth-Telling and the Asymmetry of the Attitude to Truth-Telling to Dying Patients in Latvia.Ivars Neiders, Vija Sile & Vents Silis - 2013 - Studia Philosophica Estonica 6 (2):55-78.
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  27.  39
    Epiphenomenalism and Causal Asymmetry.Paul Noordhof - 2003 - In Hallvard Lillehammer & Gonzalo Rodriguez-Pereyra (eds.), Real Metaphysics: Essays in Honour of D. H. Mellor. New York: Routledge.
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  28.  36
    Pain, Injury, and First/Third-Person Asymmetry.Katherine J. Morris - 1996 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 56 (1):125-56.
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  29.  33
    Asymmetry in Action.William C. Fish - 2000 - Ratio 13 (2):138-145.
  30.  4
    Effects of Temporal Delays on the Ear Asymmetry in Dichotic Listening.Paul Satz, C. Michael Levy & Mark Tyson - 1970 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 84 (2):372.
  31.  3
    Variations in Asymmetry as a Function of Degree of Forward Learning.Keith A. Wollen, Robert A. Fox & Douglas H. Lowry - 1970 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 86 (3):416.
  32.  3
    Retrieval Asymmetry and the Criterion Problem in Cued Recall.Robert S. Lockhart - 1969 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 81 (1):192.
  33.  2
    Grouping Strategies in Dichotic Listening: The Effects of Instructions, Rate, and Ear Asymmetry.Wayne H. Bartz, Paul Satz & Eileen Fennell - 1967 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 74 (1):132-136.
  34.  2
    Associative Asymmetry as a Function of Pronounceability.Clifton W. Gray & Slater E. Newman - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (6):923.
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  35.  1
    Directional Asymmetry of Motion After-Effect.Thomas R. Scott, Abraham D. Lavender, Ronald A. McWhirt & Donnie A. Powell - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (6):806.
  36. Subjects and Predicables a Study in Subject-Predicate Asymmetry.John Heintz - 1973 - Mouton.
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  37.  23
    Inconsistency, Asymmetry, and Non-Locality: A Philosophical Investigation of Classical Electrodynamics.Mathias Frisch - 2005 - Oxford University Press.
    Mathias Frisch provides the first sustained philosophical discussion of conceptual problems in classical particle-field theories. Part of the book focuses on the problem of a satisfactory equation of motion for charged particles interacting with electromagnetic fields. As Frisch shows, the standard equation of motion results in a mathematically inconsistent theory, yet there is no fully consistent and conceptually unproblematic alternative theory. Frisch describes in detail how the search for a fundamental equation of motion is partly driven by pragmatic considerations (like (...)
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  38. Individual Differences, Judgment Biases, and Theory-of-Mind: Deconstructing the Intentional Action Side Effect Asymmetry.Edward Cokely & Adam Feltz - 2008 - Journal of Research in Personality 43:18-24.
    When the side effect of an action involves moral considerations (e.g. when a chairman’s pursuit of profits harms the environment) it tends to influence theory-of-mind judgments. On average, bad side effects are judged intentional whereas good side effects are judged unintentional. In a series of two experiments, we examined the largely uninvestigated roles of individual differences in this judgment asymmetry. Experiment 1 indicated that extraversion accounted for variations in intentionality judgments, controlling for a range of other general individual differences (...)
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  39. Intentional Action and the Praise-Blame Asymmetry.Frank Hindriks - 2008 - Philosophical Quarterly 58 (233):630-641.
    Recent empirical research by Joshua Knobe has uncovered two asymmetries in judgements about intentional action and moral responsibility. First, people are more inclined to say that a side effect was brought about intentionally when they regard that side effect as bad than when they regard it as good. Secondly, people are more inclined to ascribe blame to someone for bad effects than they are inclined to ascribe praise for good effects. These findings suggest that the notion of intentional action has (...)
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  40. Statistical Mechanics and the Asymmetry of Counterfactual Dependence.Adam Elga - 2001 - Philosophy of Science 68 (S1):S313-.
    In “Counterfactual Dependence and Time’s Arrow,” David Lewis defends an analysis of counterfactuals intended to yield the asymmetry of counterfactual dependence: that later affairs depend counterfactually on earlier ones, and not the other way around. I argue that careful attention to the dynamical properties of thermodynamically irreversible processes shows that in many ordinary cases, Lewis’s analysis fails to yield this asymmetry. Furthermore, the analysis fails in an instructive way: one that teaches us something about the connection between the (...)
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  41. Autonomy and the Asymmetry Problem for Moral Expertise.Julia Driver - 2006 - Philosophical Studies 128 (3):619-644.
    We seem less likely to endorse moral expertise than reasoning expertise or aesthetic expertise. This seems puzzling given that moral norms are intuitively taken to be at least more objective than aesthetic norms. One possible diagnosis of the asymmetry is that moral judgments require autonomy of judgement in away that other judgments do not. However, the author points out that aesthetic judgments that have been ‘borrowed’ by aesthetic experts generate the same autonomy worry as moral judgments which are borrowed (...)
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  42.  52
    Rethinking the Asymmetry.Richard Yetter Chappell - 2016 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 47 (2-3):167-177.
    According to the Asymmetry, we’ve strong moral reason to prevent miserable lives from coming into existence, but no moral reason to bring happy lives into existence. This procreative asymmetry is often thought to be part of commonsense morality, however theoretically puzzling it might prove to be. I argue that this is a mistake. The Asymmetry is merely prima facie intuitive, and loses its appeal on further reflection. Mature commonsense morality recognizes no fundamental procreative asymmetry. It may (...)
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  43. The Time-Asymmetry of Causation.Huw Price & Brad Weslake - 2009 - In Helen Beebee, Peter Menzies & Christopher Hitchcock (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Causation. Oxford University Press.
    One of the most striking features of causation is that causes typically precede their effects – the causal arrow is strongly aligned with the temporal arrow. Why should this be so? We offer an opinionated guide to this problem, and to the solutions currently on offer. We conclude that the most promising strategy is to begin with the de facto asymmetry of human deliberation, characterised in epistemic terms, and to build out from there. More than any rival, this subjectivist (...)
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  44.  31
    Thank Goodness That Argument Is Over: Explaining the Temporal Value Asymmetry.Christopher Suhler & Craig Callender - 2012 - Philosophers' Imprint 12 (15):1-16.
    An important feature of life is the temporal value asymmetry. Not to be confused with temporal discounting, the value asymmetry is the fact that we prefer future rather than past preferences be satisfied. Misfortunes are better in the past--where they are "over and done"--than in the future. Using recent work in empirical psychology and evolutionary theory, we develop a theory of the nature and causes of the temporal value asymmetry. The account we develop undercuts philosophy of time (...)
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  45. Language and Memory for Motion Events: Origins of the Asymmetry Between Source and Goal Paths.Laura Lakusta & Barbara Landau - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (3):517-544.
    When people describe motion events, their path expressions are biased toward inclusion of goal paths (e.g., into the house) and omission of source paths (e.g., out of the house). In this paper, we explored whether this asymmetry has its origins in people’s non-linguistic representations of events. In three experiments, 4-year-old children and adults described or remembered manner of motion events that represented animate/intentional and physical events. The results suggest that the linguistic asymmetry between goals and sources is not (...)
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  46.  42
    Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles and the Asymmetry Objection: A Response to Strawser.Jai C. Galliott - 2012 - Journal of Military Ethics 11 (1):58-66.
    Abstract The debate about the ethics of uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) is failing to keep pace with the rise of the technology. Therefore, all the key players, including ethicists, lawyers, and roboticists, are keen to offer their views on the use of these drone aircraft. Some are opposed to their use, citing a range of ethical, legal and operational issues, while others argue for their ethically mandated use. B.J. Strawser fits into this latter category. He develops a principle of ?unnecessary (...)
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  47.  30
    The Physics of Time Asymmetry.Paul Davies - 1977 - University of California Press.
    The physics of time asymmetry has never been a single well-defined subject, but more a collection of consistency problems which arise in almost all branches ...
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  48. Thermodynamic Asymmetry in Time.Craig Callender - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Thermodynamics is the science that describes much of the time asymmetric behavior found in the world. This entry's first task, consequently, is to show how thermodynamics treats temporally ‘directed’ behavior. It then concentrates on the following two questions. (1) What is the origin of the thermodynamic asymmetry in time? In a world possibly governed by time symmetric laws, how should we understand the time asymmetric laws of thermodynamics? (2) Does the thermodynamic time asymmetry explain the other temporal asymmetries? (...)
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  49. On an Alleged Truth/Falsity Asymmetry in Context Shifting Experiments.Nat Hansen - 2012 - Philosophical Quarterly 62 (248):530-545.
    Keith DeRose has argued that context shifting experiments should be designed in a specific way in order to accommodate what he calls a ‘truth/falsity asymmetry’. I explain and critique DeRose's reasons for proposing this modification to contextualist methodology, drawing on recent experimental studies of DeRose's bank cases as well as experimental findings about the verification of affirmative and negative statements. While DeRose's arguments for his particular modification to contextualist methodology fail, the lesson of his proposal is that there is (...)
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  50. The Origins of Time-Asymmetry in Thermodynamics: The Minus First Law.Harvey R. Brown & Jos Uffink - 2001 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 32 (4):525-538.
    This paper investigates what the source of time-asymmetry is in thermodynamics, and comments on the question whether a time-symmetric formulation of the Second Law is possible.
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