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Athanassios Raftopoulos
University of Cyprus
  1. The Cognitive Penetrability of Perception: New Philosophical Perspectives.John Zeimbekis & Athanassios Raftopoulos (eds.) - 2015 - Oxford University Press.
    According to the cognitive penetrability hypothesis, our beliefs, desires, and possibly our emotions literally affect how we see the world. This book elucidates the nature of the cognitive penetrability and impenetrability hypotheses, assesses their plausibility, and explores their philosophical consequences. It connects the topic's multiple strands (the psychological findings, computationalist background, epistemological consequences of cognitive architecture, and recent philosophical developments) at a time when the outcome of many philosophical debates depends on knowing whether and how cognitive states can influence perception. (...)
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  2.  75
    Cognition and Perception: How Do Psychology and Neural Science Inform Philosophy?Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2009 - MIT Press.
    An argument that there are perceptual mechanisms that retrieve information in cognitively and conceptually unmediated ways and that this sheds light on various ...
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  3.  10
    The Cognitive Impenetrability of the Content of Early Vision is a Necessary and Sufficient Condition for Purely Nonconceptual Content.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2014 - Philosophical Psychology 27 (5):601-620.
  4.  27
    Is Perception Informationally Encapsulated? The Issue of the Theory‐Ladenness of Perception.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2001 - Cognitive Science 25 (3):423-451.
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  5. The Phenomenal Content of Experience.Athanassios Raftopoulos & Vincent C. Müller - 2006 - Mind and Language 21 (2):187-219.
    We discuss at some length evidence from the cognitive science suggesting that the representations of objects based on spatiotemporal information and featural information retrieved bottomup from a visual scene precede representations of objects that include conceptual information. We argue that a distinction can be drawn between representations with conceptual and nonconceptual content. The distinction is based on perceptual mechanisms that retrieve information in conceptually unmediated ways. The representational contents of the states induced by these mechanisms that are available to a (...)
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  6.  54
    The Cognitive Impenetrability of the Content of Early Vision is a Necessary and Sufficient Condition for Purely Nonconceptual Content.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2013 - Philosophical Psychology (5):1-20.
    I elaborate on Pylyshyn's definition of the cognitive impenetrability (CI) of early vision, and draw on the role of concepts in perceptual processing, which links the problem of the CI or cognitive penetrability (CP) of early vision with the problem of the nonconceptual content (NCC) of perception. I explain, first, the sense in which the content of early vision is CI and I argue that if some content is CI, it is conceptually encapsulated, that is, it is NCC. Then, I (...)
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  7.  54
    The Cognitive Impenetrability of Perception and Theory-Ladenness.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2015 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 46 (1):87-103.
    In this paper, I claim that since there is a cognitively impenetrable stage of visual perception, namely early vision, and cognitive penetrability and theory-ladenness are coextensive, the CI of early vision entails that early vision content is theory neutral. This theory-neutral part undermines relativism. In this paper, I consider two objections against the thesis. The one adduces evidence from cases of rapid perceptual learning to undermine my thesis that early vision is CI. The other emphasizes that the early perceptual system, (...)
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  8.  35
    Cognitive Penetrability: An Overview.Athanassios Raftopoulos & John Zeimbekis - 2015 - In John Zeimbekis & Athanassios Raftopoulos (eds.), The Cognitive Penetrability of Perception: New Philosophical Perspectives. Oxford University Press. pp. 1-56.
  9. Reentrant Neural Pathways and the Theory-Ladenness of Perception.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2001 - Philosophy of Science 68 (3):S187-S199.
    In this paper I argue for the cognitive impenetrability of perception by undermining the argument from reentrant pathways. To do that I will adduce psychological and neuropsychological evidence showing that (a) early vision processing is not affected by our knowledge about specific objects and events, and (b) that the role of the descending pathways is to enable the early-vision processing modules to participate in higher-level visual or cognitive functions. My thesis is that a part of observation, which I will call (...)
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  10. Newton's Experimental Proofs as Eliminative Reasoning.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 1999 - Erkenntnis 50 (1):91-121.
    In this paper I discuss Newton's first optical paper. My aim is to examine the type of argument which Newton uses in order to convince his readers of the truth of his theory of colors. My claim is that this argument is an induction by elimination, and that the Newtonian method of justification is a kind of “generative justification”, a term due to T. Nickles. To achieve my aim I analyze in some detail the arguments in Newton's first optical paper, (...)
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  11.  78
    Defending Realism on the Proper Ground.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2006 - Philosophical Psychology 19 (1):47-77.
    'Epistemological constructivism' holds that vision is mediated by background preconceptions and is theory-laden. Hence, two persons with differing theoretical commitments see the world differently and they could agree on what they see only if they both espoused the same conceptual framework. This, in its turn, undermines the possibility of theory testing and choice on a common theory-neutral empirical basis. In this paper, I claim that the cognitive sciences suggest that a part of vision may be only indirectly penetrated by cognition (...)
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  12.  4
    The Phenomenal Content of Experience.Athanassios Raftopoulos & Vincent C. M.Üller - 2006 - Mind and Language 21 (2):187-219.
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  13.  57
    Cognitive Penetrabiity of Perception: Attention, Strategies and Bottom-Up Constraints.Athanassios Raftopoulos (ed.) - 2005 - New York: Nova Science.
    The chapters in this book address directly the issue of the cognitive penetrability of perception.
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  14.  35
    Perception, Realism, and the Problem of Reference.Athanassios Raftopoulos & Peter Machamer (eds.) - 2012 - Cambridge University Press.
    One of the perennial themes in philosophy is the problem of our access to the world around us; do our perceptual systems bring us into contact with the world as it is or does perception depend upon our individual conceptual frameworks? This volume of new essays examines reference as it relates to perception, action and realism, and the questions which arise if there is no neutral perspective or independent way to know the world. The essays discuss the nature of referring, (...)
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  15.  80
    Can Nonconceptual Content Be Stored in Visual Memory?Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2010 - Philosophical Psychology 23 (5):639-668.
    Dartnall claims that visual short-term memory stores nonconceptual content , in the form of compressed images. In this paper I argue against the claim that NCC can be stored in VSTM. I offer four reasons why NCC cannot be stored in visual memory and why only conceptual information can: NCC lasts for a very short time and does not reach either visual short-term memory or visual long-term memory; the content of visual states is stored in memory only if and when (...)
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  16. Cracks on the Mosaic Unity of Science: Carl F. Craver: Explaining the Brain: Mechanisms and the Mosaic Unity of Science. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2007, Xx + 308 Pp, Pbk £16.99.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2010 - Metascience 19 (2):293-296.
  17.  2
    Pre-Cueing, the Epistemic Role of Early Vision, and the Cognitive Impenetrability of Early Vision.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  18. Deictic Codes, Demonstratives, and Reference: A Step Toward Solving the Grounding Problem.Athanassios Raftopoulos & Vincent C. Müller - 2002 - In Wayne D. Gray & Christian D. Schunn (eds.), Cogsci 2002, 24th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society. Lawrence Erlbaum. pp. 762-767.
    In this paper we address the issue of grounding for experiential concepts. Given that perceptual demonstratives are a basic form of such concepts, we examine ways of fixing the referents of such demonstratives. To avoid ‘encodingism’, that is, relating representations to representations, we postulate that the process of reference fixing must be bottom-up and nonconceptual, so that it can break the circle of conceptual content and touch the world. For that purpose, an appropriate causal relation between representations and the world (...)
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  19.  13
    Studies on Cognitively Driven Attention Suggest That Late Vision is Cognitively Penetrated, Whereas Early Vision is Not.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2016 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39.
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  20.  46
    Cartesian Analysis and Synthesis.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2003 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 34 (2):265-308.
    This paper aims to provide an explication of the meaning of ‘analysis’ and ‘synthesis’ in Descartes’ writings. In the first part I claim that Descartes’ method is entirely captured by the term ‘analysis’, and that it is a method of theory elaboration that fuses the modern methods of discovery and confirmation in one enterprise. I discuss Descartes’ methodological writings, assess their continuity and coherence, and I address the major shortcoming of previous interpretations of Cartesian methodology. I also discuss the Cartesian (...)
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  21.  29
    What Unilateral Visual Neglect Teaches Us About Perceptual Phenomenology.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2015 - Erkenntnis 80 (2):339-358.
    Studies on the syndrome called ‘unilateral visual or spatial neglect’ have been used by philosophers in discussions concerning perceptual phenomenology. Nanay , based on spatial neglects studies, argued that the property of being suitable for action is part of the perceptual phenomenology of neglect patients. In this paper, I argue that the studies on visual neglect conducted thus far do not support Nanay’s thesis that when patients succeed in detecting the neglected object, it’s action properties are part of their perceptual (...)
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  22. Reframing the Problem of Cognitive Penetrability.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2015 - In Woosuk Park, Ping Li & Lorenzo Magnani (eds.), Philosophy and Cognitive Science Ii. Springer Verlag.
  23.  31
    Two Types of Object Representations in the Brain, One Nondescriptive Process of Reference Fixing.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (1):47-48.
    I comment on two problems in Glover's account. First, semantic representations are not always available to awareness. Second, some functional properties, the affordances of objects, should be encoded in the dorsal system. Then I argue that the existence of Glover's two types of representations is supported by studies on “object-centered” attention. Furthermore, it foreshadows a nondescriptive causal reference fixing process.
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  24.  44
    Cognitive Penetration Lite and Nonconceptual Content.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2017 - Erkenntnis 82 (5):1097-1122.
    The Macpherson :24–62, 2012) argued that the perceptual experience of colors is cognitively penetrable. Macpherson also thinks that perception has nonconceptual content because this would provide a good explanation for several phenomena concerning perceptual experience. To have both, Macpherson must defend the thesis that the CP of perception is compatible with perception having NCC. Since the classical notion of CP of perception does not allow perception to have NCC, Macpherson proposes CP-lite. CP-lite makes room for an experience to have content (...)
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  25. Cognitive Penetrability of Perception: An Interdisciplinary Approach.Athanassios Raftopoulos (ed.) - 2005 - Nova Science.
  26.  36
    Nonconceptual Content: A Reply to Toribio's “Nonconceptualism and the Cognitive Impenetrability of Early Vision”.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2014 - Philosophical Psychology 27 (5):643-651.
  27.  31
    Getting the World Right: Cognitive Maps and Pictures of Universals: Paul M. Churchland: Plato’s Camera: How the Physical Brain Captures a Landscape of Abstract Universals. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012, X+289pp, $35 HB. [REVIEW]Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2013 - Metascience 22 (1):115-123.
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  28.  6
    Editorial: Pre-Cueing Effects on Perception and Cognitive Penetrability.Athanassios Raftopoulos & Gary Lupyan - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  29.  16
    The New Science of Mind.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2012 - Review of Metaphysics 65 (3):677-679.
  30. Abductive Inference in Late Vision.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2015 - In Woosuk Park, Ping Li & Lorenzo Magnani (eds.), Philosophy and Cognitive Science Ii. Springer Verlag.
     
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  31. Abduction, Inference to the Best Explanation, and Scientific Practise: The Case of Newton’s Optics.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2016 - In Lorenzo Magnani & Claudia Casadio (eds.), Model Based Reasoning in Science and Technology. Logical, Epistemological, and Cognitive Issues. Springer Verlag.
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  32.  3
    Cognitive Penetrability and the Epistemic Role of Perception.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2019 - Springer Verlag.
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