Results for 'Atkinson Bronte'

682 found
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  1.  17
    The Dark Triad of Personality Traits, Diurnal Cortisol Variations and Sleep-Wake Cycles.Atkinson Bronte, Thomas Susan & Fernandez-Enright Francesca - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
    There is growing interest in examining dark personality traits, to better explain malevolent and self-serving behaviour patterns commonly observed in clinical and non-clinical settings. Recently, taxonomies of dark personalities have been developed, along with psychometric tools to measure and delineate between traits including psychopathy, Machiavellianism and narcissism. The extent to which these constructs are distinct or overlapping remains controversial. Psychophysiological research can improve understanding of biological mechanisms contributing to personality that may help to evaluate taxonomies. This study investigated diurnal variations (...)
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  2.  24
    Historical Materialism: R. F. Atkinson.R. F. Atkinson - 1982 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 14:57-69.
    Historical materialism I take to be the view expressed in the well-known Preface to the Critique of Political Economy and exemplified in Capital and in many other writings by Marx and by Marxists. I shall begin with a few introductory remarks, next sketch in the theory, and finally contend that, despite real attractions, it too far limits the scope of legitimate historical enquiry to be ultimately acceptable.
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  3.  61
    The Mystical in Wittgenstein's Early Writings.James R. Atkinson - 2009 - Routledge.
    The aim of this book is to consider what reasonably follows from the hypothesis that the _Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus_ can be interpreted from a mystical point of view. Atkinson intends to elucidate Wittgenstein’s thoughts on the mystical in his early writings as they pertain to a number of topics such as, God, the meaning of life, reality, the eternal and the solipsistic self.
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  4. The Mystical in Wittgenstein's Early Writings.James Atkinson - 2011 - Routledge.
    The aim of this book is to consider what reasonably follows from the hypothesis that the _Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus_ can be interpreted from a mystical point of view. Atkinson intends to elucidate Wittgenstein’s thoughts on the mystical in his early writings as they pertain to a number of topics such as, God, the meaning of life, reality, the eternal and the solipsistic self.
     
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  5.  12
    Artificial Intelligence and Natural Man.Martin Atkinson & Margaret A. Boden - 1979 - Philosophical Quarterly 29 (116):278.
  6. The State, the City and Political Morality.Doreen Atkinson - 1991 - Theoria 78:115-138.
     
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  7.  48
    The Emergence of Justification.Jeanne Peijnenburg & David Atkinson - 2013 - Philosophical Quarterly 63 (252):546-564.
    A major objection to epistemic infinitism is that it seems to make justification impossible. For if there is an infinite chain of reasons, each receiving its justification from its neighbour, then there is no justification to inherit in the first place. Some have argued that the objection arises from misunderstanding the character of justification. Justification is not something that one reason inherits from another; rather it gradually emerges from the chain as a whole. Nowhere however is it made clear what (...)
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  8.  50
    Practical Reasoning as Presumptive Argumentation Using Action-Based Alternating Transition Systems.Katie Atkinson & Trevor J. M. Bench-Capon - 2007 - Artificial Intelligence 171 (10-15):855-874.
    In this paper we describe an approach to practical reasoning, reasoning about what it is best for a particular agent to do in a given situation, based on presumptive justifications of action through the instantiation of an argument scheme, which is then subject to examination through a series of critical questions. We identify three particular aspects of practical reasoning which distinguish it from theoretical reasoning. We next provide an argument scheme and an associated set of critical questions which is able (...)
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  9.  7
    ‘The Medical’ and ‘Health’ in a Critical Medical Humanities.Sarah Atkinson, Bethan Evans, Angela Woods & Robin Kearns - 2015 - Journal of Medical Humanities 36 (1):71-81.
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  10.  95
    Confirmation and Justification. A Commentary on Shogenji's Measure.David Atkinson - 2012 - Synthese 184 (1):49-61.
    So far no known measure of confirmation of a hypothesis by evidence has satisfied a minimal requirement concerning thresholds of acceptance. In contrast, Shogenji’s new measure of justification (Shogenji, Synthese, this number 2009) does the trick. As we show, it is ordinally equivalent to the most general measure which satisfies this requirement. We further demonstrate that this general measure resolves the problem of the irrelevant conjunction. Finally, we spell out some implications of the general measure for the Conjunction Effect; in (...)
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  11.  64
    Computational Representation of Practical Argument.Katie Atkinson, Trevor Bench-Capon & Peter McBurney - 2006 - Synthese 152 (2):157-206.
    In this paper we consider persuasion in the context of practical reasoning, and discuss the problems associated with construing reasoning about actions in a manner similar to reasoning about beliefs. We propose a perspective on practical reasoning as presumptive justification of a course of action, along with critical questions of this justification, building on the account of Walton. From this perspective, we articulate an interaction protocol, which we call PARMA, for dialogues over proposed actions based on this theory. We outline (...)
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  12.  23
    Evidence for Distinct Contributions of Form and Motion Information to the Recognition of Emotions From Body Gestures.Anthony P. Atkinson, Mary L. Tunstall & Winand H. Dittrich - 2007 - Cognition 104 (1):59-72.
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  13. Nonconservation of Energy and Loss of Determinism I. Infinitely Many Colliding Balls.David Atkinson & Porter Johnson - 2009 - Foundations of Physics 39 (8):937-957.
    An infinite number of elastically colliding balls is considered in a classical, and then in a relativistic setting. Energy and momentum are not necessarily conserved globally, even though each collision does separately conserve them. This result holds in particular when the total mass of all the balls is finite, and even when the spatial extent and temporal duration of the process are also finite. Further, the process is shown to be indeterministic: there is an arbitrary parameter in the general solution (...)
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  14.  6
    Human Teaching and Cumulative Cultural Evolution.Christine A. Caldwell, Elizabeth Renner & Mark Atkinson - 2018 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 9 (4):751-770.
    Although evidence of teaching behaviour has been identified in some nonhuman species, human teaching appears to be unique in terms of both the breadth of contexts within which it is observed, and in its responsiveness to needs of the learner. Similarly, cultural evolution is observable in other species, but human cultural evolution appears strikingly distinct. This has led to speculation that the evolutionary origins of these capacities may be causally linked. Here we provide an overview of contrasting perspectives on the (...)
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  15.  16
    Neuroscientific Evidence for Simulation and Shared Substrates in Emotion Recognition: Beyond Faces.Andrea S. Heberlein & Anthony P. Atkinson - 2009 - Emotion Review 1 (2):162-177.
    According to simulation or shared-substrates models of emotion recognition, our ability to recognize the emotions expressed by other individuals relies, at least in part, on processes that internally simulate the same emotional state in ourselves. The term “emotional expressions” is nearly synonymous, in many people's minds, with facial expressions of emotion. However, vocal prosody and whole-body cues also convey emotional information. What is the relationship between these various channels of emotional communication? We first briefly review simulation models of emotion recognition, (...)
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  16. When Are Thought Experiments Poor Ones?Jeanne Peijnenburg & David Atkinson - 2003 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 34 (2):305-322.
    A characteristic of contemporary analytic philosophy is its ample use of thought experiments. We formulate two features that can lead one to suspect that a given thought experiment is a poor one. Although these features are especially in evidence within the philosophy of mind, they can, surprisingly enough, also be discerned in some celebrated scientific thought experiments. Yet in the latter case the consequences appear to be less disastrous. We conclude that the use of thought experiments is more successful in (...)
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  17.  19
    Executive Functioning as a Potential Mediator of Age-Related Cognitive Decline in Normal Adults.Timothy A. Salthouse, Thomas M. Atkinson & Diane E. Berish - 2003 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 132 (4):566.
  18. Achilles, the Tortoise, and Colliding Balls.Jeanne Peijnenburg & David Atkinson - 2008 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 25 (3):187 - 201.
    It is widely held that the paradox of Achilles and the Tortoise, introduced by Zeno of Elea around 460 B.C., was solved by mathematical advances in the nineteenth century. The techniques of Weierstrass, Dedekind and Cantor made it clear, according to this view, that Achilles’ difficulty in traversing an infinite number of intervals while trying to catch up with the tortoise does not involve a contradiction, let alone a logical absurdity. Yet ever since the nineteenth century there have been dissidents (...)
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  19. Consciousness: Mapping the Theoretical Landscape.Anthony P. Atkinson, Michael S. C. Thomas & Axel Cleeremans - 2000 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (10):372-382.
    What makes us conscious? Many theories that attempt to answer this question have appeared recently in the context of widespread interest about consciousness in the cognitive neurosciences. Most of these proposals are formulated in terms of the information processing conducted by the brain. In this overview, we survey and contrast these models. We first delineate several notions of consciousness, addressing what it is that the various models are attempting to explain. Next, we describe a conceptual landscape that addresses how the (...)
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  20.  60
    Ethical Consistency.B. A. O. Williams & W. F. Atkinson - 1965 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 39 (1):103-138.
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  21. Justification by an Infinity of Conditional Probabilities.David Atkinson & Jeanne Peijnenburg - 2009 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 50 (2):183-193.
    Today it is generally assumed that epistemic justification comes in degrees. The consequences, however, have not been adequately appreciated. In this paper we show that the assumption invalidates some venerable attacks on infinitism: once we accept that epistemic justification is gradual, an infinitist stance makes perfect sense. It is only without the assumption that infinitism runs into difficulties.
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  22.  46
    Differential Developmental Trajectories for Egocentric, Environmental and Intrinsic Frames of Reference in Spatial Memory.M. Nardini, N. Burgess, K. BrecKenridge & J. Atkinson - 2006 - Cognition 101 (1):153-172.
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  23.  80
    Transitivity and Partial Screening Off.David Atkinson & Jeanne Peijnenburg - 2013 - Theoria 79 (4):294-308.
    The notion of probabilistic support is beset by well-known problems. In this paper we add a new one to the list: the problem of transitivity. Tomoji Shogenji has shown that positive probabilistic support, or confirmation, is transitive under the condition of screening off. However, under that same condition negative probabilistic support, or disconfirmation, is intransitive. Since there are many situations in which disconfirmation is transitive, this illustrates, but now in a different way, that the screening-off condition is too restrictive. We (...)
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  24.  58
    The Moral Difference or Equivalence Between Continuous Sedation Until Death and Physician-Assisted Death: Word Games or War Games? [REVIEW]Sam Rys, Reginald Deschepper, Freddy Mortier, Luc Deliens, Douglas Atkinson & Johan Bilsen - 2012 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 9 (2):171-183.
    Continuous sedation until death (CSD), the act of reducing or removing the consciousness of an incurably ill patient until death, often provokes medical–ethical discussions in the opinion sections of medical and nursing journals. Some argue that CSD is morally equivalent to physician-assisted death (PAD), that it is a form of “slow euthanasia.” A qualitative thematic content analysis of opinion pieces was conducted to describe and classify arguments that support or reject a moral difference between CSD and PAD. Arguments pro and (...)
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  25.  41
    A History of AI and Law in 50 Papers: 25 Years of the International Conference on AI and Law. [REVIEW]Trevor Bench-Capon, Michał Araszkiewicz, Kevin Ashley, Katie Atkinson, Floris Bex, Filipe Borges, Daniele Bourcier, Paul Bourgine, Jack G. Conrad, Enrico Francesconi, Thomas F. Gordon, Guido Governatori, Jochen L. Leidner, David D. Lewis, Ronald P. Loui, L. Thorne McCarty, Henry Prakken, Frank Schilder, Erich Schweighofer, Paul Thompson, Alex Tyrrell, Bart Verheij, Douglas N. Walton & Adam Z. Wyner - 2012 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 20 (3):215-319.
    We provide a retrospective of 25 years of the International Conference on AI and Law, which was first held in 1987. Fifty papers have been selected from the thirteen conferences and each of them is described in a short subsection individually written by one of the 24 authors. These subsections attempt to place the paper discussed in the context of the development of AI and Law, while often offering some personal reactions and reflections. As a whole, the subsections build into (...)
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  26.  19
    Children Reorient Using the Left/Right Sense of Coloured Landmarks at 18–24 Months.Marko Nardini, Janette Atkinson & Neil Burgess - 2008 - Cognition 106 (1):519-527.
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  27. Losing Energy in Classical, Relativistic and Quantum Mechanics.David Atkinson - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 38 (1):170-180.
    A Zenonian supertask involving an infinite number of colliding balls is considered, under the restriction that the total mass of all the balls is finite. Classical mechanics leads to the conclusion that momentum, but not necessarily energy, must be conserved. Relativistic mechanics, on the other hand, implies that energy and momentum conservation are always violated. Quantum mechanics, however, seems to rule out the Zeno configuration as an inconsistent system.
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  28.  13
    A Methodology for Designing Systems to Reason with Legal Cases Using Abstract Dialectical Frameworks.Latifa Al-Abdulkarim, Katie Atkinson & Trevor Bench-Capon - 2016 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 24 (1):1-49.
    This paper presents a methodology to design and implement programs intended to decide cases, described as sets of factors, according to a theory of a particular domain based on a set of precedent cases relating to that domain. We useDialectical Frameworks, a recent development in AI knowledge representation, as the central feature of our design method. ADFs will play a role akin to that played by Entity–Relationship models in the design of database systems. First, we explain how the factor hierarchy (...)
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  29.  15
    What's Lost in Inverted Faces?Gillian Rhodes, Susan Brake & Anthony P. Atkinson - 1993 - Cognition 47 (1):25-57.
  30.  7
    Higher Education Outreach: Examining Key Challenges for Academics.Matthew Johnson, Emily Danvers, Tamsin Hinton-Smith, Kate Atkinson, Gareth Bowden, John Foster, Kristina Garner, Paul Garrud, Sarah Greaves, Patricia Harris, Momna Hejmadi, David Hill, Gwen Hughes, Louise Jackson, Angela O’Sullivan, Séamus ÓTuama, Pilar Perez Brown, Pete Philipson, Simon Ravenscroft, Mirain Rhys, Tom Ritchie, Jon Talbot, David Walker, Jon Watson, Myfanwy Williams & Sharon Williams - forthcoming - British Journal of Educational Studies:1-23.
  31.  72
    Probabilistic Justification and the Regress Problem.Jeanne Peijnenburg & David Atkinson - 2008 - Studia Logica 89 (3):333-341.
    We discuss two objections that foundationalists have raised against infinite chains of probabilistic justification. We demonstrate that neither of the objections can be maintained.
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  32.  48
    Galileo and Prior Philosophy.David Atkinson - 2004 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 35 (1):115-136.
    Galileo claimed inconsistency in the Aristotelian dogma concerning falling bodies and stated that all bodies must fall at the same rate. However, there is an empirical situation where the speeds of falling bodies are proportional to their weights; and even in vacuo all bodies do not fall at the same rate under terrestrial conditions. The reason for the deficiency of Galileo’s reasoning is analyzed, and various physical scenarios are described in which Aristotle’s claim is closer to the truth than is (...)
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  33.  43
    Did He Jump or Was He Pushed?Floris Bex, Trevor Bench-Capon & Katie Atkinson - 2009 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 17 (2):79-99.
    In this paper, we present a particular role for abductive reasoning in law by applying it in the context of an argumentation scheme for practical reasoning. We present a particular scheme, based on an established scheme for practical reasoning, that can be used to reason abductively about how an agent might have acted to reach a particular scenario, and the motivations for doing so. Plausibility here depends on a satisfactory explanation of why this particular agent followed these motivations in the (...)
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  34.  1
    Elite Formation, Power and Space in Contemporary London.Rowland Atkinson, Simon Parker & Roger Burrows - 2017 - Theory, Culture and Society 34 (5-6):179-200.
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  35. Learning Juror Competence: A Generalized Condorcet Jury Theorem.Jan-Willem Romeijn & David Atkinson - 2011 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 10 (3):237-262.
    This article presents a generalization of the Condorcet Jury Theorem. All results to date assume a fixed value for the competence of jurors, or alternatively, a fixed probability distribution over the possible competences of jurors. In this article, we develop the idea that we can learn the competence of the jurors by the jury vote. We assume a uniform prior probability assignment over the competence parameter, and we adapt this assignment in the light of the jury vote. We then compute (...)
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  36.  34
    Using Creative Writing Techniques to Enhance the Case Study Method in Research Integrity and Ethics Courses.Timothy N. Atkinson - 2008 - Journal of Academic Ethics 6 (1):33-50.
    The following article explores the use of creative writing techniques to teach research ethics, breathe life into case study preparation, and train students to think of their settings as complex organizational environments with multiple actors and stakeholders.
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  37.  77
    Grounds and Limits: Reichenbach and Foundationalist Epistemology.Jeanne Peijnenburg & David Atkinson - 2011 - Synthese 181 (1):113 - 124.
    From 1929 onwards, C. I. Lewis defended the foundationalist claim that judgements of the form 'x is probable' only make sense if one assumes there to be a ground y that is certain (where x and y may be beliefs, propositions, or events). Without this assumption, Lewis argues, the probability of x could not be anything other than zero. Hans Reichenbach repeatedly contested Lewis's idea, calling it "a remnant of rationalism". The last move in this debate was a challenge by (...)
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  38. Probability Without Certainty: Foundationalism and the Lewis–Reichenbach Debate.David Atkinson & Jeanne Peijnenburg - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 37 (3):442-453.
    Like many discussions on the pros and cons of epistemic foundationalism, the debate between C.I. Lewis and H. Reichenbach dealt with three concerns: the existence of basic beliefs, their nature, and the way in which beliefs are related. In this paper we concentrate on the third matter, especially on Lewis’s assertion that a probability relation must depend on something that is certain, and Reichenbach’s claim that certainty is never needed. We note that Lewis’s assertion is prima facie ambiguous, but argue (...)
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  39.  26
    Distinct Contributions to Facial Emotion Perception of Foveated Versus Nonfoveated Facial Features.Anthony P. Atkinson & Hannah E. Smithson - 2013 - Emotion Review 5 (1):30-35.
    Foveated stimuli receive visual processing that is quantitatively and qualitatively different from nonfoveated stimuli. At normal interpersonal distances, people move their eyes around another’s face so that certain features receive foveal processing; on any given fixation, other features therefore project extrafoveally. Yet little is known about the processing of extrafoveally presented facial features, how informative those extrafoveally presented features are for face perception (e.g., for assessing another’s emotion), or what processes extract task-relevant (e.g., emotion-related) cues from facial features that first (...)
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  40.  78
    The Grain of Domains: The Evolutionary-Psychological Case Against Domain-General Cognition.Anthony P. Atkinson & Michael Wheeler - 2004 - Mind and Language 19 (2):147-76.
    Prominent evolutionary psychologists have argued that our innate psychological endowment consists of numerous domainspecific cognitive resources, rather than a few domaingeneral ones. In the light of some conceptual clarification, we examine the central inprinciple arguments that evolutionary psychologists mount against domaingeneral cognition. We conclude (a) that the fundamental logic of Darwinism, as advanced within evolutionary psychology, does not entail that the innate mind consists exclusively, or even massively, of domainspecific features, and (b) that a mixed innate cognitive economy of domainspecific (...)
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  41.  18
    A Viewpoint-Independent Process for Spatial Reorientation.Marko Nardini, Rhiannon L. Thomas, Victoria C. P. Knowland, Oliver J. Braddick & Janette Atkinson - 2009 - Cognition 112 (2):241-248.
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  42.  84
    Time in Quantum Mechanics.Jan Hilgevoord & David Atkinson - 2001 - In Craig Callender (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Time. Oxford University Press.
    Time is often said to play in quantum mechanics an essentially different role from position: whereas position is represented by a Hermitian operator, time is represented by a c-number. This discrepancy has been found puzzling and has given rise to a vast literature and many efforts at a solution. In this paper it is argued that the discrepancy is only apparent and that there is nothing in the formalism of quantum mechanics that forces us to treat position and time differently. (...)
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  43.  1
    A Variable Sensitivity Theory of Signal Detection.Richard C. Atkinson - 1963 - Psychological Review 70 (1):91-106.
  44. Probability All the Way Up.David Atkinson & Jeanne Peijnenburg - 2006 - Synthese 153 (2):187-197.
    Richard Jeffrey’s radical probabilism (‘probability all the way down’) is augmented by the claim that probability cannot be turned into certainty, except by data that logically exclude all alternatives. Once we start being uncertain, no amount of updating will free us from the treadmill of uncertainty. This claim is cast first in objectivist and then in subjectivist terms.
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  45. Conceivability, Possibility and the Resurrection of Material Beings.Thomas Atkinson - 2016 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 80 (2):115-132.
    In his 1998 postscript to ‘The Possibility of Resurrection’ Peter van Inwagen argues that the scenario he describes by which God might resurrect a human organism, even though probably not true, is still conceivable and, consequently, ‘serves to establish a possibility’, namely, the metaphysical possibility of the resurrection of material beings. Van Inwagen, however, has also argued in favour of ‘modal scepticism’ [van Inwagen in, God, knowledge and mystery: essays in philosophical theology, Cornell University Press, Ithaca 1995b, pp. 11–12; van (...)
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  46.  5
    Toward Neo-Precaution: A New Approach to Applying the Precautionary Principle to Public Health.Kumanan Wilson & Katherine Atkinson - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics 17 (3):44-46.
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  47.  60
    Legal Case-Based Reasoning as Practical Reasoning.Katie Atkinson & Trevor Bench-Capon - 2005 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 13 (1):93-131.
    In this paper we apply a general account of practical reasoning to arguing about legal cases. In particular, we provide a reconstruction of the reasoning of the majority and dissenting opinions for a particular well-known case from property law. This is done through the use of Belief-Desire-Intention (BDI) agents to replicate the contrasting views involved in the actual decision. This reconstruction suggests that the reasoning involved can be separated into three distinct levels: factual and normative levels and a level connecting (...)
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  48.  40
    Motivational Determinants of Risk-Taking Behavior.John W. Atkinson - 1957 - Psychological Review 64 (6, Pt.1):359-372.
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  49.  15
    Till at Last There Remain Nothing.David Atkinson & Jeanne Peijnenburg - forthcoming - Synthese.
    In A Treatise of Human Nature, David Hume presents an argument according to which all knowledge reduces to probability, and all probability reduces to nothing. Many have criticized this argument, while others find nothing wrong with it. In this paper we explain that the argument is invalid as it stands, but for different reasons than have been hitherto acknowledged. Once the argument is repaired, it becomes clear that there is indeed something that reduces to nothing, but it is something other (...)
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  50.  8
    Probabilistic Discrimination Learning.W. K. Estes, C. J. Burke, R. C. Atkinson & J. P. Frankmann - 1957 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 54 (4):233.
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