Results for 'Atomism'

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  1. Biological Atomism and Cell Theory.Daniel J. Nicholson - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 41 (3):202-211.
    Biological atomism postulates that all life is composed of elementary and indivisible vital units. The activity of a living organism is thus conceived as the result of the activities and interactions of its elementary constituents, each of which individually already exhibits all the attributes proper to life. This paper surveys some of the key episodes in the history of biological atomism, and situates cell theory within this tradition. The atomistic foundations of cell theory are subsequently dissected and discussed, (...)
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  2.  7
    The Philosophy of Logical Atomism.Bertrand Russell (ed.) - 1940 - Routledge.
    Logical Atomism is a philosophy that sought to account for the world in all its various aspects by relating it to the structure of the language in which we articulate information. In _The Philosophy of Logical Atomism,_ Bertrand Russell, with input from his young student Ludwig Wittgenstein, developed the concept and argues for a reformed language based on pure logic. Despite Russell’s own future doubts surrounding the concept, this founding and definitive work in analytical philosophy by one of (...)
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  3. Beyond Atomism.Aaron Cotnoir - 2013 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 2 (1):67-72.
    Contemporary metaphysicians have been drawn to a certain attractive picture of the structure of the world. This picture consists in classical mereology, the priority of parts over wholes, and the well-foundedness of metaphysical priority. In this short note, I show that this combination of theses entails superatomism, which is a significant strengthening of mereological atomism. This commitment has been missed in the literature due to certain sorts of models of mereology being overlooked. But the entailment is an important one: (...)
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  4. The Philosophy of Logical Atomism.Bertrand Russell - 1940 - Open Court.
    THE PHILOSOPHY which I advocate is generally regarded as a species of realism, and accused of inconsistency because of the elements in it which seem contrary to that doctrine. For my part, I do not regard the issue between realists and their opponents as a funda- mental one; I could alter my view on this issue without changing my mind as to any of the doctrines upon which I wish to lay stress. I hold that logic is what is fundamental (...)
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  5. Atomism, Monism, and Causation in the Natural Philosophy of Margaret Cavendish.Karen Detlefsen - 2006 - Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy 3:199-240.
    Between 1653 and 1655 Margaret Cavendish makes a radical transition in her theory of matter, rejecting her earlier atomism in favour of an infinitely-extended and infinitely-divisible material plenum, with matter being ubiquitously self-moving, sensing, and rational. It is unclear, however, if Cavendish can actually dispense of atomism. One of her arguments against atomism, for example, depends upon the created world being harmonious and orderly, a premise Cavendish herself repeatedly undermines by noting nature’s many disorders. I argue that (...)
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  6. Atomism, Pluralism, and Conceptual Content.Daniel A. Weiskopf - 2009 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 79 (1):131-163.
    Conceptual atomists argue that most of our concepts are primitive. I take up three arguments that have been thought to support atomism and show that they are inconclusive. The evidence that allegedly backs atomism is equally compatible with a localist position on which concepts are structured representations with complex semantic content. I lay out such a localist position and argue that the appropriate position for a non-atomist to adopt is a pluralist view of conceptual structure. I show several (...)
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  7.  63
    Atomism.Charles Taylor - 1979 - In Alkis Kontos (ed.), Powers, Possessions and Freedom: Essays in Honour of C.B. Macpherson. University of Toronto Press.
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  8.  57
    Atomism and Fundamentality.Benjamin Schnieder - 2020 - Erkenntnis 85 (3):551-574.
    The paper focusses on two claims about metaphysical structure: Atomism and Fundamentalism. The first of these claims says that there are mereological atoms, i.e. minimal elements in the mereological structure of reality. The second says that there are fundamental truths, i.e. minimal elements in the grounding structure of reality. A philosopher who defended both of these claims was Bernard Bolzano; the present paper is an exploration of his views on the matter.
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  9.  50
    Atomism and Composition.Gabriel Uzquiano - 2017 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 6 (4):232-240.
    Atomism is the thesis that every object is composed of atoms. This principle is generally regimented by means of an atomicity axiom according to which every object has atomic parts. But there appears to be a sense that something is amiss with atomistic mereology. We look at three concerns, which, while importantly different, involve infinite descending chains of proper parts and have led some to question standard formalizations of atomism and composition in mereology.
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  10. Anti‐Atomism About Color Representation.John Morrison - 2013 - Noûs 47 (2):94-122.
    According to anti-atomism, we represent color properties (e.g., red) in virtue of representing color relations (e.g., redder than). I motivate anti-atomism with a puzzle involving a series of pairwise indistinguishable chips. I then develop two versions of anti-atomism.
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  11.  20
    Atomism and its Critics: From Democritus to Newton.Andrew Pyle - 1995 - Thoemmes Press.
    A substantial and in-depth study of the history of the atomic theory of matter between the time of Democritus and that of Newton. It is the first to emphasize the continuity of the atomic debate and the debt owed by the seventeenth-century "moderns" to the medieval critique of Aristotle.
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  12.  76
    Axiological Atomism.Graham Oddie - 2001 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 79 (3):313 – 332.
    Value is either additive or else it is subject to organic unity. In general we have organic unity where a complex whole is not simply the sum of its parts. Value exhibits organic unity if the value of a complex, whether a complex state or complex quality, is greater or less than the sum of the values of its components or parts. Whether or not value is additive might be thought to be of purely metaphysical interest, but it is also (...)
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  13.  43
    Logical Atomism and its Ontological Refinement: A Defense.Peter Simons - 1992 - In Kevin Mulligan (ed.), Language, Truth and Ontology. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 157--179.
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  14. Logical Atomism in Russell and Wittgenstein.Ian Proops - 2011 - In Marie McGinn & Oskari Kuusela (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Wittgenstein. Oxford University Press.
    An essay examining logical atomism as it arises in Russell and the early Wittgenstein.
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  15.  25
    Atomism in Late Medieval Philosophy and Theology.Christophe Grellard & Aurélien Robert (eds.) - 2009 - Brill.
    DMet 10: Prime matter is the origin of all quantities. Hence it is the origin of every dimension of continuous quantity whatever. ...
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  16.  28
    Atomism's Eleatic Roots.David Sedley - 2008 - In Patricia Curd & Daniel W. Graham (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Presocratic Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    Presocratic atomism was one of the most influential of the early theories: both Plato and Aristotle thought of it as a major competing theory, and it was an important source for post-Aristotelian Hellenistic theories. It has been commonplace that the atomism developed first by Leucippus of Abdera and then by Democritus of Abdera was a reaction to the Eleatic arguments of Zeno and Melissus, but the details of that influence have sometimes seemed rather hazy. This article brings them (...)
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  17. Logical Atomism, Nominalism, and Modal Logic.Nino Cocchiarella - 1975 - Synthese 31 (1):23 - 62.
    While operators for logical necessity and possibility represent "internal" conditions of propositions (or of their corresponding states of affairs), These conditions will be "formal", As is required by logical atomism, And not "material" in content if from the (pseudo) semantical point of view the modal operators range over "all the possible worlds" of a logical space rather than over arbitrary non-Empty sets of worlds (as is usually done in modal logic). Some of the implications of this requirement are noted (...)
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  18.  68
    Atomism About Value.David Alm - 2004 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 82 (2):312 – 331.
    Atomism is defined as the view that the moral value of any object is ultimately determined by simple features whose contribution to the value of an object is always the same, independently of context. A morally fundamental feature, in a given context, is defined as one whose contribution in that context is determined by no other value fact. Three theses are defended, which together entail atomism: (1) All objects have their moral value ultimately in virtue of morally fundamental (...)
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  19.  44
    Rancièrean Atomism: Clarifying the Debate Between Jacques Rancière and Alain Badiou.Joseph M. Spencer - 2015 - Journal of French and Francophone Philosophy 23 (2):98-121.
    In the late 1970s and the 1980s, a number of radical left political theorists focused their philosophical attention on the relevance of ancient atomism, revitalizing a tradition that went back to Karl Marx's work on his dissertation. This essay looks at the uses of atomism by two thinkers in particular, Jacques Rancière and Alain Badiou, in order to see how their discussions of and references to ancient materialism help to shed light on their fundamental disagreements about the nature (...)
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  20.  79
    Russell's Logical Atomism.David Bostock - 2012 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
    He explores Russell's logical atomism, which applies logic to problems in the theory of knowledge and metaphysics and was central to Russell's work over this period.
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  21.  17
    Biological Atomism and Cell Theory.Daniel J. Nicholson - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 41 (3):202-211.
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  22.  26
    Islamic Atomism and the Galenic Tradition.Tzvi Langermann - 2009 - History of Science 47 (3):277-295.
    This paper argues that tthe detailed critique of a variety of atomistic doctrines found in the Galenic corpus, especially On the Elements according to Hippocrates, was a major source for the atomism of the early kalam.
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  23.  6
    Russell's Logical Atomism.Bertrand Arthur William Russell - 1972 - London: Fontana.
    The philosophy of logical atomism.--Logical atomism.
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  24.  63
    Atomism in Crisis: An Analysis of the Current High Energy Paradigm.K. Shrader-Frechette - 1977 - Philosophy of Science 44 (3):409-440.
    Since the appearance of T. S. Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, scholars from various fields have sought to evaluate their disciplines in the light of Kuhnian criteria for scientific change. In this paper I argue that a new paradigm seems needed in high energy physics, and that there is no more reason to say that matter is made of elementary particles, than to say that it is not. My argument, that high energy physics is approaching a state of crisis, (...)
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  25.  40
    Conceptual Atomism Rethought.Susan Schneider - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (2-3):224-225.
    Focusing on Machery's claim that concepts play entirely different roles in philosophy and psychology, I explain how one well-known philosophical theory of concepts, Conceptual Atomism (CA), when properly understood, takes into account both kinds of roles.
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  26. Russell's Logical Atomism.Kevin C. Klement - 2009 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) described his philosophy as a kind of “logical atomism”, by which he meant to endorse both a metaphysical view and a certain methodology for doing philosophy. The metaphysical view amounts to the claim that the world consists of a plurality of independently existing things exhibiting qualities and standing in relations. According to logical atomism, all truths are ultimately dependent upon a layer of atomic facts, which consist either of a simple particular exhibiting a quality, or (...)
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  27.  15
    Atomism and Positivism: A Legend About French Chemistry.Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent - 1999 - Annals of Science 56 (1):81-94.
    The strong opposition of nineteenth-century French chemists to atomism is usually described as a national attitude due to the overarching influence of positivism in France. The explanation sounds plausible, at first glance. However, the idea that a philosophy of science acted as an obstacle to the advancement of science needs further investigation. What is meant exactly by a philosophical influence on a scientific community? In analysing the alleged influence of positivism on the chemists' community it is argued that the (...)
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  28.  34
    Beyond Atomism and Holism—the Concept of the Holon.Arthur Koestler - 1970 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 13 (2):131-154.
  29.  56
    Logical Atomism and Modal Logic.Nino B. Cocchiarella - 1974 - Philosophia 4 (1):41-66.
    A propositional logic with modal operators for logical necessity and possibility is formulated as a formal ontology for logical atomism (with negative facts). It is shown that such modal operators represent purely formal, Internal 'properties' of propositions if and only if the notion of 'all possible worlds' has its standard and not the secondary interpretation which it is usually given (as, E.G., In kripke model-Structures). Allowing arbitrary restrictions on the notion of 'all possible worlds', At least in such a (...)
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  30.  38
    Atomism From the 17th to the 20th Century.Alan Chalmers - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  31. Logical Atomism and Ontological Atoms.William Lycan - 1981 - Synthese 46 (2):207 - 229.
    Three kinds of "atoms" figure in russell's logical atomism, Though he seems to see no differences between them: logical atoms (the referents of logically proper names); epistemological atoms (things known directly or by acquaintance); and ontological atoms (basic constituents of the universe). This paper speculates on why russell believed that all three of these notions coincide, Thereby bringing out some of his unacknowledged background assumptions.
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  32.  79
    Attention, Atomism, and the Disunity of Consciousness. [REVIEW]Jesse Prinz - 2013 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 86 (1):215-222.
  33.  49
    Francis Bacon and Atomism: A Reappraisal.Silvia Manzo - 2001 - In John Murdoch, Lüthy Cristoph & Newman William (eds.), Late Medieval and Early Modern Corpuscular Matter Theories. Brill. pp. 209-243.
    Francis Bacon’s theory of matter is a controversial topic among historians. I agree with the viewpoint, which suggests that although Bacon changed his views on atomism repeatedly, he never rejected it completely (Partington, Urbach, Gemelli). I will substantiate this interpretation by paying more attention to the usually neglected allegorical works and by investigating why Bacon changed his mind on atomism in his Novum organum. I shall reconstruct Bacon’s various opinions in chronological order to establish his final evaluation of (...)
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  34.  43
    The Atomists: Leucippus and Democritus. Fragments: A Text and Translation with a Commentary. [REVIEW]James Warren & C. C. W. Taylor - 2000 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 120:175-175.
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    The Greek Atomists and Epicurus.Cyril Bailey - 1931 - New York: Russell & Russell.
  36.  37
    Anthropocentrism, Atomism, and Environmental Ethics.Donald Scherer - 1982 - Environmental Ethics 4 (2):115-123.
    By attempting to divorce attributions of value from judgments of the interest of the attributor, developing the concept ofa locus of value, exploring the interconnections between the goods of individuals and the goods of populations and species, and suggesting the reasonableness ofthe attributions of rights to certain sorts of individuals, I try to indicate the degree to which an environmental ethic can be atomisticwithout being anthropocentric.
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  37.  83
    Atomism, Lynceus, and the Fate of Seventeenth-Century Microscopy.C. H. Lüthy - 1996 - Early Science and Medicine 1 (1):1-27.
    Recent scholarship, focusing on the rapid decline of microscopy after the late 1680's, has shown that the limitations of microscopy and the ambivalent meaning of its findings led to a wide-spread sense of frustration with the new instrument. The present article tries to connect this fall from favor with the microscope's equally surprising but hitherto little noticed late rise to prominence. The crucial point is that when the microscope, more than a decade after the telescope, finally managed to arouse the (...)
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  38.  24
    Atomism, Holism and Structuralism: Costs and Benefits of a Minimalist Ontology of the World: Michael Esfeld and Dirk-André Deckert: A Minimalist Ontology of the Natural World. New York: Routledge, 2017, 182 Pp, US$140.00 HB.Anna Marmodoro - 2018 - Metascience 27 (3):421-425.
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  39.  57
    Chemical Atomism: A Case Study in Confirmation and Ontology.Joshua D. K. Brown - 2015 - Synthese 192 (2):453-485.
    Quine, taking the molecular constitution of matter as a paradigmatic example, offers an account of the relation between theory confirmation and ontology. Elsewhere, he deploys a similar ontological methodology to argue for the existence of mathematical objects. Penelope Maddy considers the atomic/molecular theory in more historical detail. She argues that the actual ontological practices of science display a positivistic demand for “direct observation,” and that fulfillment of this demand allows us to distinguish molecules and other physical objects from mathematical abstracta. (...)
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  40.  13
    Atomism and 'Subtlety' in Francis Bacon's Philosophy.Graham Rees - 1980 - Annals of Science 37 (5):549-571.
    Francis Bacon's reflections on atomism have generally been misunderstood because they have never been systematically studied in relation to the speculative chemical philosophy which he developed in the interval between about 1592 and his death in 1626. This philosophy, in many respects unknown to historians until quite recently, was the only body of positive science which Bacon ever accepted. The speculative philosophy was, on the whole, chemical and non-mechanical, and consequently not consistent with atomist doctrines. In fact, Bacon never (...)
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  41. Logical Atomism in Plato's Theaetetus.G. Ryle - 1990 - Phronesis 35 (1):21-46.
  42. Atomistic Learning in Non-Modular Systems.Pierre Poirier - 2005 - Philosophical Psychology 18 (3):313-325.
    We argue that atomistic learning?learning that requires training only on a novel item to be learned?is problematic for networks in which every weight is available for change in every learning situation. This is potentially significant because atomistic learning appears to be commonplace in humans and most non-human animals. We briefly review various proposed fixes, concluding that the most promising strategy to date involves training on pseudo-patterns along with novel items, a form of learning that is not strictly atomistic, but which (...)
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  43. The Philosophy of Logical Atomism, Lectures 1-2.Bertrand Russell - 1918 - The Monist 28 (4):495-527.
  44.  38
    Getting Over Atomism: Functional Decomposition in Complex Neural Systems.Daniel C. Burnston - 2021 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 72 (3):743-772.
    Functional decomposition is an important goal in the life sciences, and is central to mechanistic explanation and explanatory reduction. A growing literature in philosophy of science, however, has challenged decomposition-based notions of explanation. ‘Holists’ posit that complex systems exhibit context-sensitivity, dynamic interaction, and network dependence, and that these properties undermine decomposition. They then infer from the failure of decomposition to the failure of mechanistic explanation and reduction. I argue that complexity, so construed, is only incompatible with one notion of decomposition, (...)
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  45.  2
    Studies in Islamic Atomism.Shlomo Pines - 1997 - The Magnes Press, the Hebrew University.
    The late Shlomo Pines (1908-1990) was this century's outstanding historian of Islamic philosophy and science. This volume offers, for the first time in English. Pines' doctoral dissertation on Islamic atomism; the German version appeared in 1936. Pines presents the atomic theories of matter, time and space, as they are found in the literature of kalam, as well their exposition in the writings of Abŭ Bakr al - Râzî; and then investigates in detail possible sources in the Greek, Indian, and (...)
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  46.  10
    Atomistic Simulations of Interactions Between the 1 / 2⟨111⟩ Edge Dislocation and Symmetric Tilt Grain Boundaries in Tungsten. [REVIEW]Y. Cheng, M. Mrovec & P. Gumbsch - 2008 - Philosophical Magazine 88 (4):547-560.
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  47.  15
    The Philosophy of Logical Atomism: A Centenary Reappraisal.Landon D. C. Elkind & Gregory Landini (eds.) - 2018 - New York, NY, USA: Palgrave Macmillan.
    This book offers a comprehensive critical survey of issues of historical interpretation and evaluation in Bertrand Russell's 1918 logical atomism lectures and logical atomism itself. These lectures record the culmination of Russell's thought in response to discussions with Wittgenstein on the nature of judgement and philosophy of logic and with Moore and other philosophical realists about epistemology and ontological atomism, and to Whitehead and Russell’s novel extension of revolutionary nineteenth-century work in mathematics and logic. Russell's logical (...) lectures have had a lasting impact on analytic philosophy and on Russell's contemporaries including Carnap, Ramsey, Stebbing, and Wittgenstein. Comprised of 14 original essays, this book will demonstrate how the direct and indirect influence of these lectures thus runs deep and wide. (shrink)
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  48.  35
    Atomistic Versus Holistic Semiotics.Mihhail Lotman - 2002 - Sign Systems Studies 30 (2):513-526.
    The paper is devoted on the foundations of semiotics. It examines the specific features of Peircean and Saussurean traditions and demonstrates that the basis of all the differences is the different conception of the nature of sign: Peirce proceeds from the substitutive concept, Saussure from the bilateral one. The substitutive construction is atomistic by its nature: it is based on a (single) sign which replaces a (single) object, while bilateral is holistic: it is based on the sign system which is (...)
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  49.  20
    Idealist–Atomist Autonomy and the Commercialization of Biomedicine.Miran Epstein - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (2):65-67.
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  50. Wittgenstein's Logical Atomism.Ian Proops - 2004 - Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy (65):374-376.
    An article explicating Wittgenstein's logical atomism and surveying the relevant secondary literature.
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