100 found
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  1.  77
    Measuring Consciousness: Is One Measure Better Than the Other?Kristian Sandberg, Bert Timmermans, Morten Overgaard & Axel Cleeremans - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (4):1069-1078.
    What is the best way of assessing the extent to which people are aware of a stimulus? Here, using a masked visual identification task, we compared three measures of subjective awareness: The Perceptual Awareness Scale , through which participants are asked to rate the clarity of their visual experience; confidence ratings , through which participants express their confidence in their identification decisions, and Post-decision wagering , in which participants place a monetary wager on their decisions. We conducted detailed explorations of (...)
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  2. Measuring Consciousness: Relating Behavioural and Neurophysiological Approaches.Anil K. Seth, Zoltán Dienes, Axel Cleeremans, Morten Overgaard & Luiz Pessoa - 2008 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12 (8):314-321.
  3.  6
    Learning the Structure of Event Sequences.Axel Cleeremans & James L. McClelland - 1991 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 120 (3):235-253.
  4. Implicit Learning: News From the Front.Axel Cleeremans, Arnaud Destrebecqz & Maud Boyer - 1998 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2 (10):406-416.
    69 Thompson-Schill, S.L. _et al. _(1997) Role of left inferior prefrontal cortex 59 Buckner, R.L. _et al. _(1996) Functional anatomic studies of memory in retrieval of semantic knowledge: a re-evaluation _Proc. Natl. Acad._ retrieval for auditory words and pictures _J. Neurosci. _16, 6219–6235 _Sci. U. S. A. _94, 14792–14797 60 Buckner, R.L. _et al. _(1995) Functional anatomical studies of explicit and 70 Baddeley, A. (1992) Working memory: the interface between memory implicit memory retrieval tasks _J. Neurosci. _15, 12–29 and cognition (...)
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  5. Can Sequence Learning Be Implicit? New Evidence with the Process Dissociation Procedure.Arnaud Destrebecqz & Axel Cleeremans - 2001 - Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 8 (2):343-350.
    Running head: Implicit sequence learning ABSTRACT Can we learn without awareness? Although this issue has been extensively explored through studies of implicit learning, there is currently no agreement about the extent to which knowledge can be acquired and projected onto performance in an unconscious way. The controversy, like that surrounding implicit memory, seems to be at least in part attributable to unquestioned acceptance of the unrealistic assumption that tasks are process-pure, that is, that a given task exclusively involves either implicit (...)
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  6.  71
    Mechanisms of Implicit Learning: Connectionist Models of Sequence Processing.Axel Cleeremans - 1993 - MIT Press.
    What do people learn when they do not know that they are learning? Until recently, all of the work in the area of implicit learning focused on empirical questions and methods. In this book, Axel Cleeremans explores unintentional learning from an information-processing perspective. He introduces a theoretical framework that unifies existing data and models on implicit learning, along with a detailed computational model of human performance in sequence-learning situations.
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  7.  38
    Subjective Measures of Consciousness in Artificial Grammar Learning Task.Michał Wierzchoń, Dariusz Asanowicz, Borysław Paulewicz & Axel Cleeremans - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (3):1141-1153.
    Consciousness can be measured in various ways, but different measures often yield different conclusions about the extent to which awareness relates to performance. Here, we compare five different subjective measures of awareness in the context of an artificial grammar learning task. Participants expressed their subjective awareness of rules using one of five different scales: confidence ratings , post-decision wagering , feeling of warmth , rule awareness , and continuous scale . All scales were equally sensitive to conscious knowledge. PDW, however, (...)
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  8.  80
    Different Subjective Awareness Measures Demonstrate the Influence of Visual Identification on Perceptual Awareness Ratings.Michał Wierzchoń, Borysław Paulewicz, Dariusz Asanowicz, Bert Timmermans & Axel Cleeremans - 2014 - Consciousness and Cognition 27:109-120.
  9. Implicit Learning and Consciousness: A Graded, Dynamic Perspective.Axel Cleeremans & Luis Jimenez - 2002 - In Robert M. French & Axel Cleeremans (eds.), Implicit Learning and Consciousness: An Empirical. Psychology Press.
    While the study of implicit learning is nothing new, the field as a whole has come to embody — over the last decade or so — ongoing questioning about three of the most fundamental debates in the cognitive sciences: The nature of consciousness, the nature of mental representation (in particular the difficult issue of abstraction), and the role of experience in shaping the cognitive system. Our main goal in this chapter is to offer a framework that attempts to integrate current (...)
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  10. Principles for Implicit Learning.Axel Cleeremans - 1997 - In Dianne C. Berry (ed.), How Implicit is Implicit Learning? Oxford University Press.
    Complete URL to this document: http://srsc.ulb.ac.be/axcWWW/93-Principles.html.
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  11.  64
    Subjective Visibility Depends on Level of Processing.Bert Windey, Wim Gevers & Axel Cleeremans - 2013 - Cognition 129 (2):404-409.
  12. Implicit Learning.Axel Cleeremans - 1998 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2 (10):406-416.
    Implicit learning is the process through which we become sensitive to certain regularities in the environment (1) in the absence of intention to learn about those regularities (2) in the absence of awareness that one is learning, and (3) in such a way that the resulting knowledge is difficult to express.
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  13.  40
    Finite State Automata and Simple Recurrent Networks.Axel Cleeremans & David Servan-Schreiber - unknown
    We explore a network architecture introduced by Elman (1988) for predicting successive elements of a sequence. The network uses the pattern of activation over a set of hidden units from time-step 25-1, together with element t, to predict element t + 1. When the network is trained with strings from a particular finite-state grammar, it can learn to be a perfect finite-state recognizer for the grammar. When the network has a minimal number of hidden units, patterns on the hidden units (...)
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  14.  26
    The Perception of Visual Emotion: Comparing Different Measures of Awareness.Remigiusz Szczepanowski, Jakub Traczyk, Michał Wierzchoń & Axel Cleeremans - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):212-220.
    Here, we explore the sensitivity of different awareness scales in revealing conscious reports on visual emotion perception. Participants were exposed to a backward masking task involving fearful faces and asked to rate their conscious awareness in perceiving emotion in facial expression using three different subjective measures: confidence ratings , with the conventional taxonomy of certainty, the perceptual awareness scale , through which participants categorize “raw” visual experience, and post-decision wagering , which involves economic categorization. Our results show that the CR (...)
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  15.  25
    Measuring Consciousness: Task Accuracy and Awareness as Sigmoid Functions of Stimulus Duration.Kristian Sandberg, Bo Martin Bibby, Bert Timmermans, Axel Cleeremans & Morten Overgaard - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1659-1675.
    When consciousness is examined using subjective ratings, the extent to which processing is conscious or unconscious is often estimated by calculating task performance at the subjective threshold or by calculating the correlation between accuracy and awareness. However, both these methods have certain limitations. In the present article, we propose describing task accuracy and awareness as functions of stimulus intensity as suggested by Koch and Preuschoff . The estimated lag between the curves describes how much stimulus intensity must increase for awareness (...)
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  16.  68
    Consciousness: The Radical Plasticity Thesis.Axel Cleeremans - 2008 - In Rahul Banerjee & B. K. Chakrabarti (eds.), Models of Brain and Mind: Physical, Computational, and Psychological Approaches. Elsevier.
    In this chapter, I sketch a conceptual framework which takes it as a starting point that conscious and unconscious cognition are rooted in the same set of interacting learning mechanisms and representational systems. On this view, the extent to which a representation is conscious depends in a graded manner on properties such as its stability in time or its strength. Crucially, these properties are accrued as a result of learning, which is in turn viewed as a mandatory process that always (...)
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  17. Computational Correlates of Consciousness.Axel Cleeremans - 2006 - In Steven Laureys (ed.), The Boundaries of Consciousness: Neurobiology and Neuropathology: Progress in Brain Research. Elsevier.
    Over the past few years numerous proposals have appeared that attempt to characterize consciousness in terms of what could be called its computational correlates: Principles of information processing with which to characterize the differences between conscious and unconscious processing. Proposed computational correlates include architectural specialization (such as the involvement of specific regions of the brain in conscious processing), properties of representations (such as their stability in time or their strength), and properties of specific processes (such as resonance, synchrony, interactivity, or (...)
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  18.  17
    Consciousness as a Graded and an All-or-None Phenomenon: A Conceptual Analysis.Bert Windey & Axel Cleeremans - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 35:185-191.
  19.  32
    Know Thyself: Metacognitive Networks and Measures of Consciousness.Antoine Pasquali, Bert Timmermans & Axel Cleeremans - 2010 - Cognition 117 (2):182-190.
  20.  68
    Optimizing Subjective Measures of Consciousness.Morten Overgaard, Bert Timmermans, Kristian Sandberg & Axel Cleeremans - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (2):682-684.
    Dienes and Seth (2010) conclude that confidence ratings and post-decision wagering are two comparable and recommendable measures of conscious experience. In a recently submitted paper, we have however found that both methods are problematic and seem less suited to measure consciousness than a direct introspective measure. Here, we discuss the methodology and conclusions put forward by Dienes and Seth, and why we think the two experiments end up with so different recommendations.
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  21. The Unity of Consciousness: Binding, Integration, and Dissociation.Axel Cleeremans (ed.) - 2003 - Oxford University Press.
    Consciousness has many elements, from sensory experiences such as vision and bodily sensation, to nonsensory aspects such as memory and thought. All are presented as experiences of a single subject, and all seem to be contained within a unified field of experience. This unity raises many questions: How do diverse systems in the brain co-operate to produce a unified experience? Are there conditions under which this unity breaks down? Is conscious experience really unified at all? Such questions are addressed in (...)
     
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  22. Consciousness: Mapping the Theoretical Landscape.Anthony P. Atkinson, Michael S. C. Thomas & Axel Cleeremans - 2000 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (10):372-382.
    What makes us conscious? Many theories that attempt to answer this question have appeared recently in the context of widespread interest about consciousness in the cognitive neurosciences. Most of these proposals are formulated in terms of the information processing conducted by the brain. In this overview, we survey and contrast these models. We first delineate several notions of consciousness, addressing what it is that the various models are attempting to explain. Next, we describe a conceptual landscape that addresses how the (...)
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  23. Consciousness: Converging Insights From Connectionist Modeling and Neuroscience.Tiago V. Maia & Axel Cleeremans - 2005 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (8):397-404.
    Over the past decade, many findings in cognitive about the contents of consciousness: we will not address neuroscience have resulted in the view that selective what might be called the ‘enabling factors’ for conscious- attention, working memory and cognitive control ness (e.g. appropriate neuromodulation from the brain- stem, etc.). involve competition between widely distributed rep-.
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  24.  23
    Comparing Direct and Indirect Measures of Sequence Learning.Axel Cleeremans - unknown
    Comparing the relative sensitivity of direct and indirect measures of learning is proposed as the best way to provide evidence for unconscious learning when both conceptual and operative definitions of awareness are lacking. This approach was first proposed by Reingold & Merikle (1988) in the context of subliminal perception. In this paper, we apply it to a choice reaction time task in which the material is generated based on a probabilistic finite-state grammar (Cleeremans, 1993). We show (1) that participants progressively (...)
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  25.  25
    The Relationship Between Human Agency and Embodiment.Emilie A. Caspar, Axel Cleeremans & Patrick Haggard - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 33:226-236.
  26.  56
    Computational Models of Implicit Learning.Axel Cleeremans & Zoltán Dienes - 2008 - In Ron Sun (ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Computational Psychology. Cambridge University Press. pp. 396--421.
  27. Attention and Awareness in Sequence Learning.Axel Cleeremans - forthcoming - Proceedings of the Fiftheenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society:227-232.
    referred to as implicit learning (Reber, 1989). Implicit learning contrasts with explicit learning (exhibited for.
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  28.  91
    The Neural Correlates of Implicit and Explicit Sequence Learning: Interacting Networks Revealed by the Process Dissociation Procedure.Arnaud Destrebecqz, Philippe Peigneux, Steven Laureys, Christian Degueldre, Guy Del Fiore, Joel Aerts, Andre Luxen, Martia Van Der Linden, Axel Cleeremans & Pierre Maquet - 2005 - Learning and Memory 12 (5):480-490.
    In cognitive neuroscience, dissociating the brain networks that ing—has thus become one of the best empirical situations subtend conscious and nonconscious memories constitutes a through which to study the mechanisms of implicit learning, very complex issue, both conceptually and methodologically.
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  29.  19
    Implicit Learning Out of the Lab: The Case of Orthographic Regularities.Sébastien Pacton, Pierre Perruchet, Michel Fayol & Axel Cleeremans - 2001 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 130 (3):401.
  30.  80
    Conscious and Unconscious Cognition: A Graded, Dynamic Perspective.Axel Cleeremans - 2006 - International Journal of Psychology.
    Consider the following three situations: learning to perform a complex skill such as gymastics (a stunning demonstration of which participants to ICP 2004 experienced during the opening ceremony), learning a complex game such as the ancient Chinese game of Weichi (more widely known as Go), or learning natural language. What these situations have in common, beyond the sheer complexity of the required skills, is the fact that most of what we learn about each appears to proceed in a manner that (...)
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  31.  14
    Does Level of Processing Affect the Transition From Unconscious to Conscious Perception?Anna Anzulewicz, Dariusz Asanowicz, Bert Windey, Borysław Paulewicz, Michał Wierzchoń & Axel Cleeremans - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 36:1-11.
  32.  91
    Connecting Conscious and Unconscious Processing.Axel Cleeremans - 2014 - Cognitive Science 38 (6):1286-1315.
    Consciousness remains a mystery—“a phenomenon that people do not know how to think about—yet” (Dennett, , p. 21). Here, I consider how the connectionist perspective on information processing may help us progress toward the goal of understanding the computational principles through which conscious and unconscious processing differ. I begin by delineating the conceptual challenges associated with classical approaches to cognition insofar as understanding unconscious information processing is concerned, and to highlight several contrasting computational principles that are constitutive of the connectionist (...)
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  33. Experience-Dependent Changes in Cerebral Activation During Human Rem Sleep.Pierre Maquet, Steven Laureys, Philippe Peigneux, Sonia Fuchs, Christophe Petiau, Christophe Phillips, Joel Aerts, Guy Del Fiore, Christian Degueldre, Thierry Meulemans, Andre Luxen, Georges Franck, Martial Van Der Linden, Carlyle Smith & Axel Cleeremans - 2000 - Nature Neuroscience 3 (8):831-36.
    Pierre Maquet1,2,6, Steven Laureys1,2, Philippe Peigneux1,2,3, Sonia Fuchs1, Christophe Petiau1, Christophe Phillips1,6, Joel Aerts1, Guy Del Fiore1, Christian Degueldre1, Thierry Meulemans3, André Luxen1, Georges Franck1,2, Martial Van Der Linden3, Carlyle Smith4 and Axel Cleeremans5.
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  34.  30
    The Validity of D9 Measures.Astrid Vermeiren & Axel Cleeremans - unknown
    Subliminal perception occurs when prime stimuli that participants claim not to be aware of nevertheless influence subsequent processing of a target. This claim, however, critically depends on correct methods to assess prime awareness. Typically, d9 (‘‘d prime’’) tasks administered after a priming task are used to establish that people are unable to discriminate between different primes. Here, we show that such d9 tasks are influenced by the nature of the target, by attentional factors, and by the delay between stimulus presentation (...)
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  35.  44
    Repeating a Strongly Masked Stimulus Increases Priming and Awareness.Anne Atas, Astrid Vermeiren & Axel Cleeremans - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (4):1422-1430.
  36.  82
    Is It Better to Think Unconsciously or to Trust Your First Impression? A Reassessment of Unconscious Thought Theory.Axel Cleeremans - unknown
    According to Unconscious Thought Theory (Dijksterhuis & Nordgren, 2006), complex decisions are best made after a period of distraction assumed to elicit “unconscious thought”. Here, we suggest instead that the superiority of decisions made after distraction results from the fact that conscious deliberation can deteriorate impressions formed online during information acquisition. We found that participants instructed to form an impression made better decisions after distraction than after deliberation, thereby replicating earlier findings. However, decisions made immediately were just as good as (...)
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  37.  35
    Partial Awareness Distinguishes Between Measuring Conscious Perception and Conscious Content: Reply to Dienes and Seth.Bert Timmermans, Kristian Sandberg, Axel Cleeremans & Morten Overgaard - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (4):1081-1083.
    In their comment on Sandberg, Timmermans, Overgaard, and Cleeremans , Dienes and Seth argue that increased sensitivity of the Perceptual Awareness Scale is a consequence of the scale being less exclusive rather than more exhaustive. According to Dienes and Seth, this is because PAS may measure some conscious content, though not necessarily relevant conscious content, “If one saw a square but was only aware of seeing a flash of something, then one has not consciously seen a square.” In this reply, (...)
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  38.  80
    First- and Third-Person Approaches in Implicit Learning Research.Vinciane Gaillard, Muriel Vandenberghe, Arnaud Destrebecqz & Axel Cleeremans - 2006 - Consciousness and Cognition 15 (4):709-722.
    How do we find out whether someone is conscious of some information or not? A simple answer is “We just ask them”! However, things are not so simple. Here, we review recent developments in the use of subjective and objective methods in implicit learning research and discuss the highly complex methodological problems that their use raises in the domain.
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  39. Comparing Direct and Indirect Measures of Sequence Learning.Jimenez Luis, Mendez Castor & Cleeremans Axel - 1996 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 22 (4):948-969.
    Comparing the relative sensitivity of direct and indirect measures of learning is proposed as the best way to provide evidence for unconscious learning when both conceptual and operative definitions of awareness are lacking. This approach was first proposed by Reingold & Merikle (1988) in the context of subliminal perception. In this paper, we apply it to a choice reaction time task in which the material is generated based on a probabilistic finite-state grammar (Cleeremans, 1993). We show (1) that participants progressively (...)
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  40.  7
    Social Cues Alter Implicit Motor Learning in a Serial Reaction Time Task.Alexander Geiger, Axel Cleeremans, Gary Bente & Kai Vogeley - 2018 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 12.
  41.  49
    Implicit Sequence Learning: The Truth is in the Details.Axel Cleeremans & L. JimC)nez - 1998 - In Michael A. Stadler & Peter A. Frensch (eds.), Handbook of Implicit Learning. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Over the past decade, sequence learning has gradually become a central paradigm through which to study implicit learning. In this chapter, we start by briefly summarizing the results obtained with different variants of the sequence learning paradigm. We distinguish three subparadigms in terms of whether the stimulus material is generated either by following a fixed and repeating sequence (e.g., Nissen & Bullemer, 1987), by relying on a complex set of rules from which one can produce several alternative deterministic sequences (e.g., (...)
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  42. The Oxford Companion to Consciousness.Patrick Wilken, Timothy J. Bayne & Axel Cleeremans (eds.) - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
    Five years in the making and including over 250 concise entries written by leaders in the field, the volume covers both fundamental knowledge as well as more recent advances in this rapidly changing domain.
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  43.  83
    Time, Action, and Consciousness.Axel Cleeremans - 2006 - Human Movement Science.
    Time plays a central role in consciousness, at different levels and in different aspects of information processing. Subliminal perception experiments demonstrate that stimuli presented too briefly to enter conscious awareness are nevertheless processed to some extent. Implicit learning, implicit memory, and conditioning studies suggest that the extent to which memory traces are available for verbal report and for cognitive control is likewise dependent on the time available for processing during acquisition. Differences in the time available for processing also determine not (...)
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  44.  4
    The Influence of Belief in Free Will on Immoral Behavior.Emilie A. Caspar, Laurène Vuillaume, Pedro A. Magalhães De Saldanha da Gama & Axel Cleeremans - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  45. Correlating Consciousness: A View From Empirical Science.Axel Cleeremans & John-Dylan Haynes - 1999 - Revue Internationale de Philosophie 53 (209):387-420.
     
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  46.  69
    Undetected Changes in Visible Stimuli Influence Subsequent Decisions.Axel Cleeremans - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (3):646-656.
    Change blindness—our inability to detect changes in a stimulus—occurs even when the change takes place gradually, without any disruption [Simons, D. J., Franconeri, S. L., & Reimer, R. L. . Change blindness in the absence of a visual disruption. Perception, 29, 1143–1154]. Such gradual changes are more difficult to detect than changes that involve a disruption. Using this method, David et al. [David, E., Laloyaux, C., Devue, C., & Cleeremans, A. . Change blindness to gradual changes in facial expressions. Psychologica (...)
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  47.  62
    Change Blindness to Gradual Changes in Facial Expressions.Axel Cleeremans - unknown
    Change blindness—our inability to detect changes in a stimulus—occurs even when the change takes place gradually, without disruption (Simons et al., 2000). Such gradual changes are more difficult to detect than changes that involve a disruption. In this experiment, we extend previous findings to the domain of facial expressions of emotions occurring in the context of a realistic scene. Even with changes occurring in central, highly relevant stimuli such as faces, gradual changes still produced high levels of change blindness: Detection (...)
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  48. How Do We Know What We Are Doing? Time, Intention and Awareness of Action.Jean-Christophe Sarrazin, Axel Cleeremans & Patrick Haggard - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (3):602-615.
    Time is a fundamental dimension of consciousness. Many studies of the “sense of agency” have investigated whether we attribute actions to ourselves based on a conscious experience of intention occurring prior to action, or based on a reconstruction after the action itself has occurred. Here, we ask the same question about a lower level aspect of action experience, namely awareness of the detailed spatial form of a simple movement. Subjects reached for a target, which unpredictably jumped to the side on (...)
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  49. Correlating Consciousness: A Vew From Empirical Science.Axel Cleeremans & John Haynes - 1999 - Revue Internationale de Philosophie 3 (209):387-420.
    Research on consciousness is currently enjoying a spectacular revival of interest in the cognitive sciences. From an empirical point of view, the NCC program — the search for the “Neural Correlates of Consciousness” — holds the promise of establishing correlations between physiological and phenomenal states in a way that directly resembles G. T. Fechner´s (1860) so-called “inner psychophysics”. Should the NCC program be entirely successful, we would thus be able to predict phenomenal states based on physiological states. we would be (...)
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  50.  63
    Can Amnesic Patients Learn Without Awareness? New Evidence Comparing Deterministic and Probabilistic Sequence Learning.Muriel Vandenberghe, Nicolas Schmidt, Patrick Fery & Axel Cleeremans - 2006 - Neuropsychologia 44 (10):1629-1641.
    Can associative learning take place without awareness? We explore this issue in a sequence learning paradigm with amnesic and control participants, who were simply asked to react to one of four possible stimuli on each trial. Unknown to them, successive stimuli occurred in a sequence. We manipulated the extent to which stimuli followed the sequence in a deterministic manner (noiseless condition) or only probabilistically so (noisy condition). Through this paradigm, we aimed at addressing two central issues: first, we asked whether (...)
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