ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate ethical problems caused by teachers accepting gifts in schools. The viewpoints of teachers, administrators, and parents who were involved in the process of gift giving at schools in Turkey were recorded. To facilitate a deeper investigation of ethical problems caused by gift culture in schools, qualitative research methods were used in the study. Data collected through interviews with the participants were analyzed using content analysis techniques largely based on inductive reasoning. The (...) results of the study revealed that gifts affected teachers’ objectivity and prevented them from treating students equally. (shrink)
Are words like ‘woman’ or ‘man’ sex terms that we use to talk about biological features of individuals? Are they gender terms that we use to talk about non-biological features e.g. social roles? Contextualists answer both questions affirmatively, arguing that these terms concern biological or non-biological features depending on context. I argue that a recent version of contextualism from Jennifer Saul that Esa Diaz-Leon develops doesn't exhibit the right kind of flexibility to capture our theoretical intuitions or moral and political (...) practices concerning our uses of these words. I then float the view that terms like 'woman' or 'man' are polysemous, arguing that it makes better sense of the significance of some forms of criticisms of mainstream gender ideology. (shrink)
Ethicists struggle to take reductive views seriously. They also have trouble conceiving of some supervenience failures. Understanding why provides further evidence for a kind of hybrid view of normative concept use.
A critical survey of various positions on the nature, use, possession, and analysis of normative concepts. We frame our treatment around G.E. Moore’s Open Question Argument, and the ways metaethicists have responded by departing from a Classical Theory of concepts. In addition to the Classical Theory, we discuss synthetic naturalism, noncognitivism (expressivist and inferentialist), prototype theory, network theory, and empirical linguistic approaches. Although written for a general philosophical audience, we attempt to provide a new perspective and highlight some underappreciated problems (...) about normative concepts. (shrink)
SummaryA study of MZ and DZ twins suggests that cultural differences are less important than individual environmental experiences in determining the age of first sexual intercourse. Certain personality factors are found to be correlated with this trait and there is also evidence that genetical differences may predispose individuals to cross this threshold at an earlier or a later age.
NG van Kampen is a well-known theoretical physicist who has had a long and distinguished career. His research covers scattering theory, plasma physics, statistical mechanics, and various mathematical aspects of physics. In addition to his scientific work, he has written a number of papers about more general aspects of science. An indefatigable fighter for intellectual honesty and clarity, he has pointed out repeatedly that the fundamental ideas of physics have been needlessly obscured. As those papers appeared in various journals, partly (...) in Dutch, it was felt that it would be worthwhile to collect them and make them available to a larger audience. This is a book of major importance to scientists and university teachers. (shrink)
18. yüzyıl Aydınlanma felsefesinin Romantik filozofu Jean Jacques Rousseau pek çok çalışmaya konu olmuştur. Bu çalışmada Rousseau’nun özellikle başta “Bilimler ve Sanatlar Üstüne Söylev” adlı çalışması esas alınarak onun bilim ve sanatlara bakışı ele alınmıştır. Rousseau, söz konusu eserinde ele aldığı bilim ve sanat hakkındaki düşünceleri nedeniyle çok kez eleştirilmiştir. Bu çalışmanın amacı Rousseau’nun bilim ve sanata karşı olduğu yönündeki bir eleştiriyi tartışmaya açmaktır. Çalışma, Rousseau’ya yöneltilen eleştirilere karşı suçlamalara nasıl tepki verdiğini bizzat onun eserlerinden yola çıkarak ortaya koymayı amaçlamaktadır. (...) Rousseau’nun derdi uygarlık neticesinde inşa edilen toplumda, insanların değerlerinin nasıl yitip gittiğini göstermektir. Nitekim Rousseau, özgür ve eşit doğan insanların böylesi bir toplumda “her yerde zincire vurulduğunu” ifade eder. O, bu durumun sorumluları olarak gördüğü sahte aydınları ve bilginleri eleştirmektedir. Zira Rousseau, bu kişilerin bilim ve sanat adı altında yaptıkları çalışmaları insanlara tuzak olduğu için eleştirmektedir. Çünkü ona göre, uygarlık durumu, insanı gerçek doğasından ve doğal olan yanından uzaklaştırmakta ve değersizleşmektedir. (shrink)
The Priestley duality for Wajsberg algebras is developed. The Wajsberg space is a De Morgan space endowed with a family of functions that are obtained in rather natural way.As a first application of this duality, a theorem about unicity of the structure is given.
ObjectiveDignified care protects the patient’s rights and provides appropriate ethical care while improving the quality of nursing care. In this context, the opinions of nurses and patients who receive nursing care about dignified care are important. The aim of this study was to explore the opinions and experiences of Turkish patients and nurses about respectful care of human dignity.MethodsThis descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Turkey. Participants were inpatients at cardiology, neurology and neurosurgery clinics and nurses working in these clinics. (...) The data for the study were collected from face-to-face interviews using questionnaires. The percentages of characteristics and preferences of the participants were calculated, and the results were analysed using statistical tests.ResultsA total of 150 patients and 78 nurses participated in the study. The patients stated that the protection of their rights was the most important factor for dignified nursing care. The nurses stated that being careful to not expose the patients’ body and being respectful of the patients’ privacy were important in dignified nursing care. The age of the patient, duration of the disease, number of hospitalisations and length of time the nurses had been working at the clinic caused significant changes in the factors considered important in dignified care.ConclusionsOur findings provide a perspective on dignified care in the Turkish healthcare setting. There were some differences between patients and nurses in the factors considered important for dignified care. The discussion with patients and nurses related to care and practices that protect or detract from human dignity can provide insights to ethics. (shrink)
Throughout his career, Derek Parfit made the bold suggestion, at various times under the heading of the "Normativity Objection," that anyone in possession of normative concepts is in a position to know, on the basis of their competence with such concepts alone, that reductive realism in ethics is not even possible. Despite the prominent role that the Normativity Objection plays in Parfit's non-reductive account of the nature of normativity, when the objection hasn't been ignored, it's been criticized and even derided. (...) We argue that the exclusively negative attention that the objection has received has been a mistake. On our reading, Parfit's Normativity Objection poses a serious threat to reductivism, as it exposes the uneasy relationship between our a priori knowledge of a range of distinctly normative truths and the typical package of semantic commitments that reductivists have embraced since the Kripkean revolution. (shrink)
As part of an ethics course, health professions students were asked to identify ethical issues and to propose resolutions before and after a class discussion of a case involving confidentiality and substance abuse. Students listed an average of 2.4 issues before and 3.6 issues after the discussion. After discussion 50 per cent of students made explicit changes in their proposed resolution. Opinions varied widely on breaching confidentiality and the responsibility for protecting the patient's health. After the discussion almost 20 per (...) cent of the class felt it was acceptable to breach confidentiality as long as the patient was unaware. Many students identified more with the health care provider than with the patient. The presence of substance abuse altered many students' views on confidentiality. In this experience students were less rigorous in their application of principles, creating an excellent opportunity for teaching through exploration of the complexity of ethical decision-making in a specific case. (shrink)
The main aim of this research is to examine teachers? opinions about functions of school rules, reasons for rule-breaking and results of rule-breaking in relation to their locus of control, gender, age, seniority and branch. 350 public elementary school teachers in Ankara are included in the correlational survey model study. According to the teachers, the main function of school rules is to ?provide regularity?. Classroom teachers find school rules more functional than branch teachers. Teachers with internal locus of control find (...) school rules more functional than externals and junior teachers find school rules more functional than senior teachers. The main reason for teachers? rule-breaking is ?being uninvolved in rulemaking process?. When teachers do not follow school rules, they come across with cold behaviours of the school administrators. (shrink)
The question to be discussed in this paper can be put in simple terms: at what date were the collections of scholia on classical Greek authors compiled? Scholars have given two conflicting answers. The first was put forward by J. W. White in his edition of the scholia to Aristophanes' Birds. Developing an opinion of Dindorf, he suggested that the archetype of the scholia was a large parchment codex of the fourth or fifth century, which contained in the margins a (...) commentary drawn from several sources. A very similar view has been expressed about the scholia to Apollonius Rhodius and Pindar. (shrink)