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Ayelet Shavit
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
  1.  44
    There and Back Again, or the Problem of Locality in Biodiversity Surveys.Ayelet Shavit & James Griesemer - 2009 - Philosophy of Science 76 (3):273-294.
    We argue that ‘locality’, perhaps the most mundane term in ecology, holds a basic ambiguity: two concepts of space—nomothetic and idiographic—which are both necessary for a rigorous resurvey to “the same” locality in the field, are committed to different practices with no common measurement. A case study unfolds the failure of the standard assumption that an exogenous grid of longitude and latitude, as fine‐grained as one wishes, suffices for revisiting a species locality. We briefly suggest a scale‐dependent “resolution” for this (...)
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  2.  91
    Shifting Values Partly Explain the Debate Over Group Selection.Ayelet Shavit - 2004 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 35 (4):697-720.
    I argue that images of the notion of group, in correspondence with their social and political values, shape the debate over the evolution of altruism by group selection. Important aspects of this debate are empirical, and criteria can decide among a variety of selection processes. However, leading researchers undermine or reinterpret such tests, explaining the evolution of altruism on the basis of a single extreme metaphor of ‘group’ and a single inclusive selection process. I shall argue that the extreme images (...)
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  3.  15
    Science and Sentiment: Grinnell’s Fact-Based Philosophy of Biodiversity Conservation.Ayelet Shavit & James R. Griesemer - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (2):283-318.
    At the beginning of the twentieth century, the biologist Joseph Grinnell made a distinction between science and sentiment for producing fact-based generalizations on how to conserve biodiversity. We are inspired by Grinnellian science, which successfully produced a century-long impact on studying and conserving biodiversity that runs orthogonal to some familiar philosophical distinctions such as fact versus value, emotion versus reason and basic versus applied science. According to Grinnell, unlike sentiment-based generalizations, a fact-based generalization traces its diverse commitments and thus becomes (...)
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  4.  8
    Jörg Matthias Determann. Researching Biology and Evolution in the Gulf States: Networks of Science in the Middle East. 234 Pp., Figs., Bibl., Index. London/New York: I. B. Tauris, 2015. £64. [REVIEW]Ayelet Shavit - 2017 - Isis 108 (1):238-240.
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  5.  7
    Transforming Objects Into Data: How Minute Technicalities of Recording “Species Location” Entrench a Basic Challenge for Biodiversity.Ayelet Shavit & James Griesemer - 2011 - In M. Carrier & A. Nordmann (eds.), Science in the Context of Application. Springer. pp. 169--193.
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  6.  40
    Gene Expression and the Concept of the Phenotype.Ohad Nachtomy, Ayelet Shavit & Zohar Yakhini - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 38 (1):238-254.
    While the definition of the ‘genotype’ has undergone dramatic changes in the transition from classical to molecular genetics, the definition of the ‘phenotype’ has remained for a long time within the classical framework. In addition, while the notion of the genotype has received significant attention from philosophers of biology, the notion of the phenotype has not. Recent developments in the technology of measuring gene-expression levels have made it possible to conceive of phenotypic traits in terms of levels of gene expression. (...)
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  7.  4
    Gene Expression and the Concept of the Phenotype.Ohad Nachtomy, Ayelet Shavit & Zohar Yakhini - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 38 (1):238-254.
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  8.  15
    The Notion of 'Group' and Tests of Group Selection.Ayelet Shavit - 2005 - Philosophy of Science 72 (5):1052-1063.
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  9.  2
    Two Roads Diverge in a Wood: Indifference to the Difference Between ‘Diversity’ and ‘Heterogeneity’ Should Be Resisted on Epistemic and Moral Grounds.Ayelet Shavit, Anat Kolumbus & Aaron M. Ellison - unknown
    We argue that a conceptual tension exists between “diversity” and “heterogeneity” and that glossing over their differences has practical, moral, and epistemic costs. We examine how these terms are used in ecology and the social sciences; articulate a deeper linguistic intuition; and test it with the Corpus of Contemporary American English. The results reveal that ‘diversity’ and ‘heterogeneity’ have conflicting rather than interchangeable meanings: heterogeneity implies a collective entity that interactively integrates different entities, whereas diversity implies divergence, not integration. Consequently, (...)
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  10.  11
    "Location" Incommensurability and "Replication" Indeterminacy: Clarifying an Entrenched Conflation by Using an Involved Approach.Ayelet Shavit - 2016 - Perspectives on Science 24 (4):425-442.
    This paper emerged from a decade of involvement in long-term bio-diversity surveys in places such as Yosemite Valley, Lassen National Park, New England Harvard Forest, and the Israeli Negev Desert. While actively engaged in the scientific work it was impossible not to notice the reoccurring discussions over how to replicate a survey to the same location. These two terms—“replication” and “location”—were necessary and basic for the scientists yet marginal in philosophical literature. The first two sections of this paper analyze the (...)
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  11.  10
    You Can't Go Home Again - or Can You? 'Replication' Indeterminacy and 'Location' Incommensurability in Three Biological Re-Surveys.Ayelet Shavit - unknown
    Reproducing empirical results and repeating experimental processes is fundamental to science, but is of grave concern to scientists. Revisiting the same location is necessary for tracking biological processes, yet I argue that ‘location’ and ‘replication’ contain a basic ambiguity. The analysis of the practical meanings of ‘replication’ and ‘location’ will strip of incommensurability from its common conflation with empirical equivalence, underdetermination and indeterminacy of reference. In particular, I argue that three biodiversity re-surveys, conducted by the research institutions of Harvard, Berkeley, (...)
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  12.  10
    It Takes Two to Tango: Genotyping and Phenotyping in Genome-Wide Association Studies.Ohad Nachtomy, Yaron Ramati, Ayelet Shavit & Zohar Yakhini - 2009 - Biological Theory 4 (3):294-301.
    In this article we examine the “phenotype” concept in light of recent technological advances in Genome-Wide Association Studies . By observing the technology and its presuppositions, we put forward the thesis that at least in this case genotype and phenotype are effectively coidentifled one by means of the other. We suggest that the coidentiflcation of genotype-phenotype couples in expression-based GWAS also indicates a conceptual dependence, which we call “co-deñnition.” We note that viewing these terms as codeflned runs against possible expectations, (...)
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  13.  4
    Shifting Values Partly Explain the Debate Over Group Selection.Ayelet Shavit - 2003 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 35 (4):697-720.
    I argue that images of the notion of group, in correspondence with their social and political values, shape the debate over the evolution of altruism by group selection. Important aspects of this debate are empirical, and criteria can decide among a variety of selection processes. However, leading researchers undermine or reinterpret such tests, explaining the evolution of altruism on the basis of a single extreme metaphor of ‘group’ and a single inclusive selection process. I shall argue that the extreme images (...)
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  14. Landscapes of Collectivity in the Life Sciences.Snait Gissis, Ehud Lamm & Ayelet Shavit (eds.) - forthcoming - MIT Press.
    The aim of the book is to explore common concerns regarding methodological individualism in different fields of the life sciences broadly construed. It will address conceptual problems regarding individuals and their relation and dependence on the collectivities they are part of and consider innovative new viewpoints, grounded in specific scientific projects that question the present descriptions and understanding and raise challenges. A wide variety of recent, influential contributions in the life sciences utilize notions of collectivity, sociality, rich interactions and emergent (...)
     
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