Comment une école publique d’art en Grande Bretagne a-t-elle été créée, comment a-t-elle évolué au XIXe siècle et quelle fut sa place vis-à-vis de la Royal Academy of Arts? Quelles furent l’incidence et l’importance de l’économie politique utilitariste et plus particulièrement des écrits de J. Bentham sur le goût, l’éthique et l’utilité, dans le développement d’une institution subventionnée par l’État et destinée à l’éducation artistique de la nation? Quels furent les débats et les apories..
Knowledge of what it’s like to have perceptual experiences, e.g. of what it’s like to see red or taste Turkish coffee, is phenomenal knowledge; and it is knowledge the substantial or significant nature of which is widely assumed to pose a challenge for physicalism. Call this the New Challenge to physicalism. The goal of this paper is to take a closer look at the New Challenge. I show, first, that it is surprisingly difficult to spell out clearly and neutrally what (...) the New Challenge is in fact urging the physicalist to explain. What initially look like plausible or promising ways of making sense of it turn out to be either question begging or insufficient to generate a challenge to physicalism at all. I go on to suggest that what the New Challenge may be asking the physicalist to explain may be the fact that we come to token certain higher-order judgments about the significance of phenomenal knowledge. I end with a discussion of the implications of this interpretation of the New Challenge—which turns out to be as much a challenge for the anti-physicalist as it is for the physicalist. (shrink)
Abstract In recent debates, both physicalist and anti-physicalist philosophers of mind have come to agree that understanding the nature of phenomenal concepts is key to understanding the nature of phenomenal consciousness itself. Recently, however, Derek Ball (2009) and Michael Tye (2009) have argued that there are no such concepts. Their case is especially troubling because they make use of a type of argument that proponents of phenomenal concepts have typically found persuasive in other contexts; namely, arguments much like those that (...) Tyler Burge used to motivate a certain form of externalism about mental content. The goal of this paper is to defend phenomenal concepts against this line of attack. Burge-style arguments, I contend, cannot be successfully used to make the case that there are no phenomenal concepts. As such, phenomenal concepts must remain central to understanding the nature of phenomenal consciousness. (shrink)
This article asks about the conditions of a sociological operationalization of the capability approach developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum. Raising the question of freedom and social opportunities, the capability approach has so far mainly been discussed by economists and philosophers. In order to adopt this approach for a sociological and pragmatist perspective, it engages with methodological and theoretical issues. Whereas capabilities have until now mainly been studied within quantitative frameworks, the author opts for a qualitative method of inquiry (...) that draws on a pragmatist and configurational approach. Such a shift towards qualitative inquiry is a key condition for a better sociological understanding of notions like freedom and opportunities that stand at the core of the capability approach. (shrink)
The study tests the hypothesis that conditional probability judgments can be influenced by causal links between the target event and the evidence even when the statistical relations among variables are held constant. Three experiments varied the causal structure relating three variables and found that (a) the target event was perceived as more probable when it was linked to evidence by a causal chain than when both variables shared a common cause; (b) predictive chains in which evidence is a cause of (...) the hypothesis gave rise to higher judgments than diagnostic chains in which evidence is an effect of the hypothesis; and (c) direct chains gave rise to higher judgments than indirect chains. A Bayesian learning model was applied to our data but failed to explain them. An explanation-based hypothesis stating that statistical information will affect judgments only to the extent that it changes beliefs about causal structure is consistent with the results. (shrink)
The goal of this chapter is to mount a critique of the claim that cognitive content (that is, the kind of content possessed by our concepts and thoughts) makes a constitutive contribution to the phenomenal properties of our mental lives. We therefore defend the view that phenomenal consciousness is exclusively experiential (or nonconceptual) in character. The main focus of the chapter is on the alleged contribution that concepts make to the phenomenology of visual experience. For we take it that if (...) cognitive phenomenology is to be found anywhere, it should be found here. However, we begin with a discussion of the question of cognitive phenomenology more generally, and we close by sketching how our argument might be extended into the domain of non-perceptual thought. (shrink)
We give a general method for producing various effective Null and Positivstellensätze, and getting new Positivstellensätze in algebraically closed valued fields and ordered groups. These various effective Nullstellensätze produce algebraic identities certifying that some geometric conditions cannot be simultaneously satisfied. We produce also constructive versions of abstract classical results of algebra based on Zorn's lemma in several cases where such constructive version did not exist. For example, the fact that a real field can be totally ordered, or the fact that (...) a field can be embedded in an algebraically closed field. Our results are based on the concepts we develop of dynamical proofs and simultaneous collapse. (shrink)
This article presents, in a programmatic way, the histoire croisée approach, its methodological implications and its empirical developments. Histoire croisée draws on the debates about comparative history, transfer studies, and connected or shared history that have been carried out in the social sciences in recent years. It invites us to reconsider the interactions between different societies or cultures, erudite disciplines or traditions . Histoire croisée focuses on empirical intercrossings consubstantial with the object of study, as well as on the operations (...) by which researchers themselves cross scales, categories, and viewpoints. The article first shows how this approach differs from purely comparative or transfer studies. It then develops the principles of pragmatic and reflexive induction as a major methodological principle of histoire croisée. While underlining the need and the methods of a historicization of both the objects and categories of analysis, it calls for a reconsideration of the way history can combine empirical and reflexive concerns into a dynamic and flexible approach. (shrink)
A powerful reply to a range of familiar anti-physicalist arguments has recently been developed. According to this reply, our possession of phenomenal concepts can explain the facts that the anti-physicalist claims can only be explained by a non-reductive account of phenomenal consciousness. Chalmers (2006) argues that the phenomenal concept strategy is doomed to fail. This article presents the phenomenal concept strategy, Chalmers' argument against it, and a defence of the strategy against his.
This article discusses the hitherto little-studied question of women workers’ empowerment through access to labor rights in the east African export horticultural sector. It is based on the work carried out by Women Working Worldwide and its east African partners, drawing on primary research on cut-flower farms in Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Uganda. The focus in discussions of women’s empowerment has tended to be on individual actors rather than collective strategies. We argue that strategies such as action research, education, organization and (...) advocacy focusing on labor rights are effective in gendered empowerment and can bring positive change to women’s working lives on African farms, and beyond. (shrink)
The “gift exchange theory” articulated by Marcel Mauss, along with his core concept of a threefold obligation, is the dominant theoretical framework used to explain the majority of gift issues in marketing. This perspective assumes that some interest always lies behind gifts, such that a gift always implies a counterpart of receiving something in return. Despite the relevance of this approach in understanding the day-to-day consumer behavior, this paper presents empirical cases where the consumer is also able to give freely, (...) that is to say without implying a counterpart or even expecting it. To explain those empirical cases, we mobilize a key teaching of the Catholic Church: the “gratuitous gift” and then introduce the concept of the “need to give.” We show that gratuitousness is a relevant concept to understand most of gifts made by consumers, and we develop the normative aspect of gratuitous gift for ethical marketers. We also show that Catholic Social Teaching offers an appropriate anthropology to understand consumer behaviors motivated by this need for gratuitousness. To conclude, we propose further avenues of research. (shrink)
What does evaluation mean? This article examines the evaluative process as a practical judgment that links a situation to a set of values in order to decide upon a course of action. It starts by discussing A. Sen’s “relational” and “comparative” account of evaluation, built in critical dialogue with J. Rawls’ deductive theory. Comparison, incompleteness, reality, and deliberation are the key principles of Sen’s approach, which, in some respects, echoes that of J. Dewey. The second part shows the relevance of (...) completing Sen’s approach with Dewey’s pragmatism, since Dewey’s emphasis on practical judgment is a useful counterbalance to Sen’s focus on evaluation as a cognitive process. Dewey introduces a shift from values to valuation and draws a distinction between prizing and appraising, which makes the logic of inquiry and the search for consistency between means and ends in a given situation the fulcrum of evaluation. The third part of this paper addresses the relationship between values and norms in evaluative processes. Neither Sen nor Dewey deals with this question in a systematic way, although norms, which are both similar and different from values, contribute to frame evaluations in different ways: as horizons, resources, or constrains. Bringing norms into the picture means completing the pragmatist account with an institutionalist perspective, as we suggest through the example of the evaluation of work. (shrink)
Cet article s'appuie sur la pensée de Wittgenstein pour comprendre comment des règles économiques agissent. L'étude (1993-2000) d'un Atelier de réparation de la RATP dans lequel une nouvelle règle de rendement a été introduite en 1993 met en évidence trois conclusions. Tout d'abord, dans la sélection des tâches, les opérateurs n'appliquent pas les règles de façon mécanique ; ils n'interprètent pas non plus les règles en faisant table rase des usages. Nos observations montrent que « suivre la règle est une (...) pratique ». En second lieu, les équipes développent des stratégies différentes pour obtenir la prime, ce qui illustre une autre thèse de Wittgenstein : « La signification de la règle se constitue dans l'usage. » Enfin, les opérateurs s'appuient sur les règles de l'usage pour trouver un certain usage de la règle. (shrink)
In his Nicomachean Ethics’ commentary , Johannes Buridan, called by the historiography ‘the philosopher of freedom’, examines the problem of libertas from the individual and psychological point of view but also from the social and political point of view. The parisien master reconciles the both aspects of the concept by articulating liberty and sociality, freedom and friendship in a moral way of thinking.
The so-called ‘re-identification condition’ (Kelly 2011) has played an important role in the most prominent argument for nonconceptualism, the argument from fineness of grain. A number of authors have recently argued that the condition should be modified or discarded altogether, with devastating implications for the nonconceptualist (see, e.g., Brewer 2005, Chuard 2006). The aim of this paper is to show that the situation is even more dire for nonconceptualists, for even if the re-identification condition remains in its original form, the (...) argument from fineness of grain still fails to make the case for nonconceptualism. The paper's central case rests on two claims: according to the first, if the re-identification condition holds, then some beliefs will represent some properties nonconceptually; and according to the second, if some beliefs represent some properties nonconceptually, the argument from fineness of grain fails to make the case for nonconceptualism in any relevant sense. It follows that if the re-identification condition holds, the argument from fineness of grain fails to make the case for nonconceptualism. (shrink)
Le livre de F. Doro-Mégy (ci-après FDM) se fonde sur ses travaux de doctorat. Il s’agit d’un numéro spécial de la collection Linguistique contrastive et traduction dirigée par J. Guillemin-Flescher aux éditions Ophrys. Il est dédié à la mémoire de C. Bernigaud. Dans l’introduction, FDM expose son sujet et les limites de ce dernier. Elle part de l’idée intuitive selon laquelle think serait l’équivalent du français penser tandis que believe correspondrait presque systématiquement à croire. San..
La société est confrontée à des problèmes inédits et globaux. Les sciences sont sollicitées pour éclairer les citoyens et trouver des solutions durables mais restent désarmées face au caractère transversal des problématiques. Ces dernières concernent l’ensemble de la société, en particulier les organisations de la société civile à but non lucratif qui expérimentent des solutions et pour qui l’accès aux moyens de recherche se pose. Le développement d’interfaces sciences-société apparaît intéressant à l’instar de la Boutique des sciences créée dans la (...) région des Hauts-de-France. Sans occulter les difficultés de sa mise en œuvre, cet article montre comment s’est constitué cet outil en procédant en deux temps : une enquête sociologique auprès des acteurs chercheurs, étudiants et représentants des organisations de la société civile, suivie d’une élaboration par un processus de cocréation les associant. Civil society is being faced nowadays with unprecedented and global problems expressed for example by the seven societal challenges of the European research framework program. Sciences are called upon to clarify and find sustainable solutions. Yet they remain helpless in the face of the highly transverse nature of the issues. The latter concern society as a whole, including non-profit civil society organizations, who are experimenting new solutions and for whom access to research facilities is a necessity. Developing interfaces is therefore crucial. Science Shops are entities that carry out scientific research, usually free of charge, on behalf of citizens and local civil society. The term science is used in its broadest sense, including the social and human sciences, as well as natural, physical and engineering sciences. How Science Shops are structured is dependent on the local context. We describe here the creation process of our Science Shop carried out during an 18-month prefiguration study. We conducted a sociological survey followed by a participatory process where researchers and civil society organizations worked together in order to co-create the Science Shop of the Hauts-de-France region. We focused our paper on the survey results intended for researchers, students and civil society organizations in order to test their interest in the project. They demonstrated the positive response to our science shop, and more generally to this type of participatory tool among all the stakeholders. (shrink)
Convenons, à la suite de Rastier (2001) notamment, que les textes sont l’objet de la linguistique. Un texte est entendu ici comme « une suite linguistique empirique attestée, produite dans une pratique sociale déterminée, et fixée sur un support quelconque » (Rastier, 2001 : 21), ce qui intègre pleinement diverses formes d’expression (orales comme écrites). Le corpus de textes est alors le terrain privilégié de l’observation de la langue. Lors de la collecte des données, lors de leur enregist..