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  1.  88
    Reference.Barbara Abbott - 2010 - Oxford University Press.
    This book introduces the most important problems of reference and considers the solutions that have been proposed to explain them. Reference is at the centre of debate among linguists and philosophers and, as Barbara Abbott shows, this has been the case for centuries. She begins by examining the basic issue of how far reference is a two place (words-world) or a three place (speakers-words-world) relation. She then discusses the main aspects of the field and the issues associated with them, including (...)
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  2.  62
    Linguistic Solutions to Philosophical Problems: The Case of Knowing How.Barbara Abbott - 2013 - Philosophical Perspectives 27 (1):1-21.
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  3.  68
    Making Sense.Barbara Abbott - 1981 - Linguistics and Philosophy 4 (3):437-451.
    This would have been a better book if Sampson had argued his main point, the usefulness of the Simonian principle as an explanation of the evolution, structure, and acquisition of language, on its own merits, instead of making it subsidiary to his attack on ‘limited-minders’ (e.g., Noam Chomsky). The energy he has spent on the attack he might then have been willing and able to employ in developing his argument at reasonable length and detail. He might then have found that (...)
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  4. A Note on the Nature of "Water".Barbara Abbott - 1997 - Mind 106 (422):311-319.
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  5. Definiteness and Indefiniteness.Barbara Abbott - 2004 - In Laurence R. Horn & Gregory Ward (eds.), Handbook of Pragmatics. Blackwell.
    The prototypes of definiteness and indefiniteness in English are the definite article the and the indefinite article a/an, and singular noun phrases (NPs)1 determined by them. That being the case it is not to be predicted that the concepts, whatever their content, will extend satisfactorily to other determiners or NP types. However it has become standard to extend these notions. Of the two categories definites have received rather more attention, and more than one researcher has characterized the category of definite (...)
     
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  6. Where Have Some of the Presuppositions Gone.Barbara Abbott - unknown
    Some presuppositions seem to be weaker than others in the sense that they can be more easily neutralized in some contexts. For example some factive verbs, most notably epistemic factives like know, be aware, and discover, are known to shed their factivity fairly easily in contexts such as are found in (1). (1) a. …if anyone discovers that the method is also wombat-proof, I’d really like to know! b. Mrs. London is not aware that there have ever been signs erected (...)
     
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  7. Issues in the Semantics and Pragmatics of Definite Descriptions in English.Barbara Abbott - 2008 - In Nancy Hedberg & Jeanette Gundel (eds.), Reference: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Oxford University Press. pp. 61-72.
  8. Presuppositions and Common Ground.Barbara Abbott - 2008 - Linguistics and Philosophy 31 (5):523-538.
    This paper presents problems for Stalnaker’s common ground theory of presupposition. Stalnaker (Linguist and Philos 25:701–721, 2002) proposes a 2-stage process of utterance interpretation: presupposed content is added to the common ground prior to acceptance/rejection of the utterance as a whole. But this revision makes presupposition difficult to distinguish from assertion. A more fundamental problem is that the common ground theory rests on a faulty theory of assertion—that the essence of assertion is to present the content of an utterance as (...)
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  9. Issues in the Semantics and Pragmatics of Definite Descriptions in English.Barbara Abbott - manuscript
  10.  97
    Nondescriptionality and Natural Kind Terms.Barbara Abbott - 1989 - Linguistics and Philosophy 12 (3):269 - 291.
    The phrase "natural kind term" has come into the linguistic and philosophical literature in connection with well-known work of Kripke (1972) and Putnam (1970, 1975a). I use that phrase here in the sense it has acquired from those and subseqnent works on related topics. This is not the transparent sense of the phrase. That is, if I am right in what follows there are words for kinds of things existing in nature which are not natural kind terms in the current (...)
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  11. Some Remarks on Indicative Conditionals.Barbara Abbott - unknown
    We will look at several theories of indicative conditionals grouped into three categories: those that base its semantics on its logical counterpart (the material conditional); intensional analyses, which bring in alternative possible worlds; and a third subgroup which denies that indicative conditionals express propositions at all. We will also look at some problems for each kind of approach.
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  12.  13
    Civil Governance in Work and Employment Relations: How Civil Society Organizations Contribute to Systems of Labour Governance.Steve Williams, Brian Abbott & Edmund Heery - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 144 (1):103-119.
    Civil society organizations attempt to induce corporations to behave in more socially responsible ways, with a view to raising labour standards. A broader way of conceptualizing their efforts to influence the policies and practices of employers is desirable, one centred upon the concept of civil governance. This recognizes that CSOs not only attempt to shape the behaviour of employers through the forging of direct, collaborative relationships, but also try to do so indirectly, with interactions of various kinds with the state (...)
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  13. Support for Individual Concepts.Barbara Abbott - 2011 - Linguistic and Philosophical Investigations 10:23-44.
  14.  63
    A Reply to Szabó’s “Descriptions and Uniqueness”.Barbara Abbott - 2003 - Philosophical Studies 113 (3):223 - 231.
    Szabó follows Heim in viewing familiarity, rather than uniqueness, as the essence of the definite article, but attempts to derive both familiarity and uniqueness implications pragmatically, assigning a single semantic interpretation to both the definite and indefinite articles. I argue that if there is no semantic distinction between the articles, then there is no way to derive these differences between them pragmatically.
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  15.  79
    An Information Packaging Approach to Presuppositions and Conventional Implicatures.Barbara Abbott - 2016 - Topoi 35 (1):9-21.
    Within the relevant semantics and pragmatics literature the terms “presupposition” and “conventional implicature” are used in a variety of different, but frequently overlapping, ways. The overlaps are perhaps not surprising, given that the two categories of conveyed meaning share the property of remaining constant in the scope of other operators—the property usefully characterize as projectivity. One of my purposes in this paper will be to try to clarify these different usages. In addition to that we will explore two additional properties (...)
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  16. The Formal Approach to Meaning: Formal Semantics and its Recent Developments.Barbara Abbott - unknown
    Like Spanish moss on a live oak tree, the scientific study of meaning in language has expanded in the last 100 years, and continues to expand steadily. In this essay I want to chart some central themes in that expansion, including their histories and their important figures. Our attention will be directed toward what is called 'formal semantics', which is the adaptation to natural language of analytical techniques from logic.[1] The first, background, section of the paper will survey the changing (...)
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  17.  90
    Discussion Note: Definiteness and Proper Names: Some Bad News for the Description Theory.Abbott Barbara - 2002 - Journal of Semantics 19 (2):191-201.
    This paper addresses some data put forward by Geurts (1997) in support of his metalinguistic or quotation theory of proper names, according to which a name N means ‘the individual named N’. The data illustrate ten linguistic behaviours claimed to be shared by proper names and definite descriptions. I argue that in some cases the behaviours have a common explanation which is based on a property independent of Geurts' analysis, and that in the remaining cases the behaviours are not actually (...)
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  18. Donkey Demonstratives.Barbara Abbott - 2002 - Natural Language Semantics 10 (4):285-298.
    Donkey pronouns (e.g., it in Every farmer who owns a donkey beats it) are argued to have an interpretation more similar to a demonstrative phrase (e.g., . . . beats that donkey) than to any of the other alternatives generally considered (e.g., . . . the donkey(s) he owns, . . . a donkey he owns). Like the demonstrative phrase, the pronoun is not equivalent to Evans' E-type paraphrase, nor to either the weak or the strong reading sometimes claimed for (...)
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  19. Reference and Quantification: The Partee Effect.Barbara Abbott - unknown
    Partee (1973) discussed quotation from the perspective of the then relatively new theory of transformational grammar.2 As she pointed out, the phenomenon presents many curious puzzles. In some ways quotes seem quite separate from their surrounding text; they may be in a different dialect, as in her example in (1), (1) ‘I talk better English than the both of youse!’ shouted Charles, thereby convincing me that he didn’t. [Partee (1973):ex. 20] or even in a different language, as in (2): (2) (...)
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  20. Nonfamiliarity and Indefinite Descriptions.Barbara Abbott & Laurence R. Hom - unknown
    Grice introduced generalized conversational implicatures with the following example: "Anyone who uses a sentence of the formX is meeting tz woman this evening would normally implicate that the person to be met was someone other than X’s wife, mother, sister, or perhaps even close platonic friend" (1975 : 37). Concerning this example, he suggested the following account: When someone, by using the form of expression an JQ implicates that the X does not belong to or is not otherwise closely connected (...)
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  21.  17
    Contributors to This Volume.Barbara Abbott, Manuel Bremer, Elke Brendel, Sarah-Jane Conrad, Cathrine Fabricius Hansen & Manuel García-Carpintero - 2011 - In Elke Brendel (ed.), Understanding Quotation. De Gruyter Mouton.
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  22.  69
    Discussion. Water=H2O.B. Abbott - 1999 - Mind 108 (429):145-148.
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  23. Definite and Indefinite.Barbara Abbott - 2006 - In Keith Brown (ed.), Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Elsevier. pp. 3--392.
  24. Proper Names and Language.Barbara Abbott - 2005 - In Greg N. Carlson & Francis Jeffry Pelletier (eds.), Reference and Quantification: The Partee Effect. CSLI Publications. pp. 1--19.
  25. Water =H 2 O.Barbara Abbott - 1999 - Mind 108 (429):145 - 148.
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  26.  6
    Discussion. Water=H 2 O.B. Abbott - 1999 - Mind 108 (429):145-148.
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  27.  99
    Models, Truth and Semantics.Barbara Abbott - 1997 - Linguistics and Philosophy 20 (2):117-138.
  28. Fodor and Lepore on Meaning Similarity and Compositionality.Barbara Abbott - 2000 - Journal of Philosophy 97 (8):454-455.
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  29. Natural Language and Thought: Thinking in English.Barbara Abbott - 1995 - Behavior and Philosophy 23 (2):49-55.
  30. Presuppositions, Negation, and Existence.Barbara Abbott - unknown
    Last year (2005) marked the 100th anniversary of the publication of Russell’s classic ‘On denoting’. It should not cast any shadow on that great work to note that the problems it provided solutions to are still the subject of controversy. Two of those problems involved noun phrases (NPs) which fail to denote. Russell’s examples (1a) and (1b) (1) a. The king of France is bald. b. The king of France is not bald. are puzzling because they have the form of (...)
     
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  31. Asian, and African Languages; and Philosophy.Barbara Abbott - unknown
    This chapter reviews issues surrounding theories of reference. The simplest theory is the Fido-Fido theory – that reference is all that an NP has to contribute to the meaning of phrases and sentences in which it occurs. Two big problems for this theory are coreferential NPs that do not behave as though they were semantically equivalent and meaningful NPs without a referent. These problems are especially acute in sentences..
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  32. Part V. Back to Grice: Conditionals in English and Fopl.Barbara Abbott - 2009 - In Dingfang Shu & Ken Turner (eds.), Contrasting Meanings in Languages of the East and West. Peter Lang.
    In the 1960’s, both Montague (e.g. 1970, 222) and Grice (1975, 24) famously declared that natural languages were not so different from the formal languages of logic as people had thought. Montague sought to comprehend the grammars of both within a single theory, and Grice sought to explain away apparent divergences as due to the fact that the former, but not the latter, were used for conversation. But, if we confine our concept of logic to first order predicate logic (or (...)
     
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  33. The Difference Between Definite and Indefinite Descriptions.Barbara Abbott - manuscript
  34. "Making Sense" by Geoffrey Sampson. [REVIEW]Barbara Abbott - 1980 - Linguistics and Philosophy 4:437.
  35. Specificity and Referentiality.Barbara Abbott - manuscript
  36. Attitudes Toward Quotation1.Barbara Abbott - 2011 - In Elke Brendel (ed.), Understanding Quotation. De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 7--35.
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  37. Definiteness and Identification in English.Barbara Abbott - manuscript
    Many characterizations of definiteness in natural language have been given. However a number of them converge on a single idea involving uniqueness of applicability of a property. This paper will attempt to do two things. One is to try to unify some of these current views of definiteness, seeing them as drawing out Gricean conversational implicatures of the uniqueness concept, and the other is to try a more articulated approach to dealing with some recalcitrant counterexamples. I will focus primarily, but (...)
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  38. Thinking Without English.Barbara Abbott - 1995 - Behavior and Philosophy 23 (2):49 - 55.
    Abbott replies to each of Hauser's arguments. Problem solving by chimpanzees and evidence of recursion in the thought of a feral human being suggest that natural language is not necessary for productive thought. Communication would be trivial if the inner language were the outer language, but it is not. The decryption analogy Hauser uses is flawed, and it is not clear which way Occam's razor cuts.
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  39.  31
    E. M. Barth and R. T. P. Wiche. Problems, Functions and Semantic Roles. A Pragmatists’ Analysis of Montague's Theory of Sentence Meaning. Foundations of Communication. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin and New York1986, XVIII + 198 Pp. [REVIEW]Barbara Abbott - 1988 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 53 (1):317-318.
  40.  96
    The Indefiniteness of Definiteness.Barbara Abbott - unknown
    This paper is about the difficulties involved in establishing criteria for definiteness. A number of possibilities are considered – traditional ones such as strength, uniqueness, and familiarity, as well as several which have been suggested in the wake of Montague’s analysis of NPs as generalized quantifiers. My tentative conclusion is that Russell’s uniqueness characteristic (suitably modified) holds up well against the others.
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  41.  94
    Realism, Model Theory, and Linguistic Semantics.B. Abbott & L. Hauser - unknown
    George Lakoff (in his book Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things(1987) and the paper "Cognitive semantics" (1988)) champions some radical foundational views. Strikingly, Lakoff opposes realism as a metaphysical position, favoring instead some supposedly mild form of idealism such as that recently espoused by Hilary Putnam, going under the name "internal realism." For what he takes to be connected reasons, Lakoff also rejects truth conditional model-theoretic semantics for natural language. This paper examines an argument, given by Lakoff, against realism and MTS. (...)
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  42. A Note on Kehler & Ward (2006).Barbara Abbott, Andrew Kehler & Gregory Ward - unknown
    expression that indicates hearer-familiarity conversationally implicates that the referent is in fact nonfamiliar to the hearer” (KW 177, emphasis in original, footnote added). The purpose of this note is two-fold: first, to look more closely at the proposed implicature; and second, to clarify its relation to a different implicature – a scalar implicature of nonuniqueness resulting from use of the indefinite rather than the definite article, which was proposed by Hawkins (1991). In the first section below we distinguish explicit from (...)
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  43. Roger Schwarzschild and Karina Wilkinson.Specificational Pseudoclefts, Barbara Abbott & Donkey Demonstratives - 2002 - Natural Language Semantics 10 (305).
  44.  72
    Analyticity and Nondescriptionality[*] Michigan State University [email protected]Barbara Abbott - manuscript
    One of the widely accepted and quite influential conclusions of modern Anglo-American philosophy is that there is no sharp distinction between analytic truths and statements that are true only [by] virtue of the facts; what had been called analytic truths in earlier work, it is alleged, are simply expressions of deeply held belief. This conclusion seems quite erroneous. There is no fact about the world that I could discover that would convince me that you persuaded John to go to college (...)
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  45.  7
    Engaged Observers: Documentary Photography Since the Sixties.Brett Abbott - 2010 - J. Paul Getty Museum.
    "Accompanies the exhibition Engaged Observers: Documentary Photography since the Sixties, held at the J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, June 29-November 17, 2010.".
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  46. Gilles Fauconnier, Mental Spaces: Aspects of Meaning Construction in Natural Language.B. Abbott - 1996 - Minds and Machines 6:239-242.
     
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  47. Handbook on Reference.Barbara Abbott & Jeanette Gundel (eds.) - forthcoming - Oxford University Press.
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  48. In Focus: Edward Weston: Photographs From the J. Paul Getty Museum.Brett Abbott - 2005 - J. Paul Getty Museum.
    "In 2003 the Getty Museum, which holds a collection of about 240 Weston prints, hosted a colloquium on the photographer. This volume in the In Focus series records remarks by the author, Brett Abbott, along with those of six other participants: William Clift, Amy Conger, David Featherstone, Weston Naef, David Travis, and Jennifer Watts. Context for their conversation is provided by the author's introduction, plate texts, and chronology. Approximately fifty of Weston's images demonstrate why his work continues to resonate with (...)
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  49. Seiki Akama, Ed., Logic, Language and Computation. [REVIEW]Barbara Abbott - 1998 - Philosophy in Review 18:313-314.
  50. The Oxford Handbook of Reference.Jeanette Gundel & Barbara Abbott (eds.) - 2019 - Oxford University Press.
    This handbook presents an overview of the phenomenon of reference - the ability to refer to and pick out entities - which is an essential part of human language and cognition. Chapters offer a critical account of all aspects of reference, from the different types of referring expression to the processing of reference in the brain.
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