In the 17th century Sir Francis Bacon advocated the patient study of Nature for the benefit of mankind. Most of science today, in its study of medicine, genetics, electronics etc., continues that pragmatic Baconian tradition without fuss. Over the years, however, as its investigation of Nature probed ever deeper into regions far removed from common experience, science has increasingly exhibited traits more usually associated with fundamentalist religion that with dispassionate study. Articulate voices from biology preach the belief in 18th century (...) materialism in the study of evolution; those from physics promulgate a kind of mathematical theology in its study of elementary particles and cosmology; both inveigh against heresy. But science should be beyond that sort of belief. It should not see its undoubted success in manipulating matter as justifying any sort of religious status, as offering a spiritual foundation alternative to religion. As a scientist himself, Brian Ridley is appalled by such theological trends, hence this book. It is an attempt to address these concerns, to reform science, to place science in its broad historical and philosophical context where dogmatic belief has no place, to remind science itself that it has limitations. (shrink)
We have investigated the exclusive, radiative B meson decays to K 2* in 89 × 106 BB̄ events with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage ring. We measure the branching fractions B0γ) = × 10-5 and B+γ) = × 10-5, where the first error is statistical and the second systematic. In addition, we measure the CP-violating asymmetry A CP[B0 → K2* 0γ] = -0.08 ± 0.15 ± 0.01.
Branching fraction measurements using B-meson decays to Ks0π+π- are presented. These measurements were obtained by analyzing a data sample of 88.9 × 106 Υ → BB̄ decays collected with the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric-energy B factory. Using a maximum likelihood fit, the following branching fraction results were obtained: B = × 10 -6, B × 10-6, and Bπ+) = × 10-6. The CP violating charge asymmetry AK*π for the decay B0 → K*+π- was measured to be AK*π (...) = 0.23 ± 0.18-0.06+0.09. For all these measurements the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. (shrink)
In  it is proved the categorical isomorphism of two varieties: bounded commutative BCK-algebras and MV -algebras. The class of MV -algebras is the algebraic counterpart of the infinite valued propositional calculus L of Lukasiewicz . The main objective of the present paper is to study that isomorphism from the perspective of logic. The B-C-K logic is algebraizable and the quasivariety of BCKalgebras is the equivalent algebraic semantics for that logic . We call commutative B-C-K logic, briefly cBCK, to the (...) extension of B-C-K logic associated to the variety of commutative BCK–algebras. Moreover, we present the extension Boc of cBCK obtained by adding the axiom of “boundness”. We prove that the deductive system Boc is equivalent to L. We observe that cBCK admits two interesting extensions: the logic Boc, treated in this paper, which is equivalent to the system L of Lukasiewicz, and the logic Co that is naturally associated to the system Balo of `-groups . This constructions establish a link between L and Balo , that would be a logical approach to the categorical relationship between MV–algebras and `-groups. (shrink)