Results for 'B. Lei'

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  1.  27
    An Approach to Greek Sculpture: an Inaugural Lecture Delivered Before the University of Cambridge on 17th May, 1935. By A. J. B. Wace. Pp. 52. Cambridge: the University Press, 1935. 2s[REVIEW]A. B. - 1936 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 56 (2):245-246.
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  2.  26
    Archäologische Mittheilungen Aus Russischen Sammlungen. Herausgegeben von B. Pharmakovsky, G. Rodenwaldt, O. Waldhauer, Th. Wiegand, A. A. Zacharoff. - Band I: Die Antiken Skupturen der Ermitage, Erster Teil. By Oskar Waldhauer. Pp. 84; Xlviii Plates and 17 Illustrations in Text. - Zweiter Teil. By Oskar Waldhauer. Pp. 75; Lii Plates and 90 Illustrations in Text. Berlin and Leipzig: de Gruyter, 1928 and 1931[REVIEW]A. B. - 1932 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 52 (1):137-138.
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  3.  47
    Abu l-ʿAbbās b. ʿAṭāʾ: Sufi und KoranauslegerAbu l-Abbas b. Ata: Sufi und Koranausleger.G. B. & Richard Gramlich - 1998 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 118 (1):146.
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  4.  59
    Miscellanea critica. Teil 1: aus Anlass des 150 jahrigen Bestehens der Verlagsgesellschaft und des graphischen Betriebes B. G. Teubner, Leipzig[REVIEW]R. B. & J. Irmscher - 1966 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 86:312.
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  5.  55
    A Short History of Antioch, 300 B. C. -- A. D. 1268.N. H. B. & E. S. Bouchier - 1921 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 41:295.
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  6.  15
    O episcopado francês e a lei de Separação. Reflexão sobre um processo de reconhecimento (The French episcopate and the Law of Separation. Reflection on a process of recognition) - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2011v9n22p554[REVIEW]Philippe Portier - 2011 - Horizonte 9 (22):554-582.
    O episcopado francês e a lei de Separação - Reflexão sobre um processo de reconhecimento ( The French episcopate and the Law of Separation -Reflection on a process (...)of recognition - L`épiscopat français et la loi de Séparation - Retour sur un processus de reconnaissance). Oprincípio da modernidade” – introduzido pela Revolução Francesa e ratificado por um conjunto de leis durante o século XIXrompe com o tradicionalprincípio do Estado confessional católicoe estabelece o regime de separação entre a Igreja Católica e o Estado francês. Como a Igreja recebeu o regime de separação entre Igreja e Estado, constituído à sua revelia e, geralmente, contra ela? O artigo propõe-se a responder a pergunta, destacando dois pontos de vista: a) o da ruptura, segundo o qual a instituição católica, marcada pelo princípio do Estado cristão, nutre forte hostilidade contra o regime laico, ainda que estabelecendo com ele acordos práticos; b) e o da continuidade, sob o qual a Igreja acolhe e defende o princípio da laicidadee justifica a liberdade pública de consciência. Baseado em minuciosa leitura de documentos oficiais da Igreja e do episcopado francês, o artigo dialoga com os dois pontos de vista evocados, analisando seus termos e interpretando criticamente seus pressupostos e suas teses. Palavras-chave: Estado confessional; Estado laico; Laicidade; Episcopado francês.The "principle of modernity" - introduced by the French Revolution and ratified by a set of laws during the nineteenth century - breaks with the traditional "principle of the Catholic confessional state" and establishes the separation between the Catholic Church and the French State. How did the Church receive the system of separation of church and state, made in absentia and generally against the church? This paper seeks to answer that question, highlighting two points of view: a) the break, according to which the Catholic institution, marked by the principle of the Christian State, nourishes strong hostility against the secular regime, although establishing practical agreements with such regime b) the point of view of continuity, under which the Church welcomes and embraces the principle of "healthy secularism" and justifies the public liberty of conscience. Based on careful reading of official documents of the Church and of the French episcopate, this article dialogues with the two mentioned points of view , analyses and interprets in a critical way their terms, assumptions and theses. Keywords : State religion; Secular state; Secularism; French episcopate. Résumé Leprincipe de la modernité” – introduit par la Révolution française et ratifié par un ensemble de lois durant le XIXème sièclerompt avec le traditionnelprincipe de lÉtat confessionnel catholiqueet établit le régime de séparation entre lÉglise catholique et lÉtat français. Comment lÉglise a-t-elle reçu le régime de séparation entre Église et État, institué malgré elle, et, généralement, contre elle? Larticle se propose de répondre à cette question en soulignant deux points de vue: a) celui de la rupture qui fait que linstitution catholique, marquée par le principe de lÉtat chrétien, nourrit une forte hostilité envers le régime laïque, bien quelle passe des accords pratiques avec lui; b) celui de la continuité, qui fait que lÉglise accueille et défend le principe de lasaine laïcitéet justifie la liberté publique de conscience. Basé sur une lecture minutieuse de documents officiels de lÉglise et de lÉpiscopat français, larticle dialogue avec ces deux points de vue, analyse leurs termes, tout en interprétant de manière critique leurs présupposés et thèses. Mots-clés: État confessionnel. État laïque. Laïcité. Épiscopat français. (shrink)
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  7. Last Judgment: The Visionary Biology of J. B. S. Haldane[REVIEW]Mark B. Adams - 2000 - Journal of the History of Biology 33 (3):457 - 491.
    This paper seeks to reinterpret the life and work of J. B. S. Haldane by focusing on an illuminating but largely ignored essay he published in 1927, (...)
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  8. Complete Chemical Synthesis, Assembly, and Cloning of a Mycoplasma Genitalium Genome.Daniel Gibson, Benders G., A. Gwynedd, Cynthia Andrews-Pfannkoch, Evgeniya Denisova, Baden-Tillson A., Zaveri Holly, Stockwell Jayshree, B. Timothy, Anushka Brownley, David Thomas, Algire W., A. Mikkel, Chuck Merryman, Lei Young, Vladimir Noskov, Glass N., I. John, J. Craig Venter, Clyde Hutchison, Smith A. & O. Hamilton - 2008 - Science 319 (5867):1215--1220.
    We have synthesized a 582,970-base pair Mycoplasma genitalium genome. This synthetic genome, named M. genitalium JCVI-1.0, contains all the genes of wild-type M. genitalium (...) G37 except MG408, which was disrupted by an antibiotic marker to block pathogenicity and to allow for selection. To identify the genome as synthetic, we inserted "watermarks" at intergenic sites known to tolerate transposon insertions. Overlapping "cassettes" of 5 to 7 kilobases (kb), assembled from chemically synthesized oligonucleotides, were joined by in vitro recombination to produce intermediate assemblies of approximately 24 kb, 72 kb ("1/8 genome"), and 144 kb ("1/4 genome"), which were all cloned as bacterial artificial chromosomes in Escherichia coli. Most of these intermediate clones were sequenced, and clones of all four 1/4 genomes with the correct sequence were identified. The complete synthetic genome was assembled by transformation-associated recombination cloning in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, then isolated and sequenced. A clone with the correct sequence was identified. The methods described here will be generally useful for constructing large DNA molecules from chemically synthesized pieces and also from combinations of natural and synthetic DNA segments. 10.1126/science.1151721. (shrink)
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  9. On A- and B-Theoretic Elements of Branching Spacetimes.Matt Farr - 2012 - Synthese 188 (1):85-116.
    This paper assesses branching spacetime theories in light of metaphysical considerations concerning time. I present the A, B, and C series in terms of the temporal structure (...)
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  10. Time Travel and the Immutability of the Past Within B-Theoretical Models.Giacomo Andreoletti & Giuliano Torrengo - 2019 - Philosophia 47 (4):1011-1021.
    The goal of this paper is to defend the general tenet that time travelers cannot change the past within B-theoretical models of time, independently of how (...)many temporal dimensions there are. Baron Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, 98, 129147 offered a strong argument intended to reach this general conclusion. However, his argument does not cover a peculiar case, i.e. a B-theoretical one-dimensional model of time that allows for the presence of internal times. Loss Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, 96, 111 used the latter model to argue that time travelers can change the past within such model. We show a way to debunk Losss argument, so that the general tenet about the impossibility of changing the past within B-theoretical models is maintained. (shrink)
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  11. The Fortune of Wells: Ida B. Wells-Barnett's Use of T. Thomas Fortune's Philosophy of Social Agitation as a Prolegomenon to Militant Civil Rights Activism. Curry - 2012 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 48 (4):456.
    Jesus Christ may be regarded as the chief spirit of agitation and innovation. He himself declared, “I come not to bring peace, but a sword.” One cannot (...)
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  12. Komitmen Organisasi: Karyawan Dengan Kepribadian Tipe a Dan Tipe B.Veronica Ruvina - 2010 - Phronesis (Misc) 9 (2).
    The aim of this study is to describe organizational commitment between type A personalitys and type B is personalitys workers on three companies. Organizational commitment is (...) define as the degree of psychological identification with or attachment to the organization for which we work. Participant of this study was 108 workers from three different companies. Data was obtained by questionnaire and processed with SPSS for Windows ver. 12. Using Mann-Whitney independent t-test for non parametric, the result of organizational commitment U = 1183, p > 0.05, showed that there is no difference of organizational commitment between type A personality and type B personality on company X, Y, and Z. (shrink)
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  13. Do We Really Need a New B-Theory of Time?Francesco Orilia & L. Nathan Oaklander - 2015 - Topoi 34 (1):1-14.
    It is customary in current philosophy of time to distinguish between an A- (or tensed) and a B- (or tenseless) theory of time. It is also customary (...)
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  14.  62
    A Nonconceptualist Reading of the B-Deduction.Roberto Horácio de Sá Pereira - 2017 - Philosophical Studies 174 (2):425-442.
    In this paper, I propose a new nonconceptual reading of the B-Deduction. As Hanna correctly remarks :399415, 2011: 405), the wordcognitionhas in both editions (...) of the first Critique a wide sense, meaning nonconceptual cognition, and a narrow meaning, in Kants own wordsan objective perception”. To be sure, Kant assumes the first meaning to account for why the Deduction is unavoidable. And if we take this meaning as a premise of the B-Deduction, then there is a gap in the argument since the categories are certainly not conditions for non-conceptual cognition. Still, I believe it is not this wide meaning but rather the narrow one that figures in any premise of the B-Deduction. Thus, in the reading that I am proposing, categories are not conditions for representing something, or even conditions for representing something objectively. Instead, they are conditions for the recognition that what we represent through the senses exists mind-independently. In the first step of the B-Deduction, this cognition in the narrow sense takes the form of the propositional thinking that the nonconceptually represented object of the sensible intuition exists objectively. In contrast, in the second step of the B-Deduction, this cognition in the narrow sense takes the form of the apprehension of what our human senses represent nonconceptually as existing objectively. (shrink)
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  15. Truth-Conditions, Truth-Bearers and the New B-Theory of Time.Stephan Torre - 2009 - Philosophical Studies 142 (3):325-344.
    In this paper I consider two strategies for providing tenseless truth-conditions for tensed sentences: the token-reflexive theory and the date theory. Both theories have faced a (...) number of objections by prominent A-theorists such as Quentin Smith and William Lane Craig. Traditionally, these two theories have been viewed as rival methods for providing truth-conditions for tensed sentences. I argue that the debate over whether the token-reflexive theory or the date theory is true has arisen from a failure to distinguish between conditions for the truth of tensed tokens and conditions for the truth of propositions expressed by tensed tokens. I demonstrate that there is a true formulation of the token-reflexive theory that provides necessary and sufficient conditions for the truth of tensed tokens, and there is a true formulation of the date theory that provides necessary and sufficient conditions for the truth of propositions expressed by tensed tokens. I argue that once the views are properly formulated, the A-theorists objections fail to make their mark. However, I conclude by claiming that even though there is a true formulation of the token-reflexive theory and a true formulation of the date theory, the New B-theory nonetheless fails to provide a complete account of the truth and falsity of tensed sentences. (shrink)
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  16.  19
    Dr. B.R. Ambedkar: A Modern Indian Philosopher.Desh Raj Sirswal - 2018 - Milestone Education Review 1 (09):19-31.
    Dr. B.R. Ambedkar is one of the names who advocated to change social order of the age-old tradition of suppression and humiliation. He was an intellectual (...), scholar, statesman and contributed greatly in the nation building. He led a number of movements to emancipate the downtrodden masses and to secure human rights to millions of depressed classes. He has left an indelible imprint through his immense contribution in framing the modern Constitution of free India. He stands as a symbol of struggle for achieving the Social Justice. We can assign several roles to this great personality due to his life full dedication towards his mission of eradicating evils from Indian society. The social evils of Indian society, also neglected this great personality even in intellectual sphere too. The so-called intellectuals of India not honestly discussed his contribution to Indian intellectual heritage, rather what they discussed, also smells their biases towards a Dalit literate and underestimated his great personality. This paper will attempt to discuss important facts about life and a short description of the literature written by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar. This is followed by discussion his philosophy in the five major sections i.e. Feminism and women empowerment, philosophy of education, ideas on social justice and equality, philosophy of politics and economics and philosophy of religion. (shrink)
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  17. Between Jadal and Burhān: Reading Post-Classical Islamic Intellectual History Through Ibn Ṭufeyls Novel Ḥayy B. Yaḳẓān.Mehmet Karabela - 2013 - Ankara Universitesi Ilahiyat Fakultesi Dergisi 54 (2):77-93.
    This article opens a new discussion in the field of post-classical Islamic intellectual history by showing how literature and intellectual history are two inseparable and interdependent (...)fields through an analysis of Ibn Ṭufayls novel, Ḥayy b. Yaqẓān. To this end, the article first examines the tension between the two concepts of jadal and burhān, which have affected much of the currents in classical Islamic intellectual history, and does so by assessing the three main figures in Ibn Ṭufayls novel: Ḥayy, Absāl and Salāmān. Our references to that tension are affirmed by two highly regarded scholars in post-classical Islamic intellectual history, Shams al-Dīn al-Samarqandī and Sājaqlīzāda, particularly in their clear distinction between jadal, baḥth and munāẓara. This article will show how the evidence in post-classical text analyses shows that the battle between the two concepts of jadal and burhān was won in favor of burhān in post-classical period. (shrink)
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  18. On Whether B-Theoretic Atheists Should Fear Death.Natalja Deng - 2015 - Philosophia 43 (4):1011-1021.
    In this paper I revisit a dispute between Mikel Burley and Robin Le Poidevin about whether or not the B-theory of time can give its adherents (...)any reason to be less afraid of death. InShould a B-theoretic atheist fear death?’, Burley argues that even on Le Poidevins understanding of the B-theory, atheists shouldnt be comforted. His reason is that the prevalent B-theoretic account of our attitudes towards the past and future precludes treating our fear of death as unwarranted. I examine his argument and provide a tentative defense of Le Poidevin. I claim that while Burley rightly spots a tension with a non-revisionary approach to our ordinary emotional life, he doesnt isolate the source of that tension. The real question is how to understand Le Poidevins idea that on the B-theory, we and our lives areeternally real’. I then suggest that there is a view of time that does justice to Le Poidevins remarks, albeit a strange one. The view takes temporal relations to be quasi-spatial and temporal entities to exist in a totum simul. (shrink)
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  19. Objects in Time: Studies of Persistence in B-Time.Tobias Hansson Wahlberg - 2009 - Dissertation, Lund University
    This thesis is about the conceptualization of persistence of physical, middle-sized objects within the theoretical framework of the revisionaryB-theoryof time. According to the B (...)-theory, time does not flow, but is an extended and inherently directed fourth dimension along which the history of the universe islaid outonce and for all. It is a widespread view among philosophers that if we accept the B-theory, the commonsensicalendurance theoryof persistence will have to be rejected. The endurance theory says that objects persist through time by being wholly present at distinct times as numerically the same entity. Instead of endurantism, it has been argued, we have to adopt eitherperdurantismor thestage theory’. Perdurantism is the theory that objects are four-dimensionalspace-time wormspersisting through time by having distinct temporal parts at distinct times. The stage theory says that objects are instantaneous temporal parts (stages) of space-time worms, persisting by having distinct temporal counterparts at distinct times. In the thesis, it is argued that no good arguments have been provided for the conclusion that we are obliged to drop the endurance theory by acceptance of the B-theory. This conclusion stands even if the endurance theory incorporates the claim that objects endure through intrinsic change. It is also shown that perdurantism and the stage theory come with unwelcome consequences. -/- Paper I demonstrates that the main arguments for the view that objects cannot endure in B-time intrinsically unchanged fail. Papers II and III do the same with respect to the traditional arguments against endurance through intrinsic change in B-time. Paper III also contains a detailed account of the semantics of the tenseless copula, which occurs frequently in the debate. The contention of Paper IV is that four-dimensional space-time worms, as traditionally understood, are not suited to take dispositional predicates. In Paper V, it is shown that the stage theory needs to introduce an overabundance of persistence-concepts, many of which will have to be simultaneously applicable to a single object (qua falling under a single sortal), in order for the theory to be consistent. The final article, Paper VI, investigates the sense in which persistence can, as is sometimes suggested, be aconventional matter’. It also asks whether alleged cases ofconventional persistencecreate trouble for the endurance theory. It is argued that conventions can only enter at a trivial semantic level, and that the endurance theory is no more threatened by such conventions than are its rivals. (shrink)
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  20.  15
    Kant on Time and Change: A Series, B Series, or Both?Hope Sample - 2017 - In Per Hasle, Patrick Blackburn & Peter Ohrstrom (eds.), Logic and Philosophy of Time: Themes from Prior, Volume 1. Aalborg: Aalborg University Press. pp. 141-150.
    When interpreters orient Kant in relation to contemporary philosophy of time, they claim that the B series is dependent on the A series. However, I claim that (...)
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  21. The Proof That the Standard Transformations of E and B Are Not the Lorentz Transformations.Tomislav Ivezić - 2003 - Foundations of Physics 33 (9):1339-1347.
    In this paper it is exactly proved that the standard transformations of the three-dimensional (3D) vectors of the electric and magnetic fields E and B are (...)not relativistically correct transformations. Thence the 3D vectors E and B are not well-defined quantities in the 4D space-time and, contrary to the general belief, the usual Maxwell equations with the 3D E and B are not in agreement with the special relativity. The 4-vectors E a and B a , as well-defined 4D quantities, are introduced instead of ill-defined 3D E and B. The proof is given in the tensor and the Clifford algebra formalisms. (shrink)
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  22. Beyond A- and B-TimeReconsidered.Natalja Deng - 2010 - Philosophia 38 (4):741-753.
    This article is a response to Clifford Williamss claim that the debate between A- and B theories of time is misconceived because these theories do not (...)differ. I provide some missing support for Williamss claim that the B-theory includes transition, by arguing that representative B-theoretic explanations for why we experience time as passing (even though it does not) are inherently unstable. I then argue that, contra Williams, it does not follow that there is nothing at stake in the A- versus B debate. (shrink)
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  23.  77
    Endurance Per Se in B-Time.Tobias Hansson Wahlberg - 2009 - Metaphysica 10 (2):175-183.
    Three arguments for the conclusion that objects cannot endure in B-time even if they remain intrinsically unchanged are examined: Carter and Hestevolds enduring-objects-as-universals argument ( (...)American Philosophical Quarterly 31(4):269-283, 1994) and Barker and Dowe's paradox 1 and paradox 2 (Analysis 63(2):106-114, 2003, Analysis 65(1):69-74, 2005). All three are shown to fail. (shrink)
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  24. The Role of Religious and Spiritual Values in Shaping Humanity (A Study of Dr. B.R. Ambedkars Religious Philosophy).Desh Raj Sirswal - 2016 - Milestone Education Review 7 (01):6-18.
    Values are an important part of human existence, his society and human relations. All social, economic, political, and religious problems are in one sense is reflection of (...)
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  25.  17
    Preschoolers and Multi-Digit Numbers: A Path to Mathematics Through the Symbols Themselves.Lei Yuan, Richard W. Prather, Kelly S. Mix & Linda B. Smith - 2019 - Cognition 189:89-104.
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  26.  25
    Hanefî MezhebiNin Kurucu İmamlarından Biri Olan Züfer B. Hüzeylin İstihsana Yaklaşımı.Adem Çiftci - 2018 - ULUM Journal of Religious Inquiries 1 (1):35-64.
    Mezheplerin teşekkül etmeye başladığı ilk dönemlerden itibaren istihsanın bir istidlal yöntemi olup olmadığı tartışılagelmiştir. Bu tartışmaların temelinde kavramsallaşma sürecini henüz tamamlamamış olan istihsan teriminin çağrıştırdığı keyfiliğin/sübjektivitenin (...)etkisi çok fazladır. Bu yüzden istihsanı bir yöntem olarak benimseyenler, ağır ithamlara maruz kalmışlardır. İstihsanı benimseyenlerin başında Hanefî hukukçular gelmektedir. Öyle ki istihsan yöntemi Hanefî mezhebiyle anılır hale gelmiştir. Bununla birlikte mezhebin önde gelen temsilcilerinden biri olan ve kıyas metodunu kullanmasıyla ön plana çıkan Züfer b. Hüzeylin istihsana yaklaşımıyla ilgili iki farklı yaklaşım tespitedilmiştir. Yaptığımız araştırma ve inceleme neticesinde her iki tespitinde isabetli olmadığını; Züfer b. Hüzeylinkıyas yapmadaki becerisinin yanı sıra istihsana müracaatta sonuna kadar kıyas taraftarı olduğunu; ancak kıyasın meselelere çözüm üretmede yetersiz kaldığı ya da doğru sonuç vermediği durumlarda ise ızdırârın da bir gereği olarak meseleyi hükümsüz bırakmama adına istihsana müracaat ettiği görülmektedir. Sonuç olarak Züfer b. Hüzeylin genel hatlarıyla Hanefî usulüne bağlı kalmakla birlikte istihsanı bir istidlâl yöntemi olarak kullanma hususunda çerçeveyi oldukça daralttığını; kıyasa başvurma konusunda ise sınırları mümkün olduğunca geniş tuttuğunu söylemek mümkündür. İctihad hürriyeti ve hukûkî zenginlik açısından oldukça önemli olan Hanefi mezhebindeki mezhep içi ihtilaflar, hukûkî istikrar ve emniyeti tehdit etme potansiyeli taşımakta ve ayrıca ihtilaflı meselelerde hüküm veya fetva verecek fakihlerin işini zorlaştırmaktadır. Bu nedenle mezhep içerisindeki ihtilaflı meselelerde râcih görüşü tespit etmek, diğer bir ifadeyle mezhep içi tercih, zorunlu bir ihtiyaçtır. Mezhep içi tercih, “muayyen bir mesele ile ilgili mezhepteki muhtelif kavil veya rivayetlerden daha ağır basanı, üstün olanı belirlemekşeklinde tarif edilebilir. Tarihi süreçte bu ihtiyacı karşılamak için muhtasar ve fetva kitapları gibi farklı telif türleri; esahh-ı akvâl ve maʻrûzât gibi farklı uygulamalar ortaya çıkmıştır. Bu ihtiyacı gidermeyi hedefleyen uygulamalardan biri de Osmanlı Devletinin son dönemindeki kanunlaştırmalardır. Fıkha dayalı kanunlaştırmanın ilk örneği olan Mecelle-i Ahkâm-ı Adliyye ile mezhep içi tercih arasındaki ilişki ve bu bağlamda Mecelle hazırlanırken, mezhep içi tercihte nasıl bir usûl izlendiği; râcih görüşe ne oranda uyulduğu; Mecelleʼde yer alan râcih görüşe aykırı kanun maddeleri ve bunların gerekçeleri; ihtilaflı bütün konularda düzenleneme yapılıp yapılmadığı ve râcih görüşleri belirleme ihtiyacının ne kadar giderildiği, incelenmesi gereken konulardır. Mecelle-i Ahkâm-ı Adliyye gibi bir kanun metnine ihtiyaç duyulmasının temel nedenlerinden birisi, Hanefî mezhebinde mezhep içi ihtilafların çokluğudur. Buna bağlı olarak Mecelleʼnin hedefi râcih görüşler içeren oluşan bir kanun hazırlamaktır. Mecellenin esbâb-ı mûcibeleri mezhep içi tercih açısından incelendiğinde, esbâb-ı mûcibelerin iki temel işlevi olduğu görülür. Bunlardan ilki, kanunun büyük oranda mezhepteki râcih görüşlere uygun olarak hazırlandığını vurgulamaktır. Öyle ki, Mecellenin ilk on kitabının esbâb-ı mûcibelerinde bu husus mutlaka ifade edilmektedir. Esbâb-ı mûcibelerin diğer işlevi ise niçin bazı maddelerde râcih görüşe riayet edilmediğini gerekçelendirmektir. Esbâb-ı mûcibelerde on iki maddenin râcih olmayan görüş doğrultusunda hazırlandığı belirtilmektedir. Mecelleʼnin 1851 maddeden oluştuğu göz önünde tutulduğunda Mecelleʼnin muhtevasında râcih görüşlerin ne kadar etkili olduğu daha iyi anlaşılacaktır. Esasen devrin özelliği de bunu zorunlu kılmaktadır. Zira Kitâbüʼl-Havâlenin 692. maddesinde Züferʼin râcih olmayan görüşünün tercih edilmesi, başta Şeyhülislam Hasan Fehmi Efendi olmak üzere bazı çevrelerin tepkisine neden olmuş ve bu sebeple Ahmet Cevdet Paşa Divân-ı Ahkâm-ı Adliyye nâzırlığından ve Mecelle Komisyonu başkanlığından azledilmiştir. Râcih görüşe aykırı maddelerin esbâb-ı mûcibeleri incelendiğinde, bu yöndeki tercihlerde maslahat ve örfün belirleyici olduğu görülmektedir. Ayrıca bazı fakihlerin tercihlerinin de bir tercih sebebi olarak zikredildiği görülmektedir. Hanefi kaynaklarda en sık karşılaşılan tercih sebebi naslara uygunluktur. Buna karşın Mecelleʼde sefîhin hacri konusu dışında, naslara uygunluğun bir tercih sebebi olarak işletilmemesi dikkat çekicidir. Mecelle Komisyonunun bazı tercihlerine diğer kurumlarca müdahale edilmiştir. Komisyonca hazırlanan kitaplar hem Meclis-i Vükelâ hem de Meşîhat tarafından incelenmiş ve bu esnada bazı tashihlere konu olmuştur. İşte râcih olmayan görüş esas alınarak hazırlanan iki maddeye Meclis-i Vükelâ tarafından müdahale edilmiştir. Bunların birincisi hakk-ı mürur ve hakk-ı şirbin müstakil olarak satımının cevazını savunan Belh Meşâyihinin görüşü doğrultusunda yazılan 216. madde, ikincisi ise ecîr-i müşterekin tazmin sorumluluğunu düzenleyen 611. maddedir. Mecellenin ilk ve en hacimli kitabı olan Kitâbüʼl-Büyûʻun muhtevası mezhep içi tercih açısından incelendiğinde, ihtilaflı konularda genelde mezhepteki râcih görüşün esas alındığı görülmektedir. Kitâbüʼl-Büyûʻun esbâb-ı mûcibesinde, dört meselenin râcih olmayan görüş esas alınarak hazırlandığı ifade edilmekte ve bu tercihler örf ve maslahatla gerekçelendirilmektedir. Ancak Kitâbüʼl-Büyûʻdaki râcih görüşe aykırı maddeler bunlarla sınırlı değildir. Bizim araştırmamıza göre bunlara ilaveten üç madde daha râcih olmayan görüş tercih edilerek hazırlanmıştır. Bunlar beyʻ biʼl-vefânın menkullerde cevazına dair 118. madde, gabn-i fâhişin tanımı hakkındaki 165. madde ve şart muhayyerliğinin hükmü ile ilgili 309. maddedir. Bu üç madde, Mecelleʼdeki râcih görüşe aykırı düzenlemelerin sadece esbâb-ı mûcibelerde açıklananlardan ibaret olmadığını göstermektedir ve bu durum Mecelle hazırlanırken izlenen usûle aykırıdır. Hanefi mezhebindeki bazı ihtilaflı meselelerde hangi görüşün râcih olduğu konusunda tercih ehli fakihler ihtilaf etmişlerdir. Bu meselelerde Mecelleʼde düzenleme yapılırken nasıl bir yol izlendiği açıklanmamıştır. Bu meseleler incelendiğinde çoğunluk tarafından tercih edilme, kolaylığı temin etme ve bazı fakihler tarafından tercih edilme gibi hususların etkili olduğu söylenebilir. Mecelleʼdeki tercihler sadece şerʻî hükümler arasında gerçekleşmemiştir. Buna ilaveten tanımlar ve tanımlarda yer alan kayıtlar da tercihe konu olmuştur. Bu kapsamda Kitâbüʼl-Büyûʻdaki beyʻ akdi, mevkûf akid ve gabn-i fâhişin tanımına ilişkin tercihler örnek olarak zikredilebilir. Hanefi mezhebin içerisindeki ihtilaflı bazı meseleler Mecelleʼde düzenlenmemiştir. İhtilaflı meselelerin çokluğu ve dolayısıyla bütün bunları kapsayan bir kanun hazırlamanın zorluğu dikkate alındığında bu durum doğaldır. Ayrıca bu meselelerden bazıları sık gerçekleşmediği ve lüzumlu görülmediği için Mecelleʼde düzenlenmemiş olabilir. Ancak düzenleme yapılmayan ihtilaflı meselelerin tamamını bu sebeplerle izah etmek mümkün değildir. Zira yasal düzenleme yapılmayan ihtilaflı meselelerin bazıları temel, görece önemli meselelerdir ve muhtasarlarda yer almaktadır. Bu durum Mecelle hazırlanırken, ihtilaflı bazı meselelerde tercih yapmak yerine bu meselelere ilişkin düzenleme yapmama metodunun benimsendiğini göstermektedir. İhtilaftan ârî bir kanun metni oluşturmanın bir yolu olarak da bu usûlün benimsendiği söylenebilir. Böylece bu meselelerde râcih görüşü tespit etme işi hâkimlere bırakılmıştır. Bu durum Mecelleʼnin hedefi olan râcih görüşleri tespit etme ihtiyacını gidermeye uygunluk arz etmemektedir. Ancak bu durum bütün meseleleri kuşatan bir kanun yapmanın güçlüğünün bir sonucudur. (shrink)
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  27.  74
    Um breve estudo histórico-analítico da Lei de Hume.Frank Thomas Sautter - 2006 - Trans/Form/Ação 29 (2):241-248.
    A Lei de Hume, pela qual um dever ser não pode resultar de um ser, e a sua recíproca, pela qual um ser não pode resultar de (...)
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  28.  49
    Do We Really Need Hepatitis B on the Second Day of Life?” Vaccination Mandates and Shifting Representations of Hepatitis B.Elena Conis - 2011 - Journal of Medical Humanities 32 (2):155-166.
    In the decade following hepatitis B vaccines 1981 approval, U.S. health officials issued evolving guidelines on who should receive the vaccine: first, gay men, injection drug (...) users, and healthcare workers; later, hepatitis B-positive womens children; and later still, all newborns. States laws that mandated the vaccine for all children were quietly accepted in the 1990s; in the 2000s, however, popular anti-vaccine sentiment targeted the shot as an emblem of immunization policy excesses. Shifting attitudes toward the vaccine in this period were informed by hepatitis Bs changing popular image, legible in textual and visual representations of the infection from the 1980s through the 1990s. Notably, the outbreak of AIDS, the advent of genetically engineered pharmaceuticals, and a Democratic push for health reform shaped and reshaped hepatitis Bs public image. Hepatitis B thus became, in turn, an AIDS-like scourge; proof of a new era of pharmaceuticals; a threat from which all American children had a right to be protected; and a cancer-causing infection spread by teenage lifestyles. The metamorphosis of the infections image was reflected in evolving policy recommendations regarding who should receive the vaccine in the 1980s, and was key to securing broad uptake of the vaccine in the 1990s. (shrink)
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  29.  35
    Integrity of IKK/NFκB Shields Thymic Stroma That Suppresses Susceptibility to Autoimmunity, Fungal Infection, and Carcinogenesis.Feng Zhu & Yinling Hu - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (4):1700131.
    A pathogenic connection between autoreactive T cells, fungal infection, and carcinogenesis has been demonstrated in studies of human autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy as well as in a (...) mouse model in which kinase-dead Ikkα knock-in mice develop impaired central tolerance, autoreactive T cellmediated autoimmunity, chronic fungal infection, and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, which recapitulates APECED. IκB kinase α is one subunit of the IKK complex required for NF-κB activation. IKK/NF-κB is essential for central tolerance establishment by regulating the development of medullary thymic epithelial cells that facilitate the deletion of autoreactive T cells in the thymus. In this review, we extensively discuss the pathogenic roles of inborn errors in the IKK/NF-κB loci in the phenotypically related diseases APECED, immune deficiency syndrome, and severe combined immunodeficiency; differentiate how IKK/NF-κB components, through mTEC, T cells/leukocytes, or epithelial cells, contribute to the pathogenesis of infectious diseases, autoimmunity, and cancer; and highlight the medical significance of IKK/NF-κB in these diseases. IKK/NF-κB regulates the expression of many genes that encode proteins involved in many crucial biological functions, such as immunity, tissue homeostasis, and fungal/bacterial/viral infections. Also, IKKα plays anti-tumor activities in many organs independently of NF-κB pathways. Thus, an inborn error in one of these gene loci can cause severe human diseases through these complicated mechanisms. (shrink)
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  30. BeyondBeyond a- and B-Time”.Mikel Burley - 2006 - Philosophia 34 (4):411-416.
    This Article critically discusses Clifford Williamsclaim that the A-theory and B-theory of time are indistinguishable. I examine three considerations adduced by Williams to support his (...) claim that the concept of time essentially includes transition as well as extension, and argue that, despite its prima facie plausibility, the claim has not been adequately justified. Williams therefore begs the question against the B-theorist, who denies that transition is essential. By Williamsown lights, he ought to deny that the B-theory is a (realist) theory of time; and thus his claim that A-time and B-time do not differ significantly should be rejected. (shrink)
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  31.  66
    Wolff e Kant sobre obrigação e lei natural: a rejeição do voluntarismo teológico na moral.Cunha Bruno - 2015 - Trans/Form/Ação 38 (3):99-116.
    RESUMO:O objetivo deste artigo é discutir sobre os conceitos de obrigação e lei natural, tendo como referência o polêmico debate moderno envolvendo intelectualismo e voluntarismo. Em (...)um primeiro momento, destacaremos a rejeição de Wolff ao voluntarismo de Pufendorf e sua orientação em direção ao intelectualismo de Leibniz. Conforme essa nova orientação, uma teoria da lei natural não deve basear seu conceito de obrigação na autoridade das leis e em seu poder coercitivo, mas, por outro lado, unicamente na ideia de necessidade moral, interpretada como expressão da ligação natural universal dos seres racionais com o dever. Em um segundo momento, apresentaremos os efeitos dessa discussão no pensamento inicial de Kant, que, se posicionando diante mesmo de Wolff e Baumgarten, vai empreender a superação de seus predecessores, através de uma revisão conceitual do problema, a qual culminará nos pressupostos de sua doutrina ética madura. -/- ABSTRACT:This paper highlights the debate around the concepts of obligationand natural law, with reference to the controversial modern discussion involving intellectualism and voluntarism. Firstly, we highlight Wolffs rejection of the voluntarism of Pufendorf and Wolffs orientation toward the intellectualism of Leibniz. For intellectualism, a theory of natural law should not ground the concept of obligation in the authority of laws and in their coercive power, but in the idea of moral necessity, understood as an expression of the universal natural connection of rational beings with duty. We then present the effects of this discussion on Kants early thought. Kant undertook to go beyond Wolff and Baumgarten through a conceptual review of the problem, which culminated in the assumptions of his mature ethics -/- This paper highlights the debate around the concepts of obligation and natural law , with reference to the controversial modern discussion involving intellectualism and voluntarism. Firstly, we highlight Wolffs rejection of the voluntarism of Pufendorf and Wolffs orientation toward the intellectualism of Leibniz. For intellectualism, a theory of natural law should not ground the concept of obligation in the authority of laws (established as an arbitrary decree of God) and in their coercive power (interpreted as fear of punishment), but in the idea of moral necessity, understood as an expression of the universal natural connection of rational beings with duty. We then present the effects of this discussion on Kants early thought. Kant undertook to go beyond Wolff and Baumgarten through a conceptual review of the problem, which culminated in the assumptions of his mature ethics. (shrink)
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  32. B-Theory Old and New: on Ontological Commitment.Daniel M. Johnson - 2013 - Synthese 190 (17):3953-3970.
    The most important argument against the B-theory of time is the paraphrase argument. The major defense against that argument is thenewtenseless theory of time, (...)which is built on what I will call theindexical replyto the paraphrase argument. The move from theoldtenseless theory of time to the new is most centrally a change of viewpoint about the nature and determiners of ontological commitment. Ironically, though, the new tenseless theorists have generally not paid enough sustained, direct attention to that notion. I will defend a general criterion of ontological commitment and apply it to generate a version of the new tenseless theory of time. I will argue that many of the extant versions of the new tenseless theory of time (specifically, all those which seek to identify tenseless truth-conditions of tensed sentences as a way out of apparent ontological commitment to tensed features of reality) are unsatisfactory because their general criterion of ontological commitment is inadequate. Those versions of the new tenseless theory which are adequate (specifically, those which identify tenseless truthmakers for tensed sentences) actually entail the criterion of ontological commitment that I defend, despite appearances to the contrary. (shrink)
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  33.  50
    B-Time Transition.Clifford Williams - 1998 - Philosophical Inquiry 20 (3-4):59-63.
    I argue that the proper way to think of the difference between A- and B-time is not as the difference between transition and the lack of (...)transition, as is common, but as A-transition and B-transition. However, it is not evident what the difference is between these two kinds of transition. Thus, it is not evident what the difference is between A- and B-time. (shrink)
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  34.  88
    Beyond a-and B-Time.Clifford Williams - 2003 - Philosophia 31 (1-2):75-91.
    The common assumption in the debate between the A- and B-theories is that there is a difference between A- and B-time. A-time has been said (...)
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  35.  54
    Condition B Effects in Two Simple Steps.Floris Roelofsen - 2010 - Natural Language Semantics 18 (2):115-140.
    This paper is concerned with constraints on the interpretation of pronominal anaphora, in particular Condition B effects. It aims to contribute to a particular approach, initiated by (...)
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  36.  37
    A teoria kantiana do respeito pela lei moral e da determinação da vontade.Julio Esteves - 2009 - Trans/Form/Ação 32 (2):75-89.
    Este artigo tem por objetivo examinar uma tensão existente no interior da teoria kantiana do respeito pela lei moral. Originalmente, na Fundamentação, o respeito é concebido por (...)
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  37. O Conceito de Violência-Poder eo Caráter Paradoxal do Poder Juridico em Walter Benjamim.José Gilardo Carvalho - 2012 - Revista Inquietude 3 (1):122-139.
    No presente artigo pretendemos apresentar o conceito de violência-poder em Walter Benjamin (18921940), com base no ensaio intitulado Crítica do Poder, Crítica da Violência [Zur (...)
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  38. New Perspectives on Renaissance Thought Essays in the History of Science, Education and Philosophy ; in Memory of Charles B. Schmitt.John Henry, Sarah Hutton, Charles B. Schmitt & Istituto Italiano Per Gli Studi Filosofici - 1990
  39.  28
    Teorias da lei natural: Pufendorf e Rousseau.Luiz Felipe Netto de Andrade E. Silva Sahd - 2007 - Trans/Form/Ação 30 (2):219-234.
    O presente artigo tem como objetivo reconstruir argumentos centrais desenvolvidos por Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Contra Samuel Pufendorf, Rousseau defende que a justiça não é natural. Ele recusa (...)todo compromisso com a lei natural tradicional para voltar à posição de Thomas Hobbes. Ora, no estado originário de natureza, os princípios racionais da lei natural que expõe Pufendorf não podem ser conhecidos, e, por conseguinte, quando puderem ser conhecidos, não serão aplicados por natureza. (shrink)
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  40. Lei, Amizade e participação política em Aristóteles após o biological turn, reflexões preliminares sobre um novo paradigma hermenêutico.Daniel Simão Nascimento - 2015 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 15:59-70.
    Este artigo tem quatro objetivos. O primeiro deles é mostrar que dois debates contemporâneos de grande importância para a filosofia política aristotélicaa saber, o debate acerca (...) do laço que liga ou deve ligar os cidadãos de uma comunidade política e o debate acerca da importância da participação política no que diz respeito ao alcance da felicidadedevem ser compreendidos em conjunto com o movimento hermenêutico que chamamos hoje de biological turn. Como veremos, a maneira como respondemos a essas duas questões influencia ainda uma terceira, a saber, a questão acerca da importância e da função da lei para a comunidade política tal como pensada por Aristóteles. O segundo objetivo é resumir os principais argumentos apresentados nos ditos debates apontando sua pertinência e as suas falhas. O terceiro objetivo é ressaltar um ponto de considerável importância para ambos os debates que não recebeu a devida atenção por parte dos comentadores. Sendo impossível alcançar uma resposta definitiva a respeito das duas questões no espaço que temos aqui, o último objetivo do presente artigo é indicar um possível caminho para futuras investigações. (shrink)
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  41. W.E.B. Du Bois on Race and Culture Philosophy, Politics, and Poetics.Bernard W. Bell, Emily Grosholz & James B. Stewart - 1996
     
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  42. The Social Theory of W.E.B. Du Bois.W. E. B. Du Bois & Phil Zuckerman - 2004
  43. Reviewing the Covenant Eugene B. Borowitz and the Postmodern Renewal of Jewish Theology.Peter Ochs, Eugene B. Borowitz & Yudit Kornberg Greenberg - 2000
     
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  44. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar: The Maker of Modern India.Desh Raj Sirswal (ed.) - 2016 - Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS), Pehowa (Kurukshetra).
    Dr. B. R. Ambedkar is one of the most eminent intellectual figures of modern India. The present year is being celebrated as 125th Birth Anniversary of Dr. (...)
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  45. Proceedings of the One Day Faculty Development Programme on Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, Indian Constitution and Indian Society.Desh Raj Sirswal - 2016 - CPPIS.
    To follow the legacy of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, a RUSA Sponsored One-Day Facutly Development Programme onDr. B.R. Ambedkar, Indian Constitution and Indian Societyorganised (...)
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  46. Muhammed b. Ahmed el-H'rizmînin Mef'tîhul-‘Ulûm Adlı Eserinde Felsefe.Sadi Yilmaz & Mehmet Sami Baga - 2019 - Tasavvur / Tekirdağ İlahiyat Dergisi 5 (2):975-992.
    Ansiklopedik tarzda kaleme alınan eserler, yazıldıkları dönemindeki ilmi seviyeyi göstermek ve muhataplarının ihtiyaç duydukları pratik bilgileri bir araya getirmek bakımından büyük öneme sahiptir. Zira bu tür eserlerin, (...)
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  47.  83
    Agrarian Ideals and Practices: Comments on Paul B. Thompsons The Agrarian Vision.Lee A. Mcbride Iii - 2012 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 25 (4):535-541.
    In The Agrarian Vision , Thompson argues that a better appreciation of agrarian ideals could lead to a more virtuous, more sustainable way of life. While I agree (...) with Thompson in many respects, there are some aspects of the book that I question and others that I would like to hear Thompson explicate in greater detail. In this paper, I question Thompsons claim that agrarian farmers and farming communities serve as ideal models of virtuous habits and good character. I challenge Thompsons use of virtue theory, particularly the notion that farming virtues can be acquired without participating in farming practices. In the end, I make the point that Thompson seems to vacillate between being realistic and being idealistic, which may seriously complicate our notions of responsibility and obligation in practice. (shrink)
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  48. Kant, Non-Conceptual Content and the 'Second Step' of the B-Deduction.Dennis Schulting - 2012 - Kant Studies Online (1):51-92.
  49.  12
    O Lado B da filosofia antiga.Rodrigo Pinto de Brito & Carol Martins da Rocha - 2019 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 27:02701-02701.
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  50.  86
    To H or Not to B: a PheromoneBinding Protein Re-at Os Colony Social Organization I Nf Ire a Nts.Michael J. B. Krieger - 2005 - Bioessays 27 (1):91-99.
    A major distinction in the social organization of ant societies is the number of reproductive queens that reside in a single colony. The fire ant Solenopsis invicta (...)
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