This essay explores some concerns about the quality of informed consent in patients whose autonomy is diminished by fatal illness. It argues that patients with diminished autonomy cannot give free and voluntary consent, and that recruitment of such patients as subjects in human experimentation exploits their vulnerability in a morally objectionable way. Two options are given to overcome this objection: (i) recruit only those patients who desire to contribute to medical knowledge, rather than gain access to experimental treatment, or (ii) (...) provide prospective subjects the choice to participate in standard doubleblind study or receive the experimental treatment. Either option would guarantee that patients in desperate conditions are given a more meaningful choice and a richer freedom, and thus a higher quality of informed consent, than under standard randomized trials. (shrink)
There is currently a debate over whether cognitive architecture is classical or connectionist in nature. One finds the following three comparisons between classical architecture and connectionist architecture made in the pro-connectionist literature in this debate: (1) connectionist architecture is neurally plausible and classical architecture is not; (2) connectionist architecture is far better suited to model pattern recognition capacities than is classical architecture; and (3) connectionist architecture is far better suited to model the acquisition of pattern recognition capacities by learning than (...) is classical architecture. If true, (1)-(3) would yield a compelling case against the view that cognitive architecture is classical, and would offer some reason to think that cognitive architecture may be connectionist. We first present the case for (1)-(3) in the very words of connectionist enthusiasts. We then argue that the currently available evidence fails to support any of (1)-(3). (shrink)
We interpret the concept of determinism for a classical system as the requirement that the solution to the Cauchy problem for the equations of motion governing this system be unique. This requirement is generally believed to hold for all autonomous classical systems. Our analysis of classical electrodynamics in a world with one temporal and one spatial dimension provides counterexamples of this belief. Given the initial conditions of a particular type, the Cauchy problem may have an infinite set of solutions. Therefore, (...) random behavior of closed classical systems is indeed possible. With this finding, we give a qualitative explanation of how classical strings can split. We propose a modified path integral formulation of classical mechanics to include indeterministic systems. (shrink)
Background: Since the passage of the Patient Self-Determination Act, numerous policy mandates and institutional measures have been implemented. It is unknown to what extent those measures have affected end-of-life care, particularly with regard to the do-not-resuscitate order.Methods: Retrospective cohort study to assess associations of the frequency and timing of DNR orders with advance directive status, patient demographics, physician’s specialty and extent of documentation of discussion on end-of-life care.Results: DNR orders were more frequent for patients on a medical service than on (...) a surgical service and were made earlier in the hospital stay for medicine than for surgical patients . 22.18% of all patients had some form of an advance directive in their chart, yet this variable had no impact on the frequency or timing of DNR ordering. Documentation of DNR discussion was significantly associated with the frequency of DNR orders and the time from DNR to death .Conclusions: The physician’s specialty continues to have a significant impact on the frequency and timing of DNR orders, while advance directive status still has no measurable impact. Additionally, documentation of end-of-life discussions is significantly associated with varying DNR ordering rates and timing. (shrink)
A generally clear and well-written introduction to Thomistic natural theology which, like most such "textbook" treatments, suffers from too much commentary and too little Aquinas. The nature and existence of God are dealt with in some detail, and two interesting sections on "Invalid Reasons for Holding the Existence of God" and "Some Controverted Arguments" are included.--B. P. H.
Yet another development of the natural theology of Thomas Aquinas aimed at the undergraduate. The approach is traditional and clearly stated. Each chapter begins with an outline and ends with a list of leading ideas and supplementary readings. Judicious use of charts and diagrams helps to clarify the more difficult terms.--B. P. H.
A textbook introduction which borrows heavily from current Existentialist terminology. Each chapter ends with a summary and a list of suggested readings. Although the beginning student's interest may be aroused by this book, it is not made clear what kind of philosophy he is being interested in.—B. P. H.
Besides his translation of this classic, the author provides an introduction which serves to situate Galen and his work in ancient thought, an analysis which discusses Galen's sources, and a concise summary of the work itself. This volume should be of value to the modern logician as well as the student of ancient and medieval philosophy.—B. P. H.
Thirteen essays, both appreciative and informative, on the man and his philosophy. Simon, Collins, Anderson, Ward, and other leading Thomists are represented. They give us a comprehensive picture of Maritain's interests, his importance and his influence.--B. P. H.
Lectures given at the Second International Congress for Medieval Philosophy held in Cologne in 1961. Topics covered include: "The Early Scholastics—from Logic to Metaphysics"; "Platonism and neo-Platonism in Medieval Philosophy"; "Thomas Aquinas and the Old Dominicans"; "Arabian Philosophy: Averroes and His Opponents"; "The Philosophy of the Franciscans"; "Late Medieval Developments of Philosophy"; and "Sources and Editions in Medieval Philosophy." Articles appear in English, German, French, Italian, and Latin.—B. P. H.
A massive undertaking which the author hopes will help the reader "to discern the nature of the ills which beset moral philosophy in our time, and above all to recognize, in actu exercito, the philosophical bases of ethics and the value of the primary concepts which it brings into play." Employing what he calls "the method used with such care by Aristotle," Maritain begins with the discovery of ethics by Socrates, moves on to the impact of Christianity upon moral philosophy, (...) the ethics of Kant, and the great "illusion" of post-Kantian dialecticism, and concludes with a telling criticism of so-called existentialist ethics and Bergsonian supra-morality. The style is lively throughout and the general tenor of the book is one of humble yet critical scholarship.—B. P. H. (shrink)
Containing essays on the nature and scope of rhetoric, as well as philosophical analyses of persuasion and argumentation, this book claims to deal with a "new field of philosophy" in which "the concepts of rhetoric and argumentation, including the rhetoric and argumentation of the philosopher himself, are subjected to philosophical scrutiny." Leaving aside the "newness" of such an endeavor, it is heartening to see new interest in the questions of rhetorical argument. Perhaps analytic philosophers should pay more attention to the (...) history of rhetoric and modern rhetoricians to the new developments in philosophy. This book is a first step in that direction.—B. P. H. (shrink)
One of a series "designed to add to the growing body of historical material reevaluating the culture of Medieval Europe." This volume consists of short, lucid articles which explore some of the historical, philosophical and literary figures and developments of the Middle Ages. A lead article by Laurence K. Shook discusses the nature and value of medieval studies.—B. P. H.
An excellent comparison of the thought of the major figure in the "classic period of Roman Catholic theology" with that of "the central figure of seventeenth century [Protestant] theology." Aquinas's views on creation are succinctly summarized and provide a useful background for the exposition of Gerhard's theology. The author finds the different quality of these two theological outlooks to lie in Aquinas's awareness of man's "richness" and Gerhard's emphasis of man's "inner contradictoriness." That is to say, whereas Aquinas sees the (...) world as "reflecting the abundance of God's resourcefulness and ordering love," Gerhard sees more of creation's inner contradictions: "man trying to save himself though unable to do so...." One hopes that more such comparative studies in Catholic-Protestant thought will be forthcoming.—B. P. H. (shrink)
According to Lewis the medieval universe, "while unimaginably large, was also unambiguously finite." The earth was believed to be infinitesimally small by cosmic standards and to have a perfect spherical shape containing within it an ordered variety. Man looked at the world and saw a manifestation of Divine Wisdom and of human finitude. It is Lewis's thesis that this model of the universe accounts for the most typical vice as well as the most typical virtue of medieval literature. The vice, (...) "sheer unabashed, prolonged dulness," arises because the writer feels the world has a built-in significance and thus he need not embellish his subject-matter. The virtue, an "absence of strain" whereby the story seems to be telling itself, comes from the author's complete confidence in the intrinsic value of his subject-matter and results in a vividness unrivalled until very recent times. Lewis concludes his admirable book with a warning to his contemporaries not to misunderstand the character of a model nor to assume naively that today's model is necessarily more factual and "true" to reality than that of the Middle Ages.—B. P. H. (shrink)
A superb new translation of the Fioretti which conveys both the humility and the playful humor of St. Francis and his early followers. Also included are the Considerations on the Stigmata, the Life of Brother Juniper, the Life of Brother Egidio, the Second Rule, and the Testament. The translator provides an interesting and illuminating introduction.—B. P. H.
This is a provocative and important book. Most of its essays by Catholic laymen strongly criticize the Church's traditional stand against "artificial" contraception. The objections against the approved rhythm method, the critical analysis of arguments from "natural law" on theological as well as philosophical grounds, and the attempt to develop a more meaningful Christian approach to sexuality seem certain to raise angry rebuttals from many clergy and a good number of the more conservative laity in the Church. Here we have (...) laymen thinking and arguing in a manner worthy of the "Open Church" foreseen by Pope John and supported by the Second Vatican Council.—B. P. H. (shrink)
Real life applications and case studies -- Commmunication and computing systems -- Mobile and ubiquitous computing -- Electrical and electronics systems -- Green computing and e-waste minimizations -- Image processing and applications -- Material science & technology -- Wired and wireless networks.
Kuhn's book explicitly aims to reassert the validity of the tradition of western metaphysics, with its central tenet that truth about permanent essences can be achieved, against the challenges raised on the one hand by historicism and on the other by what he characterizes as a structuralism unceremoniously committed to agnosticism. But his work is not primarily polemical. Rather it proposes its own systematic, phenomenological account of human experience.
In this excellent study, Zimmerman traces out in admirable detail the development of the concept of authenticity in Heidegger's thought. In doing so, he uses the full resources of the available Heideggerian corpus. He likewise brings to bear a sure grasp of the considerable pertinent secondary literature.
The United States District Court of Kansas, in Gudenkauf v. Stauffer, Znc., granted the defendants motion for summary judgment for the plaintiff's claims of pregnancy-related discrimination under the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, but the court denied a similar motion for the plaintiff's claim under the Pregnancy Discrimination Act. The court found summary judgment to be appropriate for the ADA claim based on its finding that the plaintiff's pregnancy did not constitute an (...) impairment as required by the statute; as for the FMLA claim, it determined that the defendants failure to grant the plaintiff's leave request did not violate the statute. However, the court determined that summary judgment was inappropriate for the PDA claim because of material questions of fact about whether the defendant had acted with discriminatory intent.In considering the motions for summary judgment, the court accepted the following facts as incontrovertible. Plaintiff Michaela Gudenkauf worked for the defendant Stauffer, Inc. (shrink)