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Bridget Pratt [42]B. Pratt [2]
  1.  9
    Solidarity and Community Engagement in Global Health Research.Bridget Pratt, Phaik Yeong Cheah & Vicki Marsh - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (5):43-56.
    Community engagement is gaining prominence in global health research. A number of ethical goals–spanning the instrumental, intrinsic, and transformative–have been ascribed to CE in global heal...
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  2.  44
    A Framework to Link International Clinical Research to the Promotion of Justice in Global Health.Bridget Pratt & Bebe Loff - 2013 - Bioethics 27 (3):387-396.
    How international research might contribute to justice in global health has not been substantively addressed by bioethics. Theories of justice from political philosophy establish obligations for parties from high-income countries owed to parties from low and middle-income countries. We have developed a new framework that is based on Jennifer Ruger's health capability paradigm to strengthen the link between international clinical research and justice in global health. The ‘research for health justice’ framework provides direction on three aspects of international clinical research: (...)
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  3.  19
    Governance of Transnational Global Health Research Consortia and Health Equity.Bridget Pratt & Adnan A. Hyder - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (10):29-45.
    Global health research partnerships are increasingly taking the form of consortia of institutions from high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries that undertake programs of research. These partnerships differ from collaborations that carry out single projects in the multiplicity of their goals, scope of their activities, and nature of their management. Although such consortia typically aim to reduce health disparities between and within countries, what is required for them to do so has not been clearly defined. This article takes a (...)
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  4.  55
    Exploitation and Community Engagement: Can Community Advisory Boards Successfully Assume a Role Minimising Exploitation in International Research?Bridget Pratt, Khin Maung Lwin, Deborah Zion, Francois Nosten, Bebe Loff & Phaik Yeong Cheah - 2015 - Developing World Bioethics 15 (1):18-26.
    It has been suggested that community advisory boards can play a role in minimising exploitation in international research. To get a better idea of what this requires and whether it might be achievable, the paper first describes core elements that we suggest must be in place for a CAB to reduce the potential for exploitation. The paper then examines a CAB established by the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit under conditions common in resource-poor settings – namely, where individuals join with a (...)
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  5.  22
    Designing Research Funding Schemes to Promote Global Health Equity: An Exploration of Current Practice in Health Systems Research.Bridget Pratt & Adnan A. Hyder - 2018 - Developing World Bioethics 18 (2):76-90.
    International research is an essential means of reducing health disparities between and within countries and should do so as a matter of global justice. Research funders from high-income countries have an obligation of justice to support health research in low and middle-income countries that furthers such objectives. This paper investigates how their current funding schemes are designed to incentivise health systems research in LMICs that promotes health equity. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were performed with 16 grants officers working for 11 funders (...)
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  6.  13
    Community Engagement in Global Health Research That Advances Health Equity.Bridget Pratt & Jantina de Vries - 2018 - Bioethics 32 (7):454-463.
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  7.  29
    Evaluating the Capacity of Theories of Justice to Serve as a Justice Framework for International Clinical Research.Bridget Pratt, Deborah Zion & Bebe Loff - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (11):30-41.
    This article investigates whether or not theories of justice from political philosophy, first, support the position that health research should contribute to justice in global health, and second, provide guidance about what is owed by international clinical research (ICR) actors to parties in low- and middle-income countries. Four theories?John Rawls's theory of justice, the rights-based cosmopolitan theories of Thomas Pogge and Henry Shue, and Jennifer Ruger's health capability paradigm?are evaluated. The article shows that three of the four theories require the (...)
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  8.  22
    Exploring the Ethics of Global Health Research Priority-Setting.Bridget Pratt, Mark Sheehan, Nicola Barsdorf & Adnan A. Hyder - 2018 - BMC Medical Ethics 19 (1):94.
    Thus far, little work in bioethics has specifically focused on global health research priority-setting. Yet features of global health research priority-setting raise ethical considerations and concerns related to health justice. For example, such processes are often exclusively disease-driven, meaning they rely heavily on burden of disease considerations. They, therefore, tend to undervalue non-biomedical research topics, which have been identified as essential to helping reduce health disparities. In recognition of these ethical concerns and the limited scholarship and dialogue addressing them, we (...)
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  9.  12
    Global Justice and Health Systems Research in Low‐ and Middle‐Income Countries.Bridget Pratt & Adnan A. Hyder - 2015 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (1):143-161.
    Scholarship focusing on how international research can contribute to justice in global health has primarily explored requirements for the conduct of clinical trials. Yet health systems research in low- and middle-income countries has increasingly been identified as vital to the reduction of health disparities between and within countries. This paper expands an existing ethical framework based on the health capability paradigm – research for health justice – to externally-funded health systems research in LMICs. It argues that a specific form of (...)
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  10. Ancillary Care: From Theory to Practice in International Clinical Research.B. Pratt, D. Zion, K. M. Lwin, P. Y. Cheah, F. Nosten & B. Loff - 2013 - Public Health Ethics 6 (2):154-169.
    How international research might contribute to justice in global health has not been substantively addressed by bioethics. This article describes how the provision of ancillary care can link international clinical research to the reduction of global health disparities. It identifies the ancillary care obligations supported by a theory of global justice, showing that Jennifer Ruger’s health capability paradigm requires the delivery of ancillary care to trial participants for a limited subset of conditions that cause severe morbidity and mortality. Empirical research (...)
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  11.  52
    Closing the Translation Gap for Justice Requirements in International Research.Bridget Pratt, Deborah Zion, Khin Maung Lwin, Phaik Yeong Cheah, Francois Nosten & Bebe Loff - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (9):552-558.
    Bioethicists have long debated the content of sponsors and researchers' obligations of justice in international clinical research. However, there has been little empirical investigation as to whether and how obligations of responsiveness, ancillary care, post-trial benefits and research capacity strengthening are upheld in low- and middle-income country settings. In this paper, the authors argue that research ethics guidelines need to be more informed by international research practice. Practical guidance on how to fulfil these obligations is needed if research groups and (...)
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  12.  9
    Research Capacity Strengthening in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Ethical Explorations.Adnan A. Hyder, Abbas Rattani & Bridget Pratt - 2017 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 45 (1):129-137.
    With developed country governments and high resource institutions engaging in research in low- and middle-income countries, we argue that these entities have a moral obligation to help build and strengthen research infrastructure and capacity so local scientists and institutions can adequately conduct studies to understand and resolve the health burdens in low and middle income countries. We explore the moral justifications and motivations behind engaging in research capacity strengthening in the health sector in LMIC at multiple levels. In highlighting these (...)
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  13.  7
    Applying a Global Justice Lens to Health Systems Research Ethics: An Initial Exploration.Bridget Pratt & Adnan A. Hyder - 2015 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 25 (1):35-66.
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  14.  27
    Linking International Clinical Research with Stateless Populations to Justice in Global Health.Bridget Pratt, Deborah Zion, Khin M. Lwin, Phaik Y. Cheah, Francois Nosten & Bebe Loff - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):49.
    In response to calls to expand the scope of research ethics to address justice in global health, recent scholarship has sought to clarify how external research actors from high-income countries might discharge their obligation to reduce health disparities between and within countries. An ethical framework—‘research for health justice’—was derived from a theory of justice (the health capability paradigm) and specifies how international clinical research might contribute to improved health and research capacity in host communities. This paper examines whether and how (...)
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  15.  25
    Justice in International Clinical Research.Bridget Pratt & Bebe Loff - 2011 - Developing World Bioethics 11 (2):75-81.
    Debates about justice in international clinical research problematically conflate two quite different forms of obligation. International research ethics guidelines were intended to describe how to conduct biomedical research in a just manner at the micro or clinical level (within the researcher-participant interaction) but have come to include requirements that are clearly intended to promote justice at the global level. Ethicists have also made a variety of claims regarding what international research should contribute to global justice. This paper argues that the (...)
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  16. Exploitation and Community Engagement: Can Community Advisory Boards Successfully Assume a Role Minimising Exploitation in International Research?Bridget Pratt, Khin Maung Lwin, Deborah Zion, Francois Nosten, Beatrice Loff & Phaik Yeong Cheah - unknown
     
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  17.  6
    Justice and Public Participation in Universal Health Coverage: When is Tiered Coverage Unfair and Who Should Decide?Bridget Pratt - 2019 - Asian Bioethics Review 11 (1):5-19.
    Universal health coverage is often implemented within countries through several national insurance schemes that collectively cover their populations. Yet the extent of services and benefits available can vary substantially between different schemes. This paper argues that these variations in coverage comprise tiering and then reviews different accounts of health and social justice that consider whether and when a tiered health system is fair. Using these accounts, it shows that the fairness of tiering can be determined by assessing whether differences in (...)
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  18.  4
    Constructing Citizen Engagement in Health Research Priority‐Setting to Attend to Dynamics of Power and Difference.Bridget Pratt - forthcoming - Developing World Bioethics.
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  19.  36
    Linking International Research to Global Health Equity: The Limited Contribution of Bioethics.Bridget Pratt & Bebe Loff - 2013 - Bioethics 27 (4):208-214.
    Health research has been identified as a vehicle for advancing global justice in health. However, in bioethics, issues of global justice are mainly discussed within an ongoing debate on the conditions under which international clinical research is permissible. As a result, current ethical guidance predominantly links one type of international research (biomedical) to advancing one aspect of health equity (access to new treatments). International guidelines largely fail to connect international research to promoting broader aspects of health equity – namely, healthier (...)
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  20.  4
    Health Incentive Research and Social Justice: Does the Risk of Long Term Harms to Systematically Disadvantaged Groups Bear Consideration?Verina Wild & Bridget Pratt - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (3):150-156.
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  21.  11
    Priority Setting Is More Than Resource Allocation: Reflecting on the Content of Funders’ Duties and Their Implications for Current Practice.Bridget Pratt & Adnan A. Hyder - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (11):27-30.
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  22.  17
    Reinterpreting Responsiveness for Health Systems Research in Low and Middle‐Income Countries.Bridget Pratt & Adnan A. Hyder - 2015 - Bioethics 29 (6):379-388.
    The ethical concept of responsiveness has largely been interpreted in the context of international clinical research. In light of the increasing conduct of externally funded health systems research in low- and middle-income countries, this article examines how responsiveness might be understood for such research and how it can be applied. It contends that four features set HSR in LMICs apart from international clinical research: a focus on systems; being context-driven; being policy-driven; and being closely linked to development objectives. These features (...)
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  23.  3
    Too Much Safety? Safeguards and Equal Access in the Context of Voluntary Assisted Dying Legislation.Rosalind McDougall & Bridget Pratt - 2020 - BMC Medical Ethics 21 (1):1-10.
    Background In June 2019, the Australian state of Victoria joined the growing number of jurisdictions around the world to have legalised some form of voluntary assisted dying. A discourse of safety was prominent during the implementation of the Victorian legislation. Main text In this paper, we analyse the ethical relationship between legislative “safeguards” and equal access. Drawing primarily on Ruger’s model of equal access to health care services, we analyse the Victorian approach to voluntary assisted dying in terms of four (...)
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  24. Soft” Science in the Courtroom?: The Effects of Admitting Neuroimaging Evidence Into Legal Proceedings.B. Pratt & K. Johnson - 2005 - Penn Bioethics Journal 1 (1).
  25. Justice in International Clinical Research.Bridget Pratt & Beatrice Loff - unknown
  26.  17
    If Research Is a Pillar of Health System Development, Why Only Focus on Clinical Trials?Bridget Pratt, Joseph Ali & Adnan A. Hyder - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (6):14-17.
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  27.  15
    Linking International Research to Global Health Equity: The Limited Contribution of Bioethics.Bridget Pratt & Beatrice Loff - unknown
  28. Equitable Data Sharing in Epidemics and Pandemics.Susan Bull & Bridget Pratt - 2021 - BMC Medical Ethics 22 (1):1-14.
    BackgroundRapid data sharing can maximize the utility of data. In epidemics and pandemics like Zika, Ebola, and COVID-19, the case for such practices seems especially urgent and warranted. Yet rapidly sharing data widely has previously generated significant concerns related to equity. The continued lack of understanding and guidance on equitable data sharing raises the following questions: Should data sharing in epidemics and pandemics primarily advance utility, or should it advance equity as well? If so, what norms comprise equitable data sharing (...)
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  29.  8
    Genomics Governance: Advancing Justice, Fairness and Equity Through the Lens of the African Communitarian Ethic of Ubuntu.Nchangwi Syntia Munung, Jantina de Vries & Bridget Pratt - 2021 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 24 (3):377-388.
    There is growing interest for a communitarian approach to the governance of genomics, and for such governance to be grounded in principles of justice, equity and solidarity. However, there is a near absence of conceptual studies on how communitarian-based principles, or values, may inform, support or guide the governance of genomics research. Given that solidarity is a key principle in Ubuntu, an African communitarian ethic and theory of justice, there is emerging interest about the extent to which Ubuntu could offer (...)
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  30.  9
    A Comparison of Justice Frameworks for International Research: Table 1.Bridget Pratt & Bebe Loff - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (7):539-544.
  31. A Framework to Link International Clinical Research to the Promotion of Justice in Global Health.Bridget Pratt & Bebe Loff - 2014 - Bioethics 28 (8):387-396.
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  32. Achieving Inclusive Research Priority-Setting: What Do People with Lived Experience and the Public Think is Essential?Bridget Pratt - 2021 - BMC Medical Ethics 22 (1):1-14.
    BackgroundEngagement of people with lived experience and members of the public is an ethically and scientifically essential component of health research. Authentic engagement means they are involved as full partners in research projects. Yet engagement as partnership is uncommon in practice, especially during priority-setting for research projects. What is needed for agenda-setting to be shared by researchers and people with lived experience and/or members of the public? At present, little ethical guidance exists on this matter, particularly that which has been (...)
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  33.  8
    Connecting Health Systems Research Ethics to a Broader Health Equity Agenda.Bridget Pratt - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (2):1-3.
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  34.  2
    Community Organisation-Researcher Partnerships: What Concerns Arise for Community Organisations and How Can They Be Mitigated?Bridget Pratt - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (10):693-699.
    Universities and research funders’ growing emphasis on community partnerships, engagement and outreach has seen a rise in collaborations between university researchers and staff of community organisations on research projects. What ethical issues and concerns are experienced as part of these collaborations has largely not been described, particularly from the perspective of COs. As part of a recent, broader qualitative study, several concerns arising during health research collaborations between COs and university researchers were captured during thematic analysis. The concerns were described (...)
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  35.  7
    Developing a Toolkit for Engagement Practice: Sharing Power with Communities in Priority-Setting for Global Health Research Projects.Bridget Pratt - 2020 - BMC Medical Ethics 21 (1):1-14.
    BackgroundCommunities’ engagement in priority-setting is a key means for setting research topics and questions of relevance and benefit to them. However, without attention to dynamics of power and diversity, their engagement can be tokenistic. So far, there remains limited ethical guidance on how to share power with communities, particularly those considered disadvantaged and marginalised, in global health research priority-setting. This paper generates a comprehensive, empirically-based “ethical toolkit” to provide such guidance, further strengthening a previously proposed checklist version of the toolkit. (...)
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  36.  10
    Engagement as Co‐Constructing Knowledge: A Moral Necessity in Public Health Research.Bridget Pratt - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (7):805-813.
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  37.  17
    Health Systems Research Consortia and the Promotion of Health Equity in Low and Middle‐Income Countries.Bridget Pratt, Katharine A. Allen & Adnan A. Hyder - 2016 - Developing World Bioethics 16 (3):148-157.
    Health systems research is widely identified as an indispensable means to achieve the goal of health equity between and within countries. Numerous health systems research consortia comprised of institutions from high-income countries and low and middle-income countries are currently undertaking programs of research in LMICs. These partnerships differ from collaborations that carry out single projects in the multiplicity of their goals, scope of their activities, and nature of their management. Recent conceptual work has explored what features might be necessary for (...)
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  38.  9
    Linking the Governance of Research Consortia to Global Health Justice: A Case Study of Future Health Systems.Bridget Pratt & Adnan A. Hyder - 2017 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 45 (4):664-681.
    Global health research partnerships are increasingly taking the form of consortia. Recent scholarship has proposed what features of governance may be necessary for these consortia to advance justice in global health. That guidance purports three elements of global health research consortia are essential — their research priorities, research capacity development strategies, research translation strategies — and should be structured to promote the health of the worst-off globally. This paper adopted a reflective equilibrium approach, testing the proposed ethical guidance against the (...)
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  39.  33
    Promoting Equity Through Health Systems Research in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Practices of Researchers.Bridget Pratt, Katharine A. Allen & Adnan A. Hyder - 2016 - Ajob Empirical Bioethics 7 (3):199-208.
  40.  4
    Response to Open Peer Commentaries on “Governance of Transnational Global Health Research Consortia and Health Equity”.Adnan A. Hyder & Bridget Pratt - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics 17 (1):4-6.
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  41.  2
    Response to Open Peer Commentaries on “Solidarity and Community Engagement in Global Health Research”.Bridget Pratt, Phaik Yeong Cheah & Vicki Marsh - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (8):W14-W16.
    Volume 20, Issue 8, August 2020, Page W14-W16.
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  42.  1
    Social Justice and the Ethical Goals of Community Engagement in Global Health Research.Bridget Pratt - 2019 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 16 (4):571-586.
    Social justice has been identified as a foundational moral commitment for global health research ethics. Yet what a commitment to social justice means for community engagement in such research has not been critically examined. This paper draws on the rich social justice literature from political philosophy to explore the normative question: What should the ethical goals of community engagement be if it is to help connect global health research to social justice? Five ethical goals for community engagement are proposed that (...)
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  43.  6
    Social Justice and the Ethical Goals of Community Engagement in Global Health Research.Bridget Pratt - 2019 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 16 (4):571-586.
    Social justice has been identified as a foundational moral commitment for global health research ethics. Yet what a commitment to social justice means for community engagement in such research has not been critically examined. This paper draws on the rich social justice literature from political philosophy to explore the normative question: What should the ethical goals of community engagement be if it is to help connect global health research to social justice? Five ethical goals for community engagement are proposed that (...)
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  44.  8
    What Constitutes Fair Shared Decision‐Making in Global Health Research Collaborations?Bridget Pratt - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (9):984-993.
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