Technology has expanded genomic research and the complexity of extracted gene-related information. Health-related genomic incidental findings pose new dilemmas for nurse researchers regarding the ethical application of disclosure to participants. Consequently, informed consent specific to incidental findings is recommended. Critical Social Theory is used as a guide in recognition of the changing meaning of informed consent and to serve as a framework to inform nursing of the ethical application of disclosure consent in genomic nursing research practices.
A provocative collection of technical and popular essays dealing with a variety of scientific and political topics which Popper has treated in his major works. For the most part Popper develops, sharpens, and extends to new areas, themes which he has already explored. The major theme running through the essays is that knowledge grows by unjustified and unjustifiable anticipations, guesses and conjectures. These are controlled by criticisms and refutations. Theories can never be positively justified; they can only prove to be (...) resistant to rational criticism. The boldness of Popper's conjectures demands attempted refutations on the part of the reader.--R. J. B. (shrink)
Published in a series, Views and Controversies about Classical Antiquity, this collection consists of fifteen articles or selections dealing with the recent controversy concerning the political doctrines of Plato. Most of the articles were published in direct response to Popper's controversial views expressed in The Open Society and Its Enemies. While some of the more interesting comments on Popper's views are included, a good bibliography and guide to the literature would have greatly increased the value of the book. By photographically (...) reproducing the original articles one might have hoped for an inexpensive edition; instead there is a confusing variety of types.--R. J. B. (shrink)
An intelligently and originally organized survey, which cites with brief abstracts and some appraisals studies of Plato that appeared during the period 1950-1957. The range of coverage is almost exhaustive and is carefully cross-referenced. The citation of material in Dutch, Portuguese, and Norwegian, supplementing complete coverage of English, French, German, and Italian books and articles, should prove of value in revealing common interests and furthering international communication among scholars. Philological and analytic approaches are usually commended, but dialectical treatments which fit (...) neither category usually elicit an unjustified negative appraisal. An indispensable book for the general practitioner in philosophy as well as for the specialist. --R. S. B. (shrink)
With a great deal of fanfare and coverage by the popular press, an era of dialogue between Communism and Christianity has been initiated. Symposia, books and discussions have been encouraged on Marxist-Christian dialogue throughout the Western world. Roger Garaudy, onetime Stalinist and a leading member of the French Communist party, has become the apostle for the new Communist desire for dialogue, which draws heavily on Marx's secular humanism. While serious scholars have struggled to assess and incorporate the rediscovery of the (...) early Marx in a balanced understanding of Marx's thought, Garaudy exaggerates and sentimentalizes the fashionable humanism of Marx. The result reads more like a personal testament than a judicious assessment and presentation of Marxism.—R. J. B. (shrink)
This is an extremely well-edited collection of articles dealing with Austin. A number of articles help to present general biographical information and to provide an overview of the man and his philosophic style. Three sections of this anthology are divided so as to include papers that deal with issues raised in Austin's Philosophical Papers, Sense and Sensibilia, and How to Do Thing with Words. Papers are included by those who are sympathetic and admire Austin's work as well as those who (...) have been very critical of his work. Altogether this symposium includes a judicious selection of some of the best articles dealing with Austin. There are papers by Warnock, Urmson, Hampshire, Pears, Cavell, Quine, Chisholm, Ayer, Searle, etc. There is a bibliography of Austin's writings as well as writings about Austin.--R. J. B. (shrink)
A new and extremely readable translation of one of Kant's early works that helps to correct the austere picture of Kant which emerges from a concern only with his critical philosophy. Kant's observations on the differences between the sexes, and his classification of national characteristics are especially delightful. The entire work shows Kant in a more empirical mood than is to be found in the Critiques. The translator's introduction is helpful for understanding Kant's personality and early work, though the brief (...) remarks about the critical philosophy are rather superficial.--R. J. B. (shrink)
The excitement generated among philosophers by Chomsky's work arises not only from his contributions to the study of language but also from the ramifications of his work for general issues of epistemology and the philosophy of science. Chomsky has been attacking cherished dogmas of empiricism and its ally, behaviorism. He has suggested that Descartes—the favorite whipping boy of contemporary philosophers—and his theory of innate ideas provide a fruitful starting point for understanding and appreciating recent work in transformational linguistics. In this (...) brief historical essay, he sets forth what he takes to be the chief doctrines of Cartesian linguistics and traces their development through the nineteenth century. The essay is self-consciously written from a contemporary perspective and the topics selected for discussion are those which anticipate and are related to contemporary empirical linguistics. The importance of the creative aspect of language use, the distinction between deep and surface structure in language, the belief in a universal grammar are the key themes of this stimulating study in the history of ideas.—R. J. B. (shrink)
A provocative interpretation of Freud's views on civilization, incisively presented. The author offers an extended argument for the possibility, on Freudian grounds, of a civilization which is non-repressive, and he tries to adduce Freudian evidence against Freud's own view to the contrary. Two concepts central to his analysis are surplus-repression, "the restrictions necessitated by social domination," and the performance principle, "the prevailing historical form of the reality principle." Marcuse differentiates his interpretation from that of the traditional neo-Freudians, whom he attacks.--R. (...) B. (shrink)
A patient attempt to get the philological detail of Parmenides' poem precise, by an author who has the virtue of recognizing the inseparability of philosophical considerations and philological technique. The conclusion is offered that the Eleatics were dualists almost in a Platonic sense, but with no causal connection between "being " and phenomena; thus there is no contradiction between the two parts of Parmenides' poem, and a strong historical affinity between Eleaticism and Plato's dualism. There is not quite enough precision (...) nor imagination in the philosophical dimension proper to make this study entirely definitive; but it offers an interesting approach, with a suggestive outcome.--R. S. B. (shrink)
Papers by Hempel, Sellars, Caspari, Grünbaum and Feyerabend are included in this new series of lectures in the philosophy of science given at the University of Pittsburgh. Hempel defends his theory of historical explanation against recent critics; Sellars' exciting paper is the best introduction to the philosophic viewpoint that he has developed during the past fifteen years; Grünbaum argues that the problem of the nature of time belongs to physics; and Feyerabend surveys the present state of philosophic problems of quantum (...) physics. All the lectures are excellent, though little new ground is broken. Carefully edited and well designed.--R. J B. (shrink)
This is an intelligently designed collection of essays dealing with a variety of key issues that are in the foreground of reflection on the social and behavioral sciences. The format followed is an ideal one: a key paper, a comment by a critic, and a reply. Thus, for example, Charles Taylor explains and defends teleological explanation of behavior and engages in an exchange with Robert Borger; and Noam Chomsky reviews the problems of explanation in linguistics and is challenged by Max (...) Black. The quality of this volume is quite high and the contributors are leaders in their fields of inquiry. Not only are there explorations by philosophers but also by practicing behavioral scientists. This is therefore an excellent way of gaining an overview of some of the key issues concerning explanation in the behavioral sciences. But the volume is disappointing in breaking new ground. Many of the points and counterpoints made here can be found in other places, and frequently they are explored in greater detail in other places. The collection also reflects an Anglo-Saxon bias for there is little attempt to include any confrontations with the continental concern with the nature of explanation in the social sciences. A detailed bibliography might have helped to direct the reader to further discussion of the issues involved. But despite these limitations, this is an impressive series of confrontations.--R. J. B. (shrink)
The author uses the Scriptures as the basis for constructing a moral philosophy. Besides describing the Biblical morality, he examines the nature of moral principle and of moral judgment in general. There is a suggestive supplementary essay, "The Logic of an Empirical Moral Philosophy and its Parallel in the Logic of Empirical Science."--R. B.
Kolakowski, who was born in 1927, has long been known as one of the most original and exciting post-Stalinist Polish intellectuals. And this collection of essays show why he deserves this reputation. There is wit, irony, insight, and radical critique evidenced throughout. His discussion of "Karl Marx and the Classical Definition of Truth" provides a fresh, provocative, and fascinating interpretation of Marx's epistemology. His criticism of Stalinist Marxism and the analogies he draws with the history of theology are among the (...) most intelligent and incisive criticisms developed. There is a theme that runs throughout these essays--it is the theme of the individual's moral responsibility in contemporary society. His criticism of orthodoxy including Marxist orthodoxy is pervaded by the spirit of rational criticism that preserves and fosters the best in the Marxist tradition. The book unfortunately lacks a badly needed introduction and there are no bibliographical references for many of the papers.--R. J. B. (shrink)
When Anscombe wrote her introduction to the Tractatus, she argued that the book should be approached with an awareness of the logical issues that preoccupied Wittgenstein, especially the work of Russell and Frege. The publication of the Notebooks further supported this suggestion. Now Griffin has written a commentary on the set of questions centering on atomic proposition and makes extensive use of the pre-Tractarian writings. As a result, he clarifies a number of technical issues concerning logical atomism. Especially interesting is (...) the use he makes of Hertz in dealing with the Tractatus. Like so many other recent discussions of the Tractatus, Griffin's commentary suffers because he does not attempt to come to grips with the work as a whole.—R. J. B. (shrink)
This collection of articles on Kierkegaard is designed to help make the secondary literature on Kierkegaard more available to graduate and undergraduate students. The book is divided into three parts: "The Philosophical Context"; "Reason and Faith"; and "The Ethico-Religious." The articles are a good sampling ranging from Louis Mackey's brilliant exposition of the philosophic context of Kierkegaard's thought to Brand Blanshard's graceful criticism. This anthology would have been much more helpful if it contained an index, an annotated bibliography, and an (...) introduction to orient the reader.--R. J. B. (shrink)
A translation of the small volume originally published in 1939 based on De Vleeschauwer's classic La Déduction transcendentale dans l'œuvre de Kant, in which the author approaches the subject as "the historian of a great system and the biographer of a great mind." In addition to the detailed historical information, the study is valuable for exhibiting the philosophic perplexities involved in the construction of Kant's critical philosophy.--R. J. B.
An essay in the "new" metaphysics which has been emerging from English analytic philosophy. Acknowledging his debt to Wittgenstein, Shwayder concedes that what he has to offer "is nothing but philosophical theory in pretty much the old-fashioned sense." The three foci are referring, properties, and natural numbers. The multifarious and subtle distinctions are the source both of the book's strength and weakness. The concern and care for detailed shades of meaning frequently gets in the way of a more general metaphysical (...) view of the problems treated. --R. J. B. (shrink)
This careful and detailed inquiry is an exploration of the inner tension in Aristotle of the "presence" of specific form and the "presentation" of concrete type instance, by way of a study of predication and its ontological ground.--R. S. B.
Although this book consists of a number of essays, some of which have been published, there is a remarkable unity of perspective and metaphysical orientation. Mrs. De Laguna writes with clarity and vigor and tackles some of the toughest philosophical problems and positions. Beginning with a discussion of science and teleology, she argues that recent science requires the recognition of "teleonomy" in nature. In her analysis of existence and potentiality, the thesis that whatever exists contains potentialities is defended. This enables (...) her to turn to an analysis of "the individual," which is a basic metaphysical category applicable to all of nature. Moving up the evolutionary "scale," we have forceful and provocative discussions of the person and culture. In the course of her positive exposition there are acute critical discussions of Heidegger, Sartre and Kant. What emerges is a comprehensive orientation for understanding man in society and the universe. Considering the revival of interest in natural teleology and intentionality, the book is timely. Informed with a knowledge and appreciation of developments in science and philosophy, this adventure in metaphysics is urbane, lucid, and illuminating.—R. J. B. (shrink)
During the past decade some of the most provocative and controversial disputes concerning the philosophy and history of science have centered about the work of Thomas Kuhn and Sir Karl Popper. One, therefore, looks with anticipation to this volume which is based on a symposium held in July, 1965 where Kuhn, Popper and several of Popper's former students met for an intellectual confrontation. But the result is depressing. The volume is an editorial mess. Two of the main scheduled speakers never (...) appeared at the symposium, although papers by them are published here. Some of the remarks published here seem to be those spoken on the day the symposium was held while others, like Kuhn's answer to his critics, were written four years after the symposium. The result is a confusing and distracting editorial unevenness. While Kuhn's fair-minded opening paper raises some of the most important issues to be confronted, one quickly senses that the Popperians are not really very much interested in discussing Kuhn's work but rather in pushing their own pet theses. Kuhn puts this rather generously when he labels it an example of "talking-through-each-other." Most of the Popperians seem to be obsessed with Kuhn's understanding of normal science and neglect the much more interesting questions concerning his views on scientific revolutions, the sense in which science does and does not make progress, the criteria involved in adjudicating among competing theories. It is almost with relief that one reads Margaret Masterman's remark that it is a "crashingly obvious fact" that there is normal science. Ironically, Masterman's article which is basically sympathetic to Kuhn's work is the most illuminating and the most critical. More successfully than any of other contributors she shows the ambiguities involved in Kuhn's idea of a paradigm. One's wishes that the Popperians would take a good hard look at themselves and what they are doing as it is so disastrously illustrated here. Although ostensibly dedicated to serious critical rationalism, they seem more eager to score points than to understand what they are criticizing. Although they supposedly abhor clubiness, they are rapidly forming themselves into a scholastic circle where the object seems to be to show how brilliant or how stupid some other student of Popper is. Although they scorn the quest for origins, they are almost compulsive in attempting to show that anything worthwhile was previously said by Sir Karl. This book illustrates the faults of the Popperians at their worst and few of their virtues. There is much heat and wit, but little light.--R. J. B. (shrink)
Ten years ago Father Ong published a scholarly book, Ramus, Method, and the Decay of Dialogue which led him to raise fundamental questions about the history of the spoken word. Since that time, he has returned to this complex topic from a variety of perspectives, extending his vision over the entire development of Western Civilization. Now in this book he traces the development of the "shifting sensorium," from its oral-aural sources to the subtle take over of the visual world to (...) the new possibilities created by electronic communication. But throughout this history the "mystery" of the spoken word prevails. The spoken word is neither a sign nor a symbol, but a living presence which is at the very center of human life. The mystery of sound "is the most productive of understanding and unity, the most personally human, and in this sense closest to the divine." While Ong ranges over the entire history of man and culture, evoking and exhibiting his claims rather than arguing for them in detail, he opens up for us a fresh and exciting perspective for understanding a wide range of human phenomena.—R. J. B. (shrink)
During the past few years, Smart has published a series of provocative articles in which he has argued for a "tough-minded" scientific materialism. In this book, which makes use of the articles and combines them with new material, he boldly defends the possibility of a synthetic philosophy which attempts to think clearly and comprehensively about the nature of the universe and the principles of conduct. Starting with a critique of phenomenalism, he argues that the physicist's picture of the world is (...) truer that of the language of ordinary common sense. Continuing with a discussion of biology, secondary qualities, and consciousness, he stoutly maintains that man can be understood as a physical mechanism in a non-anthropocentric space-time world. He concludes with some brief remarks about how materialism is compatible with a humane and beneficent ethic. Reflecting extensive command of recent philosophic and scientific literature, Smart's arguments are clear, sustained and stimulating.—R. J. B. (shrink)
Despite the enormous and growing interest in Marx and the availability of Marx's writing in paperback, it is scandalous how little care has been taken in producing careful texts and English translations of Marx's work. O'Malley's edition is an outstanding exception. It is carefully and intelligently edited. The result makes available an extremely interesting text of Marx. A number of scholars have already argued that in this early critique, one can discover some of the earliest formulations of distinctive Marxian themes. (...) Now the reader can judge for himself, for this is the first full English translation of Marx's Critique. But this Critique is not only extremely important for understanding Marx's intellectual development, it also helps to make Hegel's Philosophy of Right come alive. Marx's fundamental ambivalence toward Hegel is evidenced here. It is clear that Marx is still very much under Hegel's influence and we can see how deeply Hegel is shaping Marx's thought, but there is also a toughness and incisiveness in Marx's criticism of Hegel. O'Malley has provided a very extensive introduction which not only provides the necessary background for understanding this text but also explores the role of this work in the totality of Marx's development. Altogether this edition shows a care and judiciousness which is exceptional. It eminently serves the purpose of making an important text accessible.--R. J. B. (shrink)
Although political theory was pronounced dead only a few short years ago, this collection of articles shows that much life is left in contemporary political theory. Based on a symposium concerning human rights held at the Sixth World Congress of the International Political Science Association held at Geneva in 1964, the collection includes papers by Macpherson, Polin, Chapman, Cranston, Raphael, Mayo, Schneider, and Fawcett. Macpherson and Polin set the context by exploring the concept of rights in Hobbes and Locke. While (...) the other papers have an eye on traditional discussions, they are also concerned with exploring what "rights" does and can mean in the contemporary world. The international gathering of authors brings together diverse points of view on the common problem of human rights.--R. J. B. (shrink)
Ever since Plato's Republic, a persistent problem and dilemma in Western thought has been the relation of the love of wisdom and political power, especially the role that the intellectual does or ought to play in the world of action. This volume includes both theoretical studies and case studies of modern intellectuals. Most of the articles have been published before but several, including T. Parson's "'The Intellectual': A Social Role Category" and J. Netl's "Ideas, Intellectuals, and Structures of Dissent" were (...) written for this volume. Other contributors are Shils, Dahrendorf, Berlin, Bushnell, Samuels, Comte, Nisbet, and Rieff. The most eloquent and moving essay is Isaiah Berlin's sympathetic study of Moses Hess. Through the great diversity of approaches and issues discussed, a common theme emerges--the fragility of the role of the intellectual, who is frequently duped, sometimes subtly corrupted or persecuted, but who, on occasion can shape and humanize the vision of his fellowmen, even though he may appear as the "fool" to his contemporaries. One striking lack here is a "case study" of any representative intellectual of the "New Left," but the total effect of this intelligently chosen collection is to provide us with a needed perspective for assessing the possibilities and dangers open to intellectuals in our time.--R. J. B. (shrink)
Cavell is one of the most gifted and sensitive philosophers who has been influenced by Wittgenstein and Austin. He is no slavish disciple but an intelligent and perceptive interpreter of the contemporary sensibility. Six of the ten essays have already appeared in print and some have already become intellectual gems. In "The Availability of Wittgenstein's Later Philosophy," Cavell better than most has managed to capture and convey the spirit and the intensity of the later Wittgenstein. The title essay is the (...) most articulate defense of what ordinary language philosophy can be at its best. But Cavell is also an incisive commentator on Beckett and Kierkegaard. He illuminates a range of aesthetic issues. Cavell's forte is that of an essayist who manages to create in each of his essays a "form of life" within which one can participate and share his insight.--R. J. B. (shrink)
A collection of popular and semi-technical philosophic essays written during the past twenty-five years, in which Hook defends an "experimental or pragmatic naturalism." A large part of the essays are concerned with defending naturalism against its critics and subjecting the recent revival of religion and theology to a devasting polemical attack. Hook's tough-minded intelligence is evident throughout, though he does little toward a careful explication of the knottier problems that cluster about naturalism.--R. J. B.
A new translation which is eminently readable and extremely accurate. Much of the awkwardness and unnecessary obscurity of the Ogden translation has been eliminated. The comprehensive index which combines both English and German expressions is designed to meet the special problems involved in understanding the Tractatus. Unfortunately Russell's introduction to the 1922 edition is reproduced without any indication of the controversy concerning Russell's interpretation, or subsequent interpretations of the Tractatus.--R. J. B.
The demand for a synoptic philosophic overview is a perennial one. If contemporary professional philosophers are reluctant to satisfy such a demand, others will attempt it. In this brief sketch, Phenix argues that there are three perspectives for understanding the complexity of human nature. The natural sciences disclose the universal aspects of human nature, the social sciences describe those aspects shared with some but not all other persons, and the humanities show man in his uniqueness. Throughout his discussion Phenix is (...) concerned to show the relevance of these ideas to education and to clarify and justify the meaning of liberal learning.—R. J. B. (shrink)
A lively introduction to metaphysical problems, including the relation of mind and body, freedom and determinism, time and becoming, and God. Starting with common sense beliefs, Taylor uses a natural dialectic to show how metaphysical problems arise. The clarity and forcefulness of his discussions and arguments invite the reader to join issue.--R. J. B.
This is the first complete translation of the second part of Hegel's Encyclopaedia. It is based on the recent German text edited by Nicolin and Pöggeler and contains the Zusätze from Michelet's text. Findlay is to be congratulated for encouraging the publication of this book which is part of a project of completing the translation of the three parts of Hegel's Encyclopaedia together with their Zusätze. A. V. Miller who has already provided a new translation of Hegel's Science of Logic (...) has again undertaken the difficult task of translating this work. Among Anglo-Saxon philosophers there has been the grossest ignorance and the wildest prejudices concerning Hegel's views of the natural sciences and the philosophy of nature. For the first time, we now have a helpful text to understand exactly what Hegel did say and why. The most impressive fact about this volume is the seriousness with which Hegel reflected on the current state of the natural sciences of his own time. Indeed it is difficult to grasp many of his points without understand the specific developments that he has in mind. While much of what Hegel says is obscure and outdated, Hegel is not attempting to legislate for natural science, but to provide us with a philosophic understanding of the significance of our understanding of nature. In this respect, the spirit of Hegel's endeavor is not so foreign from that of contemporary philosophy of science. The publication of this part of Hegel's system will enable us to come to a more balanced understanding of Hegel's philosophy. Findlay's forward is helpful both in explaining and justifying the sources for this translation and for singling out the major themes of Hegel's philosophy of nature.--R. J. B. (shrink)
Beginning with a sketch of Aristotelian science and the challenge of the new sciences, Smith leads the reader into a consideration of problems concerning the relation of philosophy and science. Smith provides a panoramic view of traditional and contemporary points of views. Smith also attempts to develop and defend an Aristotelian theory of the philosophy of nature.—R. J. B.
Madison's Notes of the Convention debates are the central document in this fine series covering the period from the Declaration of Rights of the Stamp Act Congress to the ratification of the Constitution. The editor's excellent introduction and notes sketch the background and influences on American Constitutionalism.--R. J. B.
Since the time of Hume and Maine de Biran there have been two dominant views concerning our experience or perception of causality: Humians maintain that there is no direct experience of a causal link between successive events, while followers of Maine de Biran have argued that there is an internal experience of causality. By devising a series of ingenious experiments, Michotte attempts to show that both traditions are mistaken, and that there are causal impressions in the realm of external experience. (...) Whether or not one agrees with Michotte's conclusions, this study does effectively show the relevance of experimental data to an understanding of the perception of causality. There is a forward by R. C. Oldfield, several appendices bringing the research up to date, and a helpful commentary by T. R. Miles.—R. J. B. (shrink)
Fifty two scholars from the east and west have contributed essays to this volume presented to T. M. P. Mahadevan, head of the Department of Philosophy, University of Madras on his fiftieth birthday. Although the range of papers is broad, collectively they present an overview of the diverse currents in traditional and contemporary Indian philosophy. A bibliography of Mahadevan's writings is also included.—R. J. B.