El trabajo analiza la participación de la mujer en el proceso migratorio desde mediados del siglo XIX hasta los inicios del siglo XX mediante la colectividad alemana establecida en Valparaíso. Nos detenemos específicamente en la actividad social, el quehacer laboral y la vida familiar de la comunidad germana, con lo que podremos acceder a un ámbito poco conocido del accionar femenino en la empresa migratoria europea, en donde se desarrollan valores y costumbres que constituyen parte importante de la identidad alemana. (...) Se utilizan principalmente como fuentes diarios de vida y testamentos realizados por mujeres. The paper analyzes the participation of women in the migration process, since the mid-nineteenth century to the early twentieth century, through the established German community in Valparaiso. We stop specifically in social activity, professional work and family life of the German community, which we can access a little known field of women in the European migration, where they develop values and customs that are an important part of German identity. We mainly use as sources diaries and wills made??by women. (shrink)
Se analiza la evolución del transporte urbano, a través de un siglo, en una de las ciudades que experimentan mayores transformaciones tecnológicas como consecuencia de su condición de puerto muy vinculado al comercio internacional. Tal posicionamiento facilita la incorporación de mayores adelantos tecnológicos los cuales son también parte de la infraestructura que la ciudad requiere para llevar a cabo su quehacer económico en su dimensión externa. Efectivamente, la incorporación de la energía eléctrica en el transporte urbano constituye una expresión de (...) un proceso de modernización impulsado por la incorporación de tal medio energético en la actividad urbana de Valparaíso. Al mismo tiempo se hace notar las diferencias geográficas y sociales que presentan la ciudad y su vinculación al acceso a los medios de transporte y por consiguiente al proceso de modernización. (shrink)
The future of human computation benefits from examining tasks that agents already perform and designing environments to give those tasks computational significance. We call this natural human computation. We consider the possible future of NHC through the lens of Swarm!, an application under development for Google Glass. Swarm! motivates users to compute the solutions to a class of economic optimization problems by engaging the attention dynamics of crowds. We argue that anticipating and managing economies of attention provides one of the (...) most tantalizing future applications for NHC. (shrink)
The concept of lifeworld as posited by Husserl and developed by Schutz reveals key aspects of human social life. What happens when organized forces of human control tear lifeworlds apart? Gebser warned that without a transformation of consciousness humans would destroy their world. Habermas pointed out that humans were destroying lifeworlds with little awareness of the consequences due to the predominance of rational/legal thinking, thus creating “Deathworlds”. Transformative Phenomenology has become a community-of-practice that is an antidote to Deathworld-Making. Transformative phenomenology (...) includes hermeneutics, somatics and leregogic practices and phenomenologists trained in this way exhibit ten qualities of being. We offer the Rising Sun project, a phenomenologically based social innovation, as a case example. The call to maintain and restore lifeworlds is the call to oneness and peace. In the era of growing Deathworlds, we, phenomenologists, are urged to respond and contribute to this call. (shrink)
ABSTRACTWe introduce the variety of Many-Valued-Weak rigs. We provide an axiomatisation and establish, in this context, basic properties about ideals, homomorphisms, quotients and radicals. This new class contains the class of product MV-algebras presented by Di Nola and Dvurečenskij in 2001 and by Montagna in 2005. The main result is the compactness of the prime spectrum of this new class, endowed with the co-Zariski topology as defined by Dubuc and Poveda in 2010.
Recent philosophy of mind has increasingly focused on the role of technology in shaping, influencing, and extending our mental faculties. Technology extends the mind in two basic ways: through the creative design of artifacts and the purposive use of instruments. If the meaningful activity of technological artifacts were exhaustively described in these mind-dependent terms, then a philosophy of technology would depend entirely on our theory of mind. In this dissertation, I argue that a mind-dependent approach to technology is mistaken. Instead, (...) some machines are best understood as independent participants in their own right, contributing to and augmenting a variety of social practices as active, though often unrecognized, community members. Beginning with Turing’s call for “fair play for machines”, I trace an argument concerning the social autonomy of nonhuman agents through the artificial intelligence debates of the 20th century. I’ll argue that undue focus on the mind has obscured the force of Turing’s proposal, leaving the debates in an unfortunate stalemate. I will then examine a network theoretic alternative to the study of multi-agent complex systems that can avoid anthropocentric, mind-dependent ways of framing human-machine interactions. I argue that this approach allows for both scientific and philosophical treatment of large and complicated sociotechnical systems, and suggests novel methods for designing, managing, and maintaining such systems. Rethinking machines in mind-independent terms will illuminate the nature, scope, and evolution of our social and technological practices, and will help clarify the relationships between minds, machines, and the environments we share. (shrink)
El presente artículo describe la conexión entre los espacios culturales rurales de la cultura mapuche y aquellos recreados en centros urbanos y su vinculación con la construcción de la identidad étnica en adolescentes mapuches urbanos. El estudio es cualitativo descriptivo y los datos se abordan desde el enfoque de análisis del discurso de la psicología discursiva y el enfoque de identidades espaciales de Proshansky . La muestra corresponde a treinta adolescentes mapuches hombres y mujeres residentes en la ciudad de Santiago (...) y treinta de la ciudad de Temuco, quienes participaron en entrevistas conducidas por un entrevistador mapuche. Los resultados revelan que el rol de los espacios culturales recreados en contextos urbanos es desarrollar una función mediadora del cambio desde el lugar de origen a nuevos espacios lo que permite reforzar la identidad étnica de los adolescentes. This article describes the connection between Mapuche rural cultural spaces and those re-created in urban areas and their connection with the construction of ethnic identity in urban Mapuche adolescents. This is a qualitative and descriptive study and the data is analyzed through the approach of discourse analysis of discursive psychology and considers the notion of place identity by Proshansky . The research population were thirty Mapuche adolescents living in Santiago and thirty living in Temuco. These adolescents were interviewed by a Mapuche interviewer. The findings reveal that the re-created urban cultural spaces fulfill a mediating role in the change from original places to new ones , which allows these adolescents to reinforce their ethnic identity construction. (shrink)
This paper presents a critical reflection on insights into the ongoing endeavours for community engagement by Ayara and MAL; two urban grassroot organisations in Bogota, Colombia, where a long history of internal conflicts has resulted in diverse human right violations. The paper presents examples of the grassroots organisations’ unique methods of engagement that promotes building collective intelligence from the bottom–up through creative collaboration and design processes, leading to rebuilding social fabrics that support the common good for the people of Bogota.
La pregunta por el hombre ha generado distintas respuestas. Las antropologías están ligadas a los códigos culturales y en éstos han sido determinantes las teologías. En esta breve reflexión se analizan las antropologías hebreas, griegas y cristianas, comparándolas y especificando sus aportaciones a la cultura occidental. Se concluye con algunas indicaciones sobre la discusión antropológica actual.
The current techno-scientific revolution has transformed the concepts of person and human being. Techno-scientific developments raise questions about our very own humanity and bring again the Übermensch, about whom Nietzsche once spoke, for discussion. Technology has increased the desire to modify our human condition, aiming for the perfection of the physical, intellectual and psychological abilities. Different sciences and disciplines have had the necessity to adapt themselves to these techno-scientific transformations. Psychology has not been the exception and, because of that, a (...) new paradigm of approaching the human mind has been recently established. Concepts such as cybertherapy, virtual reality therapy to treat patients with phobias, and the use of Artificial Intelligence have revolutionized Psychology. Therefore, the purpose of the article is to establish whether the use of Artificial Intelligence in Psychotherapy actually contributes to the improvement of human beings by making possible progress within the field of Mental Health Care or, on the contrary, it poses a risk to humanity, which might face the possibility of replacing human therapists with intelligent machines. (shrink)
This study aims to characterize the different types of certification in the Brazilian citriculture as well as analyze the major changes in the market. The paper also has the objective to discuss how social and environmental factors influence the demand for food certifications and the sustainability and ethics aspects in the field. Therefore, a literature review on the subject was carried out as well as a qualitative research using interviews with certifiers, governmental institutions, farmers, cooperatives and producer associations. The certification (...) is becoming mandatory for those working in foreign markets and for those working nationally; it can be a competitive differential. The organic certification in citriculture shows the highest number of growers. Companies with large areas of citrus and the orange juice processing industry are adhering to this certification in order to maintain themselves competitive in the market. There is an enormous potential of Brazilian citriculture certification, because the certified area is still less than 6 % of the total area. Certification reduces the asymmetry of information and consists of an important step towards sustainability although incapable of solely guaranteeing it. (shrink)