Results for 'Barbara Freedman'

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  1.  13
    Nazi Research: Too Evil To Cite.Monroe H. Freedman, Leonard J. Hoenig, Howard M. Spiro & F. Barbara Orlans - 1985 - Hastings Center Report 15 (4):31-32.
  2.  15
    The Study of Chinese Society: Essays by Maurice Freedman.Norma Diamond, William Skinner & Maurice Freedman - 1983 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 103 (3):639.
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  3. Compositionality in Formal Semantics: Selected Papers of Barbara Partee.Barbara Hall Partee - 2004 - Blackwell.
     
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  4.  29
    Placebo Orthodoxy in Clinical Research II: Ethical, Legal, and Regulatory Myths.Benjamin Freedman, Kathleen Cranley Glass & Charles Weijer - 1996 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 24 (3):252-259.
    Placebo-controlled trials are held by many, including regulators at agencies like the United States Food and Drug Administration, to be the gold standard in the assessment of new medical interventions. Yet the use of placebo controls in clinical trials has been the focus of considerable controversy. In this two-part article, we challenge a number of common beliefs concerning the value of placebo controls. Part I critiques statistical and other scientific justifications for the use of placebo controls in clinical research. The (...)
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  5.  20
    Placebo Orthodoxy in Clinical Research I: Empirical and Methodological Myths.Benjamin Freedman, Charles Weijer & Kathleen Cranley Glass - 1996 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 24 (3):243-251.
    The use of statistics in medical research has been compared to a religion: it has its high priests, supplicants, and orthodoxy. Although the comparison may be more unfair to religion than to research, a useful lesson can nonetheless be drawn: the practice of clinical research may benefit—as does the spirit—from critical self-examination. Arguably, no aspect of the conduct of clinical trials is currently more controversial—and thus in as dire need of critical examination—than the use of placebo controls. The ethical and (...)
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  6.  12
    Placebo Orthodoxy in Clinical Research II: Ethical, Legal, and Regulatory Myths.Benjamin Freedman, Kathleen Cranley Glass & Charles Weijer - 1996 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 24 (3):252-259.
    Placebo-controlled trials are held by many, including regulators at agencies like the United States Food and Drug Administration, to be the gold standard in the assessment of new medical interventions. Yet the use of placebo controls in clinical trials has been the focus of considerable controversy. In this two-part article, we challenge a number of common beliefs concerning the value of placebo controls. Part I critiques statistical and other scientific justifications for the use of placebo controls in clinical research. The (...)
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  7.  4
    Placebo Orthodoxy in Clinical Research I: Empirical and Methodological Myths.Benjamin Freedman, Charles Weijer & Kathleen Cranley Glass - 1996 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 24 (3):243-251.
    The use of statistics in medical research has been compared to a religion: it has its high priests, supplicants, and orthodoxy. Although the comparison may be more unfair to religion than to research, a useful lesson can nonetheless be drawn: the practice of clinical research may benefit—as does the spirit—from critical self-examination. Arguably, no aspect of the conduct of clinical trials is currently more controversial—and thus in as dire need of critical examination—than the use of placebo controls. The ethical and (...)
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  8. In Loco Parentis Minimal Risk as an Ethical Threshold for Research Upon Children.Benjamin Freedman, Abraham Fuks & Charles Weijer - 1993 - Hastings Center Report 23 (2):13-19.
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  9.  4
    One Hour in Paris: A True Story of Rape and Recovery.Karyn L. Freedman - 2014 - University of Chicago Press.
    In this powerful memoir, philosopher Karyn L. Freedman travels back to a Paris night in 1990 when she was twenty-two and, in one violent hour, her life was changed forever by a brutal rape. _One Hour in Paris_ takes the reader on a harrowing yet inspirational journey through suffering and recovery both personal and global. We follow Freedman from an apartment in Paris to a French courtroom, then from a trauma center in Toronto to a rape clinic in (...)
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  10.  44
    Freedman's 'Clinical Equipoise' and Sliding-Scale All-Dimensions-Considered Equipoise'.Fred Gifford - 2000 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 25 (4):399 – 426.
    It is often claimed that a clinical investigator may ethically participate (e.g., enroll patients) in a trial only if she is in equipoise (if she has no way to ground a preference for one arm of the study). But this is a serious problem, for as data accumulate, it can be expected that there will be a discernible trend favoring one of the treatments prior to the point where we achieve the trial's objective. In this paper, I critically evaluate Benjamin (...)
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  11.  83
    Are There Algorithms That Discover Causal Structure?David Freedman & Paul Humphreys - 1999 - Synthese 121 (1-2):29-54.
    There have been many efforts to infer causation from association byusing statistical models. Algorithms for automating this processare a more recent innovation. In Humphreys and Freedman[(1996) British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 47, 113–123] we showed that one such approach, by Spirtes et al., was fatally flawed. Here we put our arguments in a broader context and reply to Korb and Wallace [(1997) British Journal for thePhilosophy of Science 48, 543–553] and to Spirtes et al.[(1997) British Journal for (...)
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  12.  6
    Forgiveness as an Educational Goal with at-Risk Adolescents.Suzanne Freedman - 2018 - Journal of Moral Education 47 (4):1-17.
    An educational intervention using forgiveness as the goal was implemented with 10 at-risk adolescents attending an alternative school in a Midwestern city. The adolescents ranged in age from 15 to 19 years of age. A randomized experimental and active control group pre- and post-test design was used. Twenty-one participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group or the control group. Classes met daily for 31 sessions for approximately 23 hours of education. Enright’s process model of forgiveness was used as (...)
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  13. The Epistemological Significance of Psychic Trauma.Karyn L. Freedman - 2006 - Hypatia 21 (2):104-125.
    This essay explores the epistemological significance of the kinds of beliefs that grow out of traumatic experiences, such as the rape survivor's belief that she is never safe. On current theories of justification, beliefs like this one are generally dismissed due to either insufficient evidence or insufficient propositional content. Here, Freedman distinguishes two discrete sides of the aftermath of psychic trauma, the shattered self and the shattered worldview. This move enables us to see these beliefs as beliefs; in other (...)
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  14.  22
    Placebo-Controlled Trials and the Logic of Scientific Purpose.B. Freedman - 1990 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 12 (6):5.
  15.  37
    A Moral Theory of Informed Consent.Benjamin Freedman - 1975 - Hastings Center Report 5 (4):32-39.
  16.  53
    Diversity and the Fate of Objectivity.Karyn L. Freedman - 2009 - Social Epistemology 23 (1):45-56.
    Helen Longino argues that the way to ensure scientific knowledge is objective is to have a diversity of scientific investigators. This is the best example of recent feminist arguments which hold that the real value of diversity is epistemic, and not political, but it only partly succeeds. In the end, Longino's objectivity amounts to intersubjective agreement about contextually based standards, and while her account gives us a good reason for wanting diversity in our scientific communities, this reason turns out to (...)
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  17.  49
    Testimony and Epistemic Risk: The Dependence Account.Karyn L. Freedman - 2015 - Social Epistemology 29 (3):251-269.
    In this paper, I give an answer to the central epistemic question regarding the normative requirements for beliefs based on testimony. My suggestion here is that our best strategy for coming up with the conditions for justification is to look at cases where the adoption of the belief matters to the person considering it. This leads me to develop, in Part One of the paper, an interest-relative theory of justification, according to which our justification for a proposition p depends on (...)
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  18. Group Accountability Versus Justified Belief: A Reply to Kukla.Karyn L. Freedman - 2015 - Social Epistemology Reply and Review Collective.
    In this paper I respond to Rebecca Kukla's (2014) "Commentary on Karyn Freedman, "Testimony and Epistemic Risk: The Dependence Account."".
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  19.  27
    Duty and Healing: Foundations of a Jewish Bioethic.Benjamin Freedman - 1999 - Routledge.
    Duty and Healing positions ethical issues commonly encountered in clinical situations within Jewish law. The concept of duty is significant in exploring bioethical issues, and this book presents an authentic and non-parochial Jewish approach to bioethics, while it includes critiques of both current secular and Jewish literatures. Among the issues the book explores are the role of family in medical decision-making, the question of informed consent as a personal religious duty, and the responsibilities of caretakers. The exploration of contemporary ethical (...)
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  20.  17
    Scientific Value and Validity as Ethical Requirements for Research: A Proposed Explication.Benjamin Freedman - 1987 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research.
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  21.  75
    A Meta-Ethics for Professional Morality.Benjamin Freedman - 1978 - Ethics 89 (1):1-19.
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  22. Barbara Katz Roth.Barbara Katz Rothman - forthcoming - Contemporary Issues in Bioethics.
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  23.  37
    Professor Barbara Skarga’s Ceremonial Lecture.Barbara Skarga - 2010 - Dialogue and Universalism 20 (1-2):215-221.
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  24.  34
    The Psychological Status of Overgenerated Sentences.Sandra E. Freedman & Kenneth I. Forster - 1985 - Cognition 19 (2):101-131.
  25.  17
    Where Are the Heroes of Bioethics?Benjamin Freedman - 1996 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 7 (4):297.
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  26. Some Issues in the Foundation of Statistics.David Freedman - 1995 - Foundations of Science 1 (1):19-39.
    After sketching the conflict between objectivists and subjectivists on the foundations of statistics, this paper discusses an issue facing statisticians of both schools, namely, model validation. Statistical models originate in the study of games of chance, and have been successfully applied in the physical and life sciences. However, there are basic problems in applying the models to social phenomena; some of the difficulties will be pointed out. Hooke's law will be contrasted with regression models for salary discrimination, the latter being (...)
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  27.  42
    Demarcating Research and Treatment: A Systematic Approach for the Analysis of the Ethics of Clinical Research.Benjamin Freedman, Abraham Fuks & Charles Weijer - unknown
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  28.  29
    Barbara Stoddard Burks.Barbara S. Bosanquet - 1944 - The Eugenics Review 36 (1):25.
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  29.  36
    Barbara Hannan, Review of Cartesian Psychology and Physical Minds: Individualism and the Sciences of the Mind by Robert A. Wilson. [REVIEW]Barbara Hannan - 1997 - Philosophy of Science 64 (3):515-516.
  30.  12
    Barbara Hahn. Making Tobacco Bright: Creating an American Commodity, 1617–1937. X + 236 Pp., Illus., Tables, App., Index. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2011. $60. [REVIEW]Barbara Kimmelman - 2012 - Isis 103 (4):766-767.
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  31.  72
    Potentiality: From Dispositions to Modality.Barbara Vetter - 2015 - Oxford University Press.
    Individual objects have potentials: paper has the potential to burn, an acorn has the potential to turn into a tree, some people have the potential to run a mile in less than four minutes. Barbara Vetter provides a systematic investigation into the metaphysics of such potentials, and an account of metaphysical modality based on them. -/- In contemporary philosophy, potentials have been recognized mostly in the form of so-called dispositions: solubility, fragility, and so on. Vetter takes dispositions as her (...)
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  32.  34
    The Limits of Internalism: A Case Study: Dialogue.Karyn L. Freedman - 2010 - Dialogue 49 (1):73-89.
    ABSTRACT: Looking at specific populations of knowers reveals that the presumption of sameness within knowledge communities can lead to a number of epistemological oversights. A good example of this is found in the case of survivors of sexual violence. In this paper I argue that this case study offers a new perspective on the debate between the epistemic internalist and externalist by providing us with a fresh insight into the complicated psychological dimensions of belief formation and the implications that this (...)
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  33.  28
    Case Notes and Charting of Bioethical Case Consultations.Benjamin Freedman, Charles Weijer & Eugene Bereza - 1993 - HEC Forum 5 (3):176-195.
    In summary, the usual elements of a typical health care ethics consultation note might reasonably accommodate the needs and expectations of relevant parties, and would therefore include: 1. identification of the relevant ethical issues, questions, or dilemmas; 2. reference to any relevant facts--medical, nursing, social, psychological, spiritual, legal, political, etc.; 3. a prioritized list of recommendations to improve coordinated care; 4. a clear and concise articulation of relevant arguments, wtih specific reference to the list of recommendations as well as to (...)
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  34.  45
    The Persistence of Cognitive Illusions.Persi Diaconis & David Freedman - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (3):333-334.
  35. The Morality of Huck Finn.Carol Freedman - 1997 - Philosophy and Literature 21 (1):102-113.
  36. The Grand Leap. [REVIEW]Paul Humphreys & David Freedman - 1996 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 47 (1):113-123.
  37.  30
    Women’s Right to Asylum: Protecting the Rights of Female Asylum Seekers in Europe? [REVIEW]Jane Freedman - 2008 - Human Rights Review 9 (4):413-433.
    Criticisms have been made against international laws and conventions on asylum and refugees, arguing that these have been based on a male model of definition, which have ignored women’s persecutions. This article will argue that recent developments in European asylum policy have the potential to deepen this discrimination and to further reduce the rights of female asylum seekers. Although there have been some positive developments in jurisprudence that have recognised that gender-specific persecution may be the basis for granting asylum, these (...)
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  38.  9
    Health Professions, Codes, and the Right to Refuse to Treat HIV‐Infectious Patients.Benjamin Freedman - 1988 - Hastings Center Report 18 (2):20-25.
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  39.  34
    Classifications of Philosophy, the Sciences, and the Arts in Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century Europe.Joseph S. Freedman - 1994 - Modern Schoolman 72 (1):37-65.
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  40.  26
    Women’s Right To Asylum: Protecting The Rights Of Female Asylum Seekers In Europe?Jane Freedman - 2008 - Human Rights Review 9 (4):413-433.
    Criticisms have been made against international laws and conventions on asylum and refugees, arguing that these have been based on a male model of definition, which have ignored women’s persecutions. This article will argue that recent developments in European asylum policy have the potential to deepen this discrimination and to further reduce the rights of female asylum seekers. Although there have been some positive developments in jurisprudence that have recognised that gender-specific persecution may be the basis for granting asylum, these (...)
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  41.  46
    What Really Makes Professional Morality Different: Response to Martin.Benjamin Freedman - 1981 - Ethics 91 (4):626-630.
  42. Thought in Action: Expertise and the Conscious Mind.Barbara Gail Montero - 2016 - Oxford University Press UK.
    How does thinking affect doing? There is a widely held view that thinking about what you are doing, as you are doing it, hinders performance. Once you have acquired the ability to putt a golf ball, play an arpeggio on the piano, or parallel-park, reflecting on your actions leads to inaccuracies, blunders, and sometimes even utter paralysis--that's what is widely believed. But is it true? After exploring some of the contemporary and historical manifestations of the idea, Barbara Gail Montero (...)
     
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  43.  12
    One Reason Why We Rarely Forget a Face.Joan Freedman & Ralph Norman Haber - 1974 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 3 (2):107-109.
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  44.  5
    Out of the East: Spices and the Medieval Imagination. [REVIEW]Paul Freedman - 2009 - Speculum 84 (3):710-712.
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  45.  85
    Laudan's Naturalistic Axiology.Karyn L. Freedman - 1999 - Philosophy of Science 66 (3):537.
    Doppelt (1986,1990), Siegel (1990), and Rosenberg (1996) argue that the pivotal feature of Laudan's normative naturalism, namely his axiology, lacks a naturalistic foundation. In this paper I show that this objection turns on a misunderstanding of Laudan's use of the term 'naturalism'. Specifically, I argue that there are two important senses of naturalism running through Laudan's work. Once these two strands are made explicit, the objection raised by Doppelt and others simply disappears.
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  46.  66
    On the Rights of the Voiceless.Benjamin Freedman - 1978 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 3 (3):196-210.
  47.  6
    One Philosopher's Experience on an Ethics Committee.Benjamin Freedman - 1981 - Hastings Center Report 11 (2):20-22.
  48.  70
    Disquotationalism, Truth and Justification: The Pragmatist’s Wrong Turn.Karyn L. Freedman - 2006 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 36 (3):371-386.
    Cheryl Misak argues that since disquotationalism cannot distinguish between different kinds of declarative sentences it cannot make sense of the disciplined nature of moral discourse. This apparent weakness is overcome by her pragmatist theory of truth, which reinflates truth by linking it to our everyday practices of justification and verification. In this paper I argue that the criticism that a deflated notion of truth cannot capture our justificatory practices has no purchase with someone who has no such aspirations for the (...)
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  49.  14
    Respectful Service and Reverent Obedience: A Jewish View on Making Decisions for Incompetent Parents.Benjamin Freedman - 1996 - Hastings Center Report 26 (4):31-37.
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  50. Reply to Freedman.Richard Scheines - unknown
    In Causation, Prediction, and Search, we undertook a three part project. First, we characterized when causal models are indistinguishable by population conditional independence relations under several different assumptions relating causality to probability. Second, we proposed a number of algorithms that take sample data and optional background knowledge as input, and output a class of causal models compatible with the data and the background knowledge; the algorithms were accompanied by proofs of their correctness given assumptions that were clearly stated in CPS, (...)
     
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