This research illustrates dangers inherent in the gap created when organizations decouple ethics program adoption from implementation. Using a sample of 182 professionals in the pharmaceutical and financial services industries, we examine the relationship between structural decoupling of formal ethics programs and individual-level perceptions and behavior. Findings strongly support the hypothesized relationships between decoupling and organizational members’ legitimacy perceptions of the ethics program, psychological contract breach, organizational cynicism, and unethical behavior.
If one regards an ordinal number as a generalization of a counting number, then it is natural to begin thinking in terms of computations on sets of ordinal numbers. This is precisely what Takeuti  had in mind when he initiated the study of recursive functions on ordinals. Kreisel and Sacks  too developed an ordinal recursion theory, called metarecursion theory, which specialized to the initial segment of the ordinals bounded by.The notion of admissibility was introduced by Kripke  and (...) Platek  and served to generalize metarecursion theory. Kripke called ordinal α admissible if it satisfied certain closure properties of infinitary computations. It was shown that admissibility could be equivalently formulated in terms of the replacement schema of ZF set theory and that α =is an admissible ordinal. The study of a recursion theory on an initial segment of the ordinals bounded by some arbitrary admissible α became known as α-recursion theory.Kripke  employed a Gödel numbering scheme to perform an arithmetiza-tion of α -recursion theory and created an analogue to Kleene'sT-predicate of ordinary recursion theory. TheT-predicate then served as the basis for showing that analogues of the major results of unrelativized o.r.t. held in α-recursion theory; namely, the α-Enumeration Theorem,T Theorem, α-Recursion Theorem, and α-Universal Function Theorem. (shrink)
I present and defend an original semantic theory which assigns representatives to expressions, in addition to referents. The theory is nominalistic--i.e., it avoids reference to possible worlds and other abstract entities--and yet is strong enough, I claim, to serve as a theory of meaning. More precisely, it provides a means for interpreting, in a nominalistically acceptable manner, the non-extensional linguistic contexts in which the "meanings" of expressions are supposed to play a semantic role. ;The intuitive ancestry of the theory can (...) be traced back to an analysis of meaning first proposed by Nelson Goodman and later expanded by Rolf Eberle. I construct a precise formal semantics which embodies the basic ideas of these earlier proposals, and apply this theory to the interpretation of a language which contains one primitive non-extensional predicate--"about". In addition, I furnish a rigorous axiomatic treatment of this language, and demonstrate formally the soundness and completeness of this axiomatic theory relative to the semantics. (shrink)
This project investigates critical issues and events related to Trek Therapeutics experience as a public benefit corporation. We will present and discuss how Trek differentiates itself in an industry where the attention is on high prices supporting high investor returns. Trek’s benefit corporation status helped it garner favorable attention in some respects, but has also presented challenges, particularly when it comes to attracting new capital.
Bracket out the wrong of committing a wrong, or conspiring or colluding or conniving with others in their committing one. Suppose you have done none of those things, and you find yourself merely benefiting from a wrong committed wholly by someone else. What, if anything, is wrong with that? What, if any, duties follow from it? If straightforward restitution were possible — if you could just ‘give back’ what you received as a result of the wrongdoing to its rightful owner (...) — then matters are morally more straightforward. But in real-world cases that is often impossible, and questions of ‘how much, from whom and to whom?’ become far more vexing. The beneficiary disgorging all benefits of the wrong is part of the story, but where that is not possible or will not suffice to compensate the victim of wrongdoing we discuss various ways of allocating the cost of making the victim whole, including supplementation from public coffers. (shrink)
Psychological contracts represent perceived reciprocal obligations between an employer and an employee. Most research has focused on employee or employer rights (the entitlement side of the obligation equation). We examine the responsibilities inherent in psychological contracts. After reviewing the moral aspect of psychological contracts, we use the issue of tenure as a discussion point for this topic.
By constructing a maximal incomplete d.r.e. degree, the nondensity of the partial order of the d.r.e. degrees is established. An easy modification yields the nondensity of the n-r.e. degrees and of the ω-r.e. degrees.
Ontology is one strategy for promoting interoperability of heterogeneous data through consistent tagging. An ontology is a controlled structured vocabulary consisting of general terms (such as “cell” or “image” or “tissue” or “microscope”) that form the basis for such tagging. These terms are designed to represent the types of entities in the domain of reality that the ontology has been devised to capture; the terms are provided with logical defi nitions thereby also supporting reasoning over the tagged data. Aim: This (...) paper provides a survey of the biomedical imaging ontologies that have been developed thus far. It outlines the challenges, particularly faced by ontologies in the fields of histopathological imaging and image analysis, and suggests a strategy for addressing these challenges in the example domain of quantitative histopathology imaging. The ultimate goal is to support the multiscale understanding of disease that comes from using interoperable ontologies to integrate imaging data with clinical and genomics data. (shrink)
This book raises questions about the nature of philosophy by examining the source and significance of one central philosophical problem: how can we know anything about the world around us? Stroud discusses and criticizes the views of such philosophers as Descartes, Kant, J.L. Austin, G.E. Moore, R. Carnap, W.V. Quine, and others.
Even after multiple cycles of ABET accreditation, many engineering programs are unsure of how much curriculum content is needed to meet the requirements of ABET’s Criterion 3.f (an understanding of professional and ethical responsibility). This study represents the first scholarly attempt to assess the impact of curriculum reform following the introduction of ABET Criterion 3.f. This study sought to determine how much professional and ethical responsibility curriculum content was used between 1995 and 2005, as well as how, when, why, and (...) to what effect changes in the amount of content occurred. Subsequently, the study sought to evaluate if different amounts of curriculum content generated differing student outcomes. The amount of curriculum content used by each of the participating programs was identified during semi-structured interviews with program administrators and a review of ABET Self-Study documents. Quantitative methods were applied to determine if a relationship existed between the curriculum content and performance on a nationally administered, engineering-specific standardized examination. The findings indicate a statistical relationship, but a lack of structure between the amount of required content in the curriculum and performance on the examination. Additional findings were also generated regarding the way that programs interpret the Criterion 3.f feedback generated during accreditation visits. The primary impact of this study is that it dispels the myth that more courses or course time on professionalism and ethics will necessarily lead to positive engineering education outcomes. Much of the impetus to add more curriculum content results from a lack of conclusive feedback during ABET accreditation visits. (shrink)
A wide variety of ontologies relevant to the biological and medical domains are available through the OBO Foundry portal, and their number is growing rapidly. Integration of these ontologies, while requiring considerable effort, is extremely desirable. However, heterogeneities in format and style pose serious obstacles to such integration. In particular, inconsistencies in naming conventions can impair the readability and navigability of ontology class hierarchies, and hinder their alignment and integration. While other sources of diversity are tremendously complex and challenging, agreeing (...) a set of common naming conventions is an achievable goal, particularly if those conventions are based on lessons drawn from pooled practical experience and surveys of community opinion. We summarize a review of existing naming conventions and highlight certain disadvantages with respect to general applicability in the biological domain. We also present the results of a survey carried out to establish which naming conventions are currently employed by OBO Foundry ontologies and to determine what their special requirements regarding the naming of entities might be. Lastly, we propose an initial set of typographic, syntactic and semantic conventions for labelling classes in OBO Foundry ontologies. Adherence to common naming conventions is more than just a matter of aesthetics. Such conventions provide guidance to ontology creators, help developers avoid flaws and inaccuracies when editing, and especially when interlinking, ontologies. Common naming conventions will also assist consumers of ontologies to more readily understand what meanings were intended by the authors of ontologies used in annotating bodies of data. (shrink)
Die bahnbrechenden wissenschaftlichen Ergebnisse der letzten Jahre erzwingen eine neue philosophische Auseinandersetzung mit den Grundkategorien der Biologie und der benachbarten Disziplinen. Insbesondere die Anwendung neuer informationstechnischer Mittel in der biomedizinischen Forschung und die damit verbundene, kontinuierlich zunehmende Datenflut sowie die Notwendigkeit, ihrer Herr zu werden, erfordern ein konsequentes Nachdenken darüber, wie biologische Daten systematisiert und klassifiziert werden können. Dafür wiederum bedarf es robuster Theorien von Grundbegriffen wie Art, Spezies, Teil, Ganzes, Funktion, Prozess, Fragment, Sequenz, Expression, Grenze, Locus, Umwelt, System usw. (...) Solche Begriffe gehören zum impliziten Wissen jedes Biologen. Sie spiegeln einerseits eine Dimension der biologischen Wirklichkeit wider, die auch vor dem Hintergrund der biologischen Evolution unverändert bleibt. Andererseits verlangt deren theoretische Behandlung nach zeitgemäßen Analoga der in der traditionellen aristotelischen Metaphysik entwickelten Methoden. Zugleich können so die explizit formulierten Theorien und Definitionen bereitgestellt werden, die für computergestützte Informationssysteme unabdingbar sind. Das Entwickeln derartiger Theorien und Definitionen ist eine Aufgabe der Philosophie, die in diesem Sinne herausgefordert ist, zwischen Biologie und Informatik zu vermitteln. (shrink)
We present a critical appraisal of the impact of the Internet upon processes of democratization and de-democratization in contemporary society. We review accounts of `the information revolution' as these have become polarized into mutually exclusive rhetorics of future cosmopolitan or citadellian e-topias. We question the Manichean assumptions common to both rhetorics: particularly the fetishism of information technology as an intrinsically democratizing or de-democratizing force on societies. In opposition to this new technological fetishism we focus upon Internet historicity; the human/machine nexus; (...) Internet policing and appropriation presenting a different story of the Net, emphasizing contingent, indeterminate and negotiable characteristics of sociotechnical systems, preparing for a more radical critique of existing theories of `global technological citizenship'. Refiguring `culture' as technopoiesis, we argue that an alternative approach to global civil society minimally presupposes a cultural sociology of the Internet: approaching information technologies as the product of specific sociocultural practices and as historical sites of ethico-political transformation and reflexive self-figuration. (shrink)
In this paper we propose a formal theory of partitions (ways of dividing up or sorting or mapping reality) and we show how the theory can be applied in the geospatial domain. We characterize partitions at two levels: as systems of cells (theory A), and in terms of their projective relation to reality (theory B). We lay down conditions of well-formedness for partitions and we define what it means for partitions to project truly onto reality. We continue by classifying well-formed (...) partitions along three axes: (a) degree of correspondence between partition cells and objects in reality; (b) degree to which a partition represents the mereological structure of the domain it is projected onto; and (c) degree of completeness and exhaustiveness with which a partition represents reality. This classification is used to characterize three types of partitions that play an important role in spatial information science: cadastral partitions, categorical coverages, and the partitions involved in folk categorizations of the geospatial domain. (shrink)
As grandes epidemias de peste que atingiram ao longo de muitos séculos os ingleses, refletiram mudanças importantes para os conhecimentos de cada período histórico. Esse artigo busca unir duas extremidades de um decorrer de grandes catástrofes epidemiológicas na Inglaterra, com um olhar especial à populosa Londres, começando com a primeira entrada da peste bubônica na cidade, em 1348, e seu provável último grande surto, em 1665. Os dois episódios tocados aqui são apresentados sob a perspectiva das novidades, semelhanças e diferenças (...) entre essas duas pontas da história, passando pelas novas respostas da medicina no século XIV e os princípios de uma ‘aritmética política’ no século XVII. Para esse fim, são de extrema importância diferentes fontes, como as inúmeras cópias do tratado médico de John de Burdeaux, escritos a partir de 1390, e o Observations de John Graunt, publicado a partir de 1662. (shrink)
'Justice' and 'democracy' have alternated as dominant themes in political philosophy over the last fifty years. Since its revival in the middle of the twentieth century, political philosophy has focused on first one and then the other of these two themes. Rarely, however, has it succeeded in holding them in joint focus. This volume brings together leading authors who consider the relationship between democracy and justice in a set of specially written chapters. The intrinsic justness of democracy is challenged, the (...) relationship between justice, democracy and impartiality queried and the relationship between justice, democracy and the common good examined. Further chapters explore the problem of social exclusion and issues surrounding sub-national groups in the context of democracy and justice. Authors include Keith Dowding, Richard Arneson, Norman Schofield, Albert Weale, Robert E. Goodin, Jon Elster, David Miller, Phillip Pettit, Julian LeGrand and Russell Hardin. (shrink)
A significant increase occurred in the initiation and duration of breast-feeding among Honduran women between 1981 and 1987. Changes in population characteristics would be expected to lead to a decrease in breast-feeding at each infant age, but these were offset by behavioural changes that led to an increase in the likelihood of initiation and continuation of breast-feeding. An exploration of relevant factors suggests that the PROALMA breast-feeding promotion programme has had a profound effect on the breast-feeding behaviour of Honduran mothers.
Page generated Wed Aug 4 05:37:18 2021 on philpapers-web-65948fd446-qrpbq
cache stats: hit=6432, miss=14492, save= autohandler : 2328 ms called component : 2305 ms search.pl : 1973 ms render loop : 1665 ms addfields : 832 ms next : 743 ms publicCats : 719 ms initIterator : 303 ms autosense : 208 ms match_other : 184 ms save cache object : 152 ms menu : 109 ms quotes : 89 ms retrieve cache object : 63 ms prepCit : 42 ms search_quotes : 28 ms match_cats : 21 ms applytpl : 9 ms intermediate : 2 ms match_authors : 1 ms init renderer : 1 ms setup : 0 ms auth : 0 ms writelog : 0 ms