1.  13
    M5s 1c1.Philippe Abgrall, Julia María Carabaza Bravo, Bassam I. El-Eswed, Gad Freudenthal & Michael E. Marmura - 2002 - Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 12 (1).
    Direct download  
    Export citation  
  2.  23
    Lead and Tin in Arabic Alchemy.Bassam I. El-Eswed - 2002 - Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 12 (1):139-153.
    The present article is devoted to two issues. The first is the identification of lead and tin in medieval Arabic alchemy. The second is the investigation of whether Arabic alchemists differentiate between these problematic substances or not. These two issues are investigated in the light of a comparison which is made between the facts that are stated about the two problematic substances in the original Arabic alchemical works and those stated in modern chemical literature. It is proved that Arabic alchemists (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
    Export citation  
  3.  15
    Spirits: The Reactive Substances in Jābir's Alchemy.Bassam I. El-Eswed - 2006 - Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 16 (1):71-90.