This article presents the oldest European accounts that describe the reactions of animals to their own reflections on the surface of a body of water or in a mirror. The analysed sources will encompass Greco-Roman accounts, including the reception of these accounts in the Middle Ages. While this article belongs to the field of the history of science, it seeks to provide a historical commentary with insights from contemporary studies. The article presents surviving ancient and medieval accounts about particular animal (...) species that describe their ability or inability to recognise a mirror reflection. The species discussed are the horse, mule, dog, birds, the monkey and tiger. Brief mention is also made of the sheep, pigeon, goose, parrot, raven and cat. (shrink)
Author: Wojciechowska Anna Title: COLLABORATORS, CO-AUTHORS OR INDEPENDENT THINKERS? JOHN STUART MILL AND HARRIET TAYLOR MILL (Współpracownicy, współmyśliciele czy niezależni myśliciele? John Stuart Mill i Harriet Taylor Mill) Source: Filo-Sofija year: 2005, vol:.5, number: 2005/1, pages: 139-158 Keywords: J.S. MILL, HARRIET TAYLOR (MILL), SOCRATIC DIALOG, COLLABORATORS Discipline: PHILOSOPHY Language: POLISH Document type: ARTICLE Publication order reference (Primary author’s office address): E-mail: www:This article raise almost unnoticed in the literature problem of a creative relation between J.S. Mill and Harriet Taylor (...) (Mill). The author concentrates her attention on their views concerning the situation and rights of women. Comparing the views of a partners, states that thanks to the method which was combination of Socratic dialog and collaborative self, they created an incredible arrangement resting on the literary collaboration. (shrink)
Departing from the model suggested by Luyckx, Schwarz, Berzonsky et al., the relationships between identity and educational context, social participation, and identity information processing style were investigated. Participants were 972 students from six vocational schools in Poznań. The students, within these six schools, attended Grades I-III of three types of vocational schools: basic vocational schools, technical upper secondary schools, and specialized upper secondary schools. Three questionnaires were used: The Dimensions of Identity Development Scale, which measures five identity dimensions according to (...) the concept of Luyckx, Schwarz, Berzonsky et al., Social Participation Questionnaire, developed by Brzezińska, Rękosiewicz and Hejmanowski, enabling identification of the type of social participation, and the Polish adaptation of M. Berzonsky’s Identity Style Inventory 4 authored by A. Senejko, to examine identity styles. The results showed that the students from basic vocational schools and technical upper secondary schools were more often characterized by the normative identity style, whereas the students from specialized upper secondary schools manifested a greater tendency to engage themselves in exploration, both adaptive and ruminative. (shrink)
Preceding his Arcadia with a non-existing quotation, Jim Crace proves to be no Arcadian innocent: challenging the shrewdness of his readers, the contemporary novelist seems to take pleasure in inviting them to an intellectual game which begins before the novel unfolds. The highly evocative title and the bogus quotation are bound to evoke associations which become the subject of minute examination in the novel. Its result turns out to be as astounding as the uncommon aphoristic trap laid for the readers. (...) This article examines the significance of the bogus quotation as a part of the novel’s message and a key to its interpretation. (shrink)
An important aspect of human development in midlife is, according to E. Erikson’s theory, the successful resolution of the crisis between generativity and stagnation. Generativity is understood as focusing one’s energy on productivity and creativity - the creation of new works and ideas dedicated to future generations. It is assumed that generativity results from personal needs and constitutes a response to the social expectations directed at individuals. Concern for the next generation does not go hand-in-hand with concern for the personal (...) development of a person in midlife and this imbalance may lead to a psychological discomfort and a sense of martyrdom. Accordingly, it can therefore be concluded that a person focusing on the well-being of the social environment and neglecting her/himself is incapable of feeling that they are a subject that manages their fate and makes decisions enabling them to achieve personal psychological well-being. It could, therefore, be expected that the fulfilment of generative goals may lead to a reduction in the psychological well-being of a representative of middle adulthood. Empirical data has not confirmed this expectation. (shrink)
Basic Hope And Generativity In Middle Adulthood The aim of the presented research was to investigate the relationship between the level of basic hope and the level and type of generativity in persons in middle adulthood. Hypotheses were posited and a positive correlation relationship was expected between basic hope and generativity, as well as a stronger relationship between those variables in the group of women than in the group of men, as well as a stronger relationship in the group of (...) persons with a higher level of education than in the group of persons with a lower level of education. A sample of 120 persons was studied, of which 70 were women and 50 constituted men aged between 40-65 years. Two measurement instruments were used - one to diagnose generativity, and the second to measure basic hope devised by Trzebiński and Zięba. The results of the conducted research have confirmed the posited hypotheses. (shrink)
Resumo: Este artigo pretende analisar a correlação entre as noções de “vontade” e “medida” no diálogo De beata vita de Santo Agostinho, tendo em vista dois motivos: primeiro, porque o tema da felicidade, no De beata vita , não se reduz à identificação de uma realidade que satisfaça o desejo de ser feliz, mas relaciona-se diretamente com o tema da vontade, pois o desejo de felicidade é desejo de um bem imutável (Deus); e segundo, porque o estudo da (...) correlação entre as noções de “vontade” e “medida” no De beata vita é central para compreender o sentido atribuído por Santo Agostinho à sabedoria como medida da alma (e, portanto, como orientadora da vontade), no processo de busca da felicidade. (shrink)
O'Brien, Odhran Review of: Aapologia pro Beata Maria Virgine: John Henry Newman's defence of the Virgin Mary in Catholic doctrine and piety, by Robert M. Andrews, Palo Alto, CA: Academica, 2017, pp. 164, hardback, US$76.95.
Agustín atribuye a la memoria un valor tan amplio que le reserva una función incluso en el alma de los bienaventurados. Analizando un puñado de pasajes en los que se trata el tema (trin. 14,5; ciu, 10,30; 22,30; s.240, 4; 241, 4-5), el artículo se centra en la polémica agustiniana contra los filósofos platónicos (los "sapientes gentium"), que sostenían una "vita beata" solo transitoria _el alma, olvidada de la vida pasada, está destinada a descender de nuevo y a reencarnarse (...) en un cuerpo_, y se pregunta por las fuentes a las que Agustín se refiere: Porfirio (regr. an.) o, más probablemente, Plotino (Enn. 4, 3 ; 4, 4 . (shrink)
In his Sermo 150, Augustine argues that the desire to attain the vita beata has been the motivation for all types of philosophy, and that it is also the reason that people would give if asked why they became Christians; the quest is common to all human beings, whether good or evil. Appetitio...beatae vitae philosophis Christianisque communis est.The truth of Augustine’s claims is illustrated in a variety of Latin Christian works from the fourth century, which take up the traditional (...) philosophical theme of happiness and the summum bonum. Lactantius relates the highest good to the immortality of the soul, and calls upon his readers to find their destiny by devoting themselves to the worship of the true God; the worship of God is the greatest virtue, and it wins the blessedness of eternal reward. (shrink)
En este artículo, partiendo de un análisis del "De beata uita" y del "Praeceptum", el autor quiere demostrar que las directrices de la antigua filosofía tuvieron un efecto más prolongado sobre Agustín, más allá de lo que puedan aportarnos los estudios sobre su punto de vista sobre la gracia o incluso sus propias palabras en "Confessiones".
Ce livre est le premier en hongrois à s'intéresser au rôle des femmes dans les arts et la société avant la Deuxième Guerre mondiale. Il reprend les communications présentées lors du colloque « Rôle et Création » organisé par le Petöfi Museum of Literature à Budapest en mars 1996. Ce colloque rassemblait pour la première fois des spécialistes d'histoire et d'histoire de l'art travaillant sur les femmes (27 auteurs, dont 6 hommes). Dans sa première partie, l'ouvrage explore le rôle des (...) .. (shrink)
The Jesuit theologian, Francisco Suarez, is know as the «father of modern scientific Mariology» because of the innovations he brought to the Scholastic treatment of the Virgin Mary. Commenting on the third part of the Summa Theologica of St. Thomas, at the Roman College in 1584-85, he developed 24 questions under the title De Deipara et Christo ut eius Filio, material which to this day has remained unpublished. In the present essay, the author discusses the role of Mary in the (...) life and works of Suarez, revealing his faith in the Immaculate Conception and at the same time the need to establish in the Virgin the human debt or necessary participation in Original Sin. Then he deals with Suarez's 24 questions, material conserved in the archives of the Pontifical Gregorian University. In these questions, he insists, we find the first systematic treatise on Mary, a work which demonstrates a logical and unitary division, clearly different from the chronological order of Thomas's Summa. Suárez divides his work into three parts: the dignity of the Mother of God, her perfection in body and soul, and the veneration due to her. (shrink)