Four ethical values — maximizing benefits, treating equally, promoting and rewarding instrumental value, and giving priority to the worst off — yield six specific recommendations for allocating medical resources in the Covid-19 pandemic: maximize benefits; prioritize health workers; do not allocate on a first-come, first-served basis; be responsive to evidence; recognize research participation; and apply the same principles to all Covid-19 and non–Covid-19 patients.
COVID-19 was recognized as a pandemic on March 11, 2020. Nine days later in Brazil, community transmission was deemed ongoing, and following what was already being put in place in various affected countries, restrictive and physical distancing measures that varied in severity across the different states were adopted. Adherence to restrictive and physical distancing measures depends on the general acceptance of public health measures as well as communities’ financial leverage. This article aims to explore and discuss ethical facilitators and barriers (...) to the implementation of physical distancing measures within three dimensions: political, socio-economic, and scientific. Furthermore, we would like to discuss ways to ethically promote restrictive and physical distancing measures in a large and unequal country like Brazil. There is an urgent need for transparent, consistent, and inclusive communication with the public, respecting the most vulnerable populations and attempting to minimize the disproportionate burden on them. (shrink)
In Thomé H. Fang, Tang Junyi and Huayan Thought, King Pong Chiu discusses Thomé H. Fang and Tang Junyi, two of the most important Confucian thinkers in twentieth-century China, who appropriated aspects of the medieval Chinese Buddhist school of Huayan to develop a response to the challenges of ‘scientism’, the belief that quantitative natural science is the only valuable part of human learning and the only source of truth. -/- As Chiu argues, Fang’s and Tang’s selective appropriations of Huayan thought (...) paid heed to the hermeneutical importance of studying ancient texts in order to be more responsive to modern issues, and helped confirm the values of Confucianism under the challenge of ‘scientism’, a topic widely ignored in academia. (shrink)
This paper explores how the exercise of the ethics of ‘responsibility’ for health care advanced through ‘healthy ageing’ and ‘successful ageing’ narratives in Western countries animates an array of ‘authorities’, including the ‘anti-ageing medicine’ movement as a strategy to address the anxieties of growing old in Western societies and as a tool to exercise the ethos of ‘responsibility’. The choice of this type of authority as a source of guidance for self-constitution and the exercise of the ‘responsible self’, this paper (...) will argue, enables the enactment of a type of late modernity notion of citizenship for ageing individuals based on principles of agelessness, health, independence and consumption power. Through interviews with anti-ageing consumers, however, it is also possible to argue the existence of tensions and contradictions that such a rigid model of self-constitution in later life produces, and the potential forms of resistance and contestations that may emerge as a result. In this way the current ‘war on anti-ageing medicine’ (Vincent 2003) becomes also symptomatic of bigger ‘wars’ taking place not only between institutions competing for control over knowledge and management of ageing, but between those in favour and against the homogenisation of life under the language of universal science, reason and market rationality. (shrink)
This article aims to determine to what extent photographic practices in psychology, psychiatry and physiology contributed to the definition of the external bodily signs of passions and emotions in the second half of the 19th century in France. Bridging the gap between recent research in the history of emotions and photographic history, the following analyses focus on the photographic production of scientists and photographers who made significant contributions to the study of expressions and gestures, namely Duchenne de Boulogne, Charles Darwin, (...) Paul Richer and Albert Londe. This article argues that photography became a key technology in their works due to the adequateness of the exposure time of different cameras to the duration of the bodily manifestations to be recorded, and that these uses constituted facial expressions and bodily gestures as particular objects for the scientific study. (shrink)
The Brazilian ayahuasca religions, Santo Daime, Barquinha, and União do Vegetal, have increasingly sought formal recognition by government agencies in Brazil and other countries to guarantee their legal use of ayahuasca, which contains DMT, a substance that is listed. This article focuses on new alliances and rifts that have emerged between and among different ayahuasca groups as they have sought and in some cases achieved formal recognition and legitimacy at the state and national levels in Brazil and abroad. It presents (...) a historical overview of the origin of the main ayahuasca religions, and their connections to the Amazon region and the state of Acre in particular, where the political environment has facilitated petitions seeking the elevation of ayahuasca as cultural and historical heritage in Acre and Brazil. This process has resulted in the active selection of certain symbolic, cultural, and historical elements and subtle changes in the ways various ayahuasca groups represent themselves in the public sphere. It also resulted in the reconfiguration of political alliances and a recasting of the historical facts regarding origins. The article reflects on notions of origin, place, authenticity, and tradition throughout the ongoing transformation of ayahuasca from “dangerous drug” to state and national heritage. (shrink)
Tanto la falsa conciencia propuesta por la Escuela de Frankfurt comoel concepto de habitus desarrollado por Bourdieu, tienen en común que constituyen modelos explicativos de comportamiento, pero también que carecen de una propuesta o explicación de cómo e s posible tomar las riendas de nuestra propia subjetividad, romper las cadenas que nos atan a nuestros patrones de comportamiento y, por tanto, ejercitar una libertad más plena. Una de las posibles respuestas a esta pregunta la podemos encontrar en el pens amiento (...) de María Zambrano y su interpretación del delirio. (shrink)
This article deals with the formation of both queer movements and theories, with the relations that they entertain with feminisms and the political uses to which they put Foucault and Deleuze. It also explores the theoretical and political advantages provided by the concept of « multitudes » over that of « sexual difference »for queer theory and movements. In contrast to the American scene, queer movements in Europe are inspired by anarchist culture and the emergence of transgendered cultures to counter (...) the « sexual Empire », notably by proposing a de-ontologisation of identity politics. No more natural base which can legitimise political action. The emphasis is no longer on « sexual difference » or « the difference of homosexuals », but on queer multitudes. A multitude of bodies, transgendered bodies, men without penises, dykes, cyborgs, butch girls... The « sexual multitude » appears henceforth as the possible subject of a queer politics. (shrink)
The contributions of the Anthropology could be significant for the Penal Law as long as some epistemological criteria could be settled down. Today we lack of these criteria or are simple outlined. This article tries to outline some of these epistemological axes that would allow a better use of th..
Does home-based family involvement influence academic performance? To answer this question, a case study research was carried out with 96 children from all six levels of primary education at a public school, and their families. Data regarding home-based family involvement were collected using a questionnaire. Academic achievement was measured from school marks. The results reveal that, apart from two of the factors considered, home–family involvement as a whole is not significantly related to academic achievement. These two factors are access to (...) informal education resources and parents’ employment. Family involvement related to the access of children to informal education resources is significantly related to a better academic achievement. Those students with both parents working perform best, and those with none working, worst. Although gender does not appear to significantly influence academic achievement and family involvement, the results show that girls attain better school performance and re... (shrink)
Os autores de Leituras de Descartes dividem a amplitude da produção cartesiana associando assunto a texto, isto é, as partes da “árvore do saber” às obras escritas pelo filósofo. Caso concorde com essa divisão, o leitor irá concordar também que não há uma obra escrita por Descartes especificamente para discutir “política”. Mas isso não significa que seja impossível encontrar nos escritos desse filósofo reflexões sobre a relação que os homens estabelecem entre si. Assim, pensar “política” em Descartes é ver que (...) o homem é tratado a partir da “união substancial”, como um homem da experiência repleto de paixões e afecções. O objetivo desse artigo é ilustrar a hipótese de que, seja pela via do projeto de alcançar as verdades na filosofia seja pela via da “afetividade”, não é possível considerar o sujeito cartesiano como isolado, pois sua amplitude é contrária a um reducionismo da teoria cartesiana ao sujeito puramente pensante da segunda meditação. (shrink)
Resumen: Los estudios críticos en discapacidad se han convertido durante las últimas tres décadas en un campo académico interdisciplinario que introduce un camino plural y diverso para la comprensión de la discapacidad. Estos estudios se enfocan en una serie de desarrollos teóricos que privilegian las comprensiones culturales, discursivas y relacionales de la discapacidad, conectando las aspiraciones de las personas con discapacidad con las agendas de los estudios feministas, queer, poscoloniales, postestructuralistas y posthumanos. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo esbozar los aportes (...) epistemológicos de estos estudios a través de la identificación de ejes teóricos que se han ido consolidando: poder, producción de los cuerpos y opresión internalizada; interseccionalidad e identidades múltiples; y ensamblajes posthumanos. La contribución de estos ejes radica, por un lado, en la salida del binarismo discapacidad-impedimento propio de los estudios sociales de la discapacidad más convencionales, lo que permite comprender la variabilidad de experiencias de la discapacidad, y, por otro lado, hace entender el concepto discapacidad como estratégico para explicar las formas en las que se producen los sujetos en las sociedades actuales.: Critical disability studies have become over the last three decades an interdisciplinary academic field that introduces a plural and diverse path to understanding disability. These studies focus on a series of theoretical developments that privilege cultural, discursive, and relational understandings of disability, connecting the aspirations of people with disabilities with the agendas of feminist, queer, postcolonial, poststructuralism and posthuman studies. This work aims to outline the epistemological contributions of these studies through the identification of theoretical axes that have been consolidated: power, production of bodies and internalized oppression; intersectionality and multiple identities; and posthuman assemblages. The contribution of these axes lies on the one hand, in the departure from the disability-impediment binary characteristic of the more conventional social studies of disability, which allows us to understand the variability of experiences of disability, and, on the other hand, it makes disability concept strategic to explain the ways in which subjects are produced in current societies. (shrink)
Michel Foucault, no curso Em defesa da sociedade, explica a relação entre o biopoder e o racismo. Dentre as modalidades de racismo praticadas desde o século XIX, Foucault inclui o socialismo, sendo que neste há um racismo de tipo evolucionista, biológico, que funciona plenamente em relação aos doentes mentais, aos criminosos, aos adversários políticos etc., que foi necessário sempre que o socialismo teve de insistir no problema da luta contra o inimigo e da eliminação do adversário no interior da sociedade (...) capitalista, e apareceu porque foi a única maneira, nesse caso, de pensar uma razão para matar o adversário. Por outro lado, Maurice Merleau-Ponty publicou, em 1947, o livro Humanismo e Terror, no qual invoca o problema da violência praticada pela União Soviética, pondo em evidência a teoria e a prática da violência pelo regime comunista. Para Merleau-Ponty, quando se vive numa época em que a base tradicional de uma sociedade se destrói e o homem deve reconstruí-la e reconstruir também as relações humanas, a liberdade de cada um desaparece e a violência aparece. Isso seria como foi o princípio do comunismo, com Lênin. O que Merleau-Ponty questiona é se a violência praticada em 1947 pelo mesmo regime tem o mesmo sentido que tinha no leninismo. O objetivo deste trabalho é verificar se há e quais são os pontos de toque entre a visão foucaultiana do racismo de Estado praticado pela URSS e a violência revolucionária identificada por Merleau-Ponty na mesma URSS. (shrink)
Zadie Smith’s latest novel, NW, presents a multiverse in which multiplicity is driven into homogeneization by the forces of those dominant discourses that attempt to suppress the category of the “Other.” This paper focuses on the development of the two female protagonists. Their opposing attitudes towards motherhood, together with their confrontation with their origins, bring to the fore the performativity found in the discourses of gender, sexuality, class, and race. Thus, this paper will explore authenticity and performativity in a contemporary (...) context, where patriarchal and neocolonial discourses still apply. (shrink)
Abuso sexual en la infancia es el libro escrito por María Beatriz Müller con el objetivo de dar una explicación del éxito judicial que ha tenido a lo largo de los años el Síndrome de Alienación Parental, propuesto por el médico Richar Gardner en la década de los 80. A lo largo de la lectura del libro se verá cómo la postulación de este supuesto síndrome en ámbitos médicos, psicológicos y judiciales, así como otras propuestas carentes de evidencia científica, (...) han generado un contexto claramente perverso en la prevención del abuso sexual, donde “todo se vuelve patas para arriba, no se cree en la palabra de y en los síntomas de los niños y las niñas, las madres protectoras son consideradas instigadoras y promotoras de mentiras, el abuso sexual queda invisibilizado, las víctimas se convierten en victimarios y el depredador en el “pobre padre que no puede ver a sus hijos””. Con este aterrador panorama de la situación actual de muchos países en relación con la prevención del abuso sexual de niños, niñas y adolescentes, la licenciada Müller realiza una exposición muy bien documentada y de fluida lectura sobre los distintos mitos, construcciones e injusticias alrededor de este tema. Para citar esta reseña / To cite this review / Para citar esta resenha Rosas-Jiménez CA. María Beatriz Müller. Abuso sexual en la infancia. Mitos, construcciones e injusticias: el éxito judicial del falso síndrome de alienación parental. Buenos Aires: Editorial Maipue, 2015. 192 p.. Pers Bioet. 2019;23:266-268. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5294/pebi.2019.23.2.8. (shrink)
This study aims to examine the ethical decision-making model proposed by Schwartz, where we consider the factors of non-rationality and aspects that affect ethical judgments of auditors to make the decision to blow the whistle. In this paper, we argue that the intention of whistleblowing depends on ethical awareness and ethical judgment as well as there is a mediation–moderation due to emotion and perceived moral intensity of auditors. Data were collected using an online survey with 162 external auditors who worked (...) on audit firms in Indonesia as well as 173 internal auditors working in the manufacturing and financial services. The result of multigroup analysis shows that emotion can mediate the relationship between EAW and EJW. The nature of this relationship is more complex and then tested by adding moderating variables using consistent partial least squares approach. We found that EMT and PMI can improve the relationship between ethical judgments and whistleblowing intentions. These findings indicate that internal auditors are more likely to blow the whistle than external auditors; and reporting wrongdoing internally and anonymously are the preferred way of professional accountants to blow the whistle in Indonesia. (shrink)
After decades of neglect of Dewey and of his contribution, there is a strong feeling not only that his conception of things is important to understand the century that came to a close, but that Dewey -along with Peirce and other American classical pragmatists- may very well prove to be a key t..
The ethics of solicitude in Ricoeur combines a detailed articulation of three polarized moments which spring from fertile traditional sources: Aristotelian phrónesis, the Kantian deontological legacy, and the formulation of Hegelian Sittlichkeit. The Ricoeurian over-determination of these models exhibits a careful critical re-appropriation, whose hermeneutical originality takes account of its fertility philosophy to address current ethical demands and their more important oppositions. This overdeterminataion proposes a fine distinction of levels of mediation and stages of fulfillment. Practical wisdom is the result (...) of this interpretation and the narrative genre is the most notable mediating element. The creative merit of this ethics proposal is the interpretation of ipseity, a pole of identity that is at the basis of the original ethical relation between oneself and another. Three exemplary moments in this path are: touch, the promise and conviction.  . (shrink)
The objective of this article is to consider whether the Commentator of the Derveni Papyrus can contribute to our understanding of the double divine will to reject and accept the name of Zeus. After examining some inconsistencies that the traditional readings raise, the authoress appeals to the Derveni Papyrus in order to offer an alternative diachronic interpretation. On this reading, the unique wise one, in the first place, does not wish to be called by the name of Zeus because this (...) name ascribes birth and diversification to it, while it is, as such, eternal and simple. On the other hand, as it cyclically becomes multiple, it is also willing to be identified with Zeus, the God who, according to the Papyrus, swallowed his Grandfather�s phallus along with Mind, got pregnant of everything and re-created the universe. This account fits with Heraclitus� doctrine that there is no creation of the world but some kind of derivation of it from the one, and vice-versa. (shrink)
In the initial verses of Seven against Thebes, Eteocles recognizes the need of pronounce the right words as one of his duties as leader and defender of the city of Thebes. The concerns of Eteocles for what ought, or ought not, be said towards an imminent attack comes from a perception of language as a divine form of the world which base itself on the belief among the Greeks that words have a numen in itself and leads, thus, to a (...) prophetic fulfillment. The aim of this paper is, therefore, reveal the contribution of the word to the defense of the city in Seven against Thebes, by Aeschylus. (shrink)
Nous nous référerons dans cet article à la mémoire de l’homme, incarné et historique, déterminé par les médiations spatio-temporelles et exposé aux dilemmes éthiques que doit affronter l’ipséité dans sa capacité d’accueillir l’autre telle que la définit Ricœur. Notre réflexion vise la mémoire inquiétée par des médiations propres à la condition existentielle et corporelle du soi moderne, dans un contexte d’ébullition culturelle et technologique. Un tel contexte a en effet des conséquences qui affectent aussi bien l’identité personnelle et collective, que (...) l’exercice des capacités du soi agissant et souffrant – et tout spécialement celui de sa mémoire. Nous examinerons la dimension tant réceptive que dynamique de la mémoire exposée aux fragilisations qui affectent l’identité narrative humaine, en déterminant ses pouvoirs qui laissent des traces au niveau de la conscience et du corps. Nous terminerons enfin notre réflexion par une analyse des effets volontaires et involontaires qui mettent en question la capacité même de la mémoire, en influant sur l’imagination et sur la réponse éthique du soi. (shrink)
Background: Previous research has identified a link between the loss of a significant person, grief complications, and substance abuse. People with substance use disorder are more vulnerable to complicated grieving symptoms following loss. From sociocognitive theories, the model of coping with stress assumes that substance use is one of the responses used to cope with traumatic life events. The main objective of this study is to identify the coping strategies of people with SUD and to analyze their relationship to complicated (...) grief.Methods: A sample of 196 bereaved drug-dependent patients was assessed, after providing written consent, in sociodemographic variables, drug and bereavement related characteristics, CG symptomatology and coping strategies.Results: There are differences in relation to the coping strategies used among patients with CG, using more those focused on emotional expression, social withdrawal, wishful thinking, and self-criticism.Conclusion: We can conclude that, in general, CG in patients with SUD is more associated with the use of less adaptive coping strategies. This data can contribute to a better understanding of the different variables involved in the grieving process among people with SUD. It is important to point out the clinical implications of addressing what the coping strategies associated with improved grief outcomes among people with addiction problems are. (shrink)
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