Results for 'Behavioral Sciences'

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  1.  47
    An incremental approach to causal inference in the behavioral sciences.Keith A. Markus - 2014 - Synthese 191 (10):2089-2113.
    Causal inference plays a central role in behavioral science. Historically, behavioral science methodologies have typically sought to infer a single causal relation. Each of the major approaches to causal inference in the behavioral sciences follows this pattern. Nonetheless, such approaches sometimes differ in the causal relation that they infer. Incremental causal inference offers an alternative to this conceptualization of causal inference that divides the inference into a series of incremental steps. Different steps infer different causal relations. (...)
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  2. Cohen’s convention and the body of knowledge in behavioral science.Aran Arslan & Frank Zenker - manuscript
    In the context of discovery-oriented hypothesis testing research, behavioral scientists widely accept a convention for false positive (α) and false negative error rates (β) proposed by Jacob Cohen, who deemed the general relative seriousness of the antecedently accepted α = 0.05 to be matched by β = 0.20. Cohen’s convention not only ignores contexts of hypothesis testing where the more serious error is the β-error. Cohen’s convention also implies for discovery-oriented hypothesis testing research that a statistically significant observed effect (...)
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  3.  80
    Unifying the behavioral sciences II.Herbert Gintis - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (1):45-53.
    My response to commentators includes a suggestion that an additional principle be added to the list presented in the target article: the notion of human society as a complex adaptive system with emergent properties. In addition, I clear up several misunderstandings shared by several commentators, and explore some themes concerning future directions in the unification of the behavioral science. (Published Online April 27 2007).
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  4.  34
    Organizational Justice: A Behavioral Science Concept with Critical Implications for Business Ethics and Stakeholder Theory.Christian Kiewitz - 2005 - Business Ethics Quarterly 15 (1):67-91.
    Abstract:Organizational justice is a behavioral science concept that refers to the perception of fairness of the past treatment of the employees within an organization held by the employees of that organization. These subjective perceptions of fairness have been empirically shown to be related to 1) attitudinal changes in job satisfaction, organizational commitment and managerial trust beliefs; 2) behavioral changes in task performance activities and ancillary extra-task efforts to assist group members and improve group methods; 3) numerical changes in (...)
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  5. Can the Behavioral Sciences Self-correct? A Social Epistemic Study.Felipe Romero - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 60 (C):55-69.
    Advocates of the self-corrective thesis argue that scientific method will refute false theories and find closer approximations to the truth in the long run. I discuss a contemporary interpretation of this thesis in terms of frequentist statistics in the context of the behavioral sciences. First, I identify experimental replications and systematic aggregation of evidence (meta-analysis) as the self-corrective mechanism. Then, I present a computer simulation study of scientific communities that implement this mechanism to argue that frequentist statistics may (...)
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  6.  67
    The behavioral sciences are historical sciences of emergent complexity.Larry Arnhart - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (1):18-19.
    Unlike physics and chemistry, the behavioral sciences are historical sciences that explain the fuzzy complexity of social life through historical narratives. Unifying the behavioral sciences through evolutionary game theory would require a nested hierarchy of three kinds of historical narratives: natural history, cultural history, and biographical history. (Published Online April 27 2007).
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  7.  11
    Ethics as a behavioral science.Archie J. Bahm - 1974 - Springfield, Ill.,: Thomas.
  8.  76
    Getting Real on Rationality—Behavioral Science, Nudging, and Public Policy.Andreas T. Schmidt - 2019 - Ethics 129 (4):511-543.
    The nudge approach seeks to improve people’s decisions through small changes in their choice environments. Nudge policies often work through psychological mechanisms that deviate from traditional notions of rationality. Because of that, some critics object that nudging treats people as irrational. Such treatment might be disrespectful in itself and might crowd out more empowering policies. I defend nudging against these objections. By defending a nonstandard, ecological model of rationality, I argue that nudging not only is compatible with rational agency but (...)
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  9.  30
    Organizational Justice: A Behavioral Science Concept with Critical Implications for Business Ethics and Stakeholder Theory.LaRue Tone Hosmer & Christian Kiewitz - 2005 - Business Ethics Quarterly 15 (1):67-91.
    Abstract:Organizational justice is a behavioral science concept that refers to the perception of fairness of the past treatment of the employees within an organization held by the employees of that organization. These subjective perceptions of fairness have been empirically shown to be related to 1) attitudinal changes in job satisfaction, organizational commitment and managerial trust beliefs; 2) behavioral changes in task performance activities and ancillary extra-task efforts to assist group members and improve group methods; 3) numerical changes in (...)
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  10. Coping with levels of explanation in the behavioral sciences.Giuseppe Boccignone & Roberto Cordeschi - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
    This Research Topic aimed at deepening our understanding of the levels and explanations that are of interest for cognitive sci- entists, neuroscientists, psychologists, behavioral scientists, and philosophers of science. Indeed, contemporary developments in neuroscience and psy- chology suggest that scientists are likely to deal with a multiplicity of levels, where each of the different levels entails laws of behavior appropriate to that level (Berntson et al., 2012). Also, gathering and modeling data at the different levels of analysis is not (...)
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  11. The behavioral sciences and the ends of education.William Gruen - 1959 - Philosophy of Education:101.
     
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  12.  41
    Responsible behavioral science generalizations and applications require much more than non-WEIRD samples.Vladimir J. Konečni - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (2-3):98-99.
    There are many methodological considerations that adversely affect external validity as much as, or even more than, unrepresentative sampling does. Among suspect applications, especially worrisome is the incorporation of WEIRD-based findings regarding moral reasoning and retribution into normative expectations, such as might be held by international criminal tribunals in war-torn areas.
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  13. The Ethics of Influence: Government in the Age of Behavioral Science.Cass R. Sunstein (ed.) - 2016 - New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.
    In recent years, 'nudge units' or 'behavioral insights teams' have been created in the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and other nations. All over the world, public officials are using the behavioral sciences to protect the environment, promote employment and economic growth, reduce poverty, and increase national security. In this book, Cass R. Sunstein, the eminent legal scholar and best-selling co-author of Nudge, breaks new ground with a deep yet highly readable investigation into the ethical issues (...)
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  14. Explanation in the Behavioral Sciences.Robert Borger & Frank Cioffi - 1973 - Synthese 26 (2):324-336.
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  15.  9
    The Role of Behavioral Science in Personalized Multimodal Prehabilitation in Cancer.Chloe Grimmett, Katherine Bradbury, Suzanne O. Dalton, Imogen Fecher-Jones, Meeke Hoedjes, Judit Varkonyi-Sepp & Camille E. Short - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Multimodal prehabilitation is increasingly recognized as an important component of the pre-operative pathway in oncology. It aims to optimize physical and psychological health through delivery of a series of tailored interventions including exercise, nutrition, and psychological support. At the core of this prescription is a need for considerable health behavior change, to ensure that patients are engaged with and adhere to these interventions and experience the associated benefits. To date the prehabilitation literature has focused on testing the efficacy of devised (...)
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  16.  27
    Extending the behavioral sciences framework: Clarification of methods, predictions, and concepts.Alex Mesoudi & Kevin N. Laland - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (1):36-37.
    We applaud Gintis's attempt to provide an evolutionary-based framework for the behavioral sciences, and note a number of similarities with our own recent cultural evolutionary structure for the social sciences. Gintis's proposal would be further strengthened by a greater emphasis on additional methods to evolutionary game theory, clearer empirical predictions, and a broader consideration of cultural transmission. (Published Online April 27 2007).
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  17.  24
    Evolution & contextual behavioral science: an integrated framework for understanding, predicting, & influencing human behavior.David Sloan Wilson, Steven C. Hayes & Anthony Biglan (eds.) - 2018 - Oakland, Calif.: Context Press, an imprint of New Harbinger Publications.
    Evolutionary science (ES) and contextual behavioral science (CBS) have developed largely independently during the last half century. However, the earlier histories of these two bodies of knowledge are thoroughly entwined. ES provides a unifying theoretical framework for the biological sciences, and is increasingly being applied to human-related sciences. Meanwhile, CBS is concerned with influencing human behavior in a practical sense. This groundbreaking volume seeks to integrate ES and CBS to promote real, positive change in peoples' lives. Evolution (...)
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  18.  12
    A Call for Behavioral Science in Embedded Bioethics.Kristin M. Kostick-Quenet, Benjamin Lang, Natalie Dorfman & J. S. Blumenthal-Barby - 2022 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 65 (4):672-679.
    ABSTRACT:Bioethicists today are taking a greater role in the design and implementation of emerging technologies by "embedding" within the development teams and providing their direct guidance and recommendations. Ideally, these collaborations allow ethical considerations to be addressed in an active, iterative, and ongoing process through regular exchanges between ethicists and members of the technological development team. This article discusses a challenge to this embedded ethics approach—namely, that bioethical guidance, even if embraced by the development team in theory, is not easily (...)
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  19.  21
    Measuring the Intentional World: Realism, Naturalism, and Quantitative Methods in the Behavioral Sciences.J. D. Trout - 1998 - New York, US: OUP Usa.
    Scientific realism has been advanced as an interpretation of the natural sciences but never the behavioral sciences. This book introduces a novel version of scientific realism, Measured Realism, that characterizes the kind of theoretical progress in the social and psychological sciences that is uneven but indisputable. It proposes a theory of measurement, Population-Guided Estimation, that connects natural, psychological, and social scientific inquiry. Presenting quantitative methods in the behavioral sciences as at once successful and regulated (...)
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  20. A framework for the unification of the behavioral sciences.Herbert Gintis - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (1):1-16.
    The various behavioral disciplines model human behavior in distinct and incompatible ways. Yet, recent theoretical and empirical developments have created the conditions for rendering coherent the areas of overlap of the various behavioral disciplines. The analytical tools deployed in this task incorporate core principles from several behavioral disciplines. The proposed framework recognizes evolutionary theory, covering both genetic and cultural evolution, as the integrating principle of behavioral science. Moreover, if decision theory and game theory are broadened to (...)
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  21.  7
    Law and behavioral sciences: why we need less purity rather than more.Peter Mascini - 2016 - The Hague, The Netherlands: Eleven International Publishing.
    In his inaugural lecture, Peter Mascini takes issue with the goal of scientific purity in the behavioral study of law conceived as the deliberate choice to postulate a limited number of universally applicable behavioral principles. The guiding principle of behavioral sociology is that law behaves in correspondence to social space, while the guiding principle of law and economics is that individuals behave rationally. Behavioral economics has challenged the principle of the rational actor and, consequently, has also (...)
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  22.  5
    Economics and the Behavioral Sciences: a Desert Frontier?Kenneth E. Boulding - 1956 - Diogenes 4 (15):1-14.
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  23.  19
    Good behavioral science has room for theology: Any room for God?Robert B. Glassman - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (6):737-738.
    This excellent outline of evolutionary hypotheses is compromised by severe reductionism. Other writings succeed in granting theism ontological significance without compromising rigor. The discussion of counterintuitiveness neglects coherence in memory. Bearing in mind our severely limited working memory capacity, susceptibility to religious mythologies may comprise an adaptive heuristic approach to summarizing the contingencies of the most far-reaching of life's problems.
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  24. Adaptationism, exaptationism, and evolutionary behavioral science.Paul W. Andrews, Steven W. Gangestad & Dan Matthews - 2002 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):534-547.
    In our target article, we discussed the standards of evidence that could be used to identify adaptations, and argued that building an empirical case that certain features of a trait are best explained by exaptation, spandrel, or constraint requires the consideration, testing, and rejection of adaptationist hypotheses. We are grateful to the 31 commentators for their thoughtful insights. They raised important issues, including the meaning of “exaptation”; whether Gould and Lewontin's critique of adaptationism was primarily epistemological or ontological; the necessity, (...)
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  25.  5
    Behavioral winter: Disillusionment with applied behavioral science and a path to spring forward.David Gal & Derek D. Rucker - 2023 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 46:e156.
    Chater & Loewenstein thoughtfully express their disillusionment with contemporary applied behavioral science, particularly as it pertains to public policy. Although they fault an overemphasis on i-frame approaches, their proposed alternatives leave doubt regarding whether behavioral science has much, if anything, useful to offer policy. We offer two critical principles to guide and motivate more relevant behavioral science.
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  26.  13
    Developing Cross-Cultural Data Infrastructures (CCDIs) for Research in Cognitive and Behavioral Sciences.Oskar Burger, Lydia Chen, Alejandro Erut, Frankie T. K. Fong, Bruce Rawlings & Cristine H. Legare - 2023 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 14 (2):565-585.
    Cross-cultural research provides invaluable information about the origins of and explanations for cognitive and behavioral diversity. Interest in cross-cultural research is growing, but the field continues to be dominated by WEIRD (Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic) researchers conducting WEIRD science with WEIRD participants, using WEIRD protocols. To make progress toward improving cognitive and behavioral science, we argue that the field needs (1) data workflows and infrastructures to support long-term high-quality research that is compliant with open-science frameworks; (2) (...)
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  27.  48
    Towards the unity of the human behavioral sciences.Herbert Gintis - 2004 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 3 (1):37-57.
    Despite their distinct objects of study, the human behavioral sciences all include models of individual human behavior. Unity in the behavioral sciences requires that there be a common underlying model of individual human behavior, specialized and enriched to meet the particular needs of each discipline. Such unity does not exist, and cannot be easily attained, since the various disciplines have incompatible models and disparate research methodologies. Yet recent theoretical and empirical developments have created the conditions for (...)
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  28.  27
    Explanation in the Behavioral Sciences[REVIEW]R. J. B. - 1971 - Review of Metaphysics 25 (1):141-141.
    This is an intelligently designed collection of essays dealing with a variety of key issues that are in the foreground of reflection on the social and behavioral sciences. The format followed is an ideal one: a key paper, a comment by a critic, and a reply. Thus, for example, Charles Taylor explains and defends teleological explanation of behavior and engages in an exchange with Robert Borger; and Noam Chomsky reviews the problems of explanation in linguistics and is challenged (...)
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  29.  23
    Diversity in the behavioral sciences.William Sacksteder - 1963 - Philosophy of Science 30 (4):375-395.
    It is fairly usual to argue or to assume that there is a single pattern of proper scientific endeavor for the behavioral sciences. This is based, one is inclined to say, on the superb model afforded by the natural science successes of the past few hundred years and on the common method which underlies and determines that model. Consequently, a protagonist can argue that within his own science, all opposed modes of thinking are archaic, peripheral, or unscientific, while (...)
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  30.  37
    Towards uniting the behavioral sciences with a Gene-centered approach to altruism.R. Michael Brown & Stephanie L. Brown - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (1):19-20.
    We support the ambitious goal of unification within the behavioral sciences. We suggest that Darwinian evolution by means of natural selection can provide the integrative glue for this purpose, and we review our own work on selective investment theory (SIT), which is an example of how other-regarding preferences can be accommodated by a gene-centered account of evolution. (Published Online April 27 2007).
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  31.  37
    Do the cognitive and behavioral sciences need each other?David W. Gow Jr - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (1):27-28.
    Game theory provides a descriptive or a normative account of an important class of decisions. Given the cognitive sciences' emphasis on explanation, unification with the behavioral sciences under a descriptive model would constitute a step backwards in their development. I argue for the interdependence of the cognitive and behavioral sciences and suggest that meaningful integration is already occurring through problem-based interdisciplinary research programs. (Published Online April 27 2007).
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  32.  23
    Chasing Phenomena. Studies on classification and conceptual change in the social and behavioral sciences.Samuli Pöyhönen - 2013 - Dissertation, University of Helsinki
    The articles comprising this dissertation concern classification and concept formation in the social and behavioral sciences. In particular, the emphasis in the study is on the philosophical analysis of interdisciplinary settings created by the recent intellectual developments on the interfaces between the social sciences, psychology, and neuroscience. The need for a systematic examination of the problems of conceptual coordination and integration across disciplinary boundaries is illustrated by focusing on phenomena whose satisfactory explanation requires drawing together the theoretical (...)
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  33. Explanation in the Behavioral Sciences: Confrontations.Robert Borger & Frank Cioffi - 1972 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 5 (4):248-255.
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  34.  11
    Nonlinear Dynamical Systems Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences Using Real Data.Stephen J. Guastello & Robert A. M. Gregson (eds.) - 2010 - Crc Press.
    Although its roots can be traced to the 19th century, progress in the study of nonlinear dynamical systems has taken off in the last 30 years. While pertinent source material exists, it is strewn about the literature in mathematics, physics, biology, economics, and psychology at varying levels of accessibility. A compendium research methods reflecting the expertise of major contributors to NDS psychology, Nonlinear Dynamical Systems Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences Using Real Data examines the techniques proven to be (...)
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  35.  20
    Improving social and behavioral science by making replication mainstream: A response to commentaries.Rolf A. Zwaan, Alexander Etz, Richard E. Lucas & M. Brent Donnellan - 2018 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 41.
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  36.  96
    Evolutionary psychology, ecological rationality, and the unification of the behavioral sciences.John Tooby & Leda Cosmides - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (1):42-43.
    For two decades, the integrated causal model of evolutionary psychology (EP) has constituted an interdisciplinary nucleus around which a single unified theoretical and empirical behavioral science has been crystallizing – while progressively resolving problems (such as defective logical and statistical reasoning) that bedevil Gintis's beliefs, preferences, and constraints (BPC) framework. Although both frameworks are similar, EP is empirically better supported, theoretically richer, and offers deeper unification. (Published Online April 27 2007).
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  37.  5
    The Complete Writing Guide to Nih Behavioral Science Grants.Lawrence M. Scheier & William L. Dewey (eds.) - 2007 - Oxford University Press USA.
    A veritable cookbook for individuals or corporations seeking funding from the federal government, The Complete Writing Guide to NIH Behavioral Science Grants contains the latest in technical information on NIH grants, including the new electronic submission process. Some of the most successful grant writers in history have contributed to this volume, offering key strategies as well as tips and suggestions in areas that are normally hard to find in grant writing guides, such as budgeting, human subjects, and power analysis. (...)
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  38. Phenomena and Objects of Research in the Cognitive and Behavioral Sciences.Uljana Feest - 2017 - Philosophy of Science 84 (5):1165-1176.
    It is commonly held that research efforts in the cognitive and behavioral sciences are mainly directed toward providing explanations and that phenomena figure into scientific practice qua explananda. I contend that these assumptions convey a skewed picture of the research practices in question and of the role played by phenomena. I argue that experimental research often aims at exploring and describing “objects of research” and that phenomena can figure as components of, and as evidence for, such objects. I (...)
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  39. Determinism and Total Explanation in the Biological and Behavioral Sciences.Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - 2014 - Encyclopedia of Life Sciences.
    Should we think of our universe as law-governed and “clockwork”-like or as disorderly and “soup”-like? Alternatively, should we consciously and intentionally synthesize these two extreme pictures? More concretely, how deterministic are the postulated causes and how rigid are the modeled properties of the best statistical methodologies used in the biological and behavioral sciences? The charge of this entry is to explore thinking about causation in the temporal evolution of biological and behavioral systems. Regression analysis and path analysis (...)
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  40.  58
    An Evidence-Based Study of the Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences.Edouard Machery & Kara Cohen - 2012 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 63 (1):177-226.
    The disagreement between philosophers about the scientific worth of the evolutionary behavioral sciences (evolutionary psychology, human behavioral ecology, etc.) is in part due to the fact that critics and advocates of these sciences characterize them very differently. In this article, by analyzing quantitatively the citations made in the articles published in Evolution & Human Behavior between January 2000 and December 2002, we provide some evidence that undermines the characterization of the evolutionary behavioral sciences put (...)
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  41.  13
    Explanation in the Behavioral Sciences[REVIEW]J. B. R. - 1971 - Review of Metaphysics 25 (1):141-141.
    This is an intelligently designed collection of essays dealing with a variety of key issues that are in the foreground of reflection on the social and behavioral sciences. The format followed is an ideal one: a key paper, a comment by a critic, and a reply. Thus, for example, Charles Taylor explains and defends teleological explanation of behavior and engages in an exchange with Robert Borger; and Noam Chomsky reviews the problems of explanation in linguistics and is challenged (...)
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  42.  11
    Methodology of the Behavioral Sciences[REVIEW]C. L. - 1966 - Review of Metaphysics 20 (2):368-368.
    An attempt to represent the major conflicts in discussions of the status of behavioral science as science. Most of these conflicts involve the question of just how "scientific method" is to be construed. The author suggests that many traditional bifurcations in such discussion tend to mislead rather than enlighten. An extensive treatment of the relation between natural and behavioral sciences is presented. A general sense of "scientific method" is proposed, and in that context it is concluded that (...)
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  43. Evolution and Contextual Behavioral Science.David Sloan Wilson & Steven C. Hayes - 2018 - In David Sloan Wilson, Steven C. Hayes & Anthony Biglan (eds.), Evolution & contextual behavioral science: an integrated framework for understanding, predicting, & influencing human behavior. Oakland, Calif.: Context Press, an imprint of New Harbinger Publications.
  44.  29
    Measuring the Intentional World: Realism, Naturalism, and Quantitative Methods in the Behavioral Sciences.Harold Kincaid & J. D. Trout - 2000 - Philosophical Review 109 (1):112.
    Scientific realism is usually a thesis or theses advanced about our best natural science. In contrast, this book defends scientific realism applied to the social and behavioral sciences. It does so, however, by applying the same argument strategy that many have found convincing for the natural sciences, namely, by arguing that we can only explain the success of the sciences by postulating their approximate truth. The particular success that Trout emphasizes for the social sciences is (...)
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  45. Logical positivism and the behavioral sciences.Michael Scriven - 1969 - In Peter Achinstein & Stephen Francis Barker (eds.), The Legacy of Logical Positivism: Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Baltimore,: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 195--209.
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  46.  33
    Implications for law of a unified behavioral science.Owen D. Jones - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (1):30-31.
    The argument for unifying behavioral sciences can be enhanced by highlighting concrete, vivid, and useful benefits that coherent behavioral models could provide. Shifting sets of behavioral assumptions underlie every legal system's efforts to modify behaviors by changing incentives in the legal environment. Consequently, where those assumptions are flawed, improved behavioral models could improve law's effectiveness and efficiency in regulating behavior. (Published Online April 27 2007).
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  47.  9
    The Measurement of Values, Behavioral Science and Philosophical Approaches.Rollo Handy - 1972 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 32 (4):573-574.
  48.  24
    Value theory and the behavioral sciences.Rollo Handy - 1969 - Springfield, Ill.,: Thomas.
  49.  8
    Value Theory and the Behavioral Sciences.R. F. Atkinson - 1971 - Philosophical Quarterly 21 (82):89-90.
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  50.  11
    Value Theory and the Behavioral Sciences.David H. Degrood - 1969 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 30 (2):303-304.
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