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Ben Saunders [42]Benjamin Saunders [1]
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Ben Saunders
University of Southampton
  1.  11
    How Altruistic Organ Donation May Be Bad.Ben Saunders - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (10):681-684.
    It has traditionally been assumed that organ donation must be altruistic, though the necessity of altruistic motivations has recently been questioned. Few, however, have questioned whether altruism is always a good motive. This paper considers the possibility that excessive altruism, or self-abnegation, may be intrinsically bad. How this may be so is illustrated with reference to Tom Hurka’s account of the value of attitudes, which suggests that disproportionate love of one’s own good—either excessive or deficient—is intrinsically bad. Whether or not (...)
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  2. Democracy, Political Equality, and Majority Rule.Ben Saunders - 2010 - Ethics 121 (1):148-177.
    Democracy is commonly associated with political equality and/or majority rule. This essay shows that these three ideas are conceptually separate, so the transition from any one to another stands in need of further substantive argument, which is not always adequately given. It does this by offering an alternative decision-making mechanism, called lottery voting, in which all individuals cast votes for their preferred options but, instead of these being counted, one is randomly selected and that vote determines the outcome. This procedure (...)
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  3.  15
    A Further Defence of the Right Not to Vote.Ben Saunders - 2018 - Res Publica 24 (1):93-108.
    Opponents of compulsory voting often allege that it violates a ‘right not to vote’. This paper seeks to clarify and defend such a right against its critics. First, I propose that this right must be understood as a Hohfeldian claim against being compelled to vote, rather than as a mere privilege to abstain. So construed, the right not to vote is compatible with a duty to vote, so arguments for a duty to vote do not refute the existence of such (...)
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  4.  97
    A Defence of Weighted Lotteries in Life Saving Cases.Ben Saunders - 2009 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 12 (3):279-290.
    The three most common responses to Taurek’s ‘numbers problem’ are saving the greater number, equal chance lotteries and weighted lotteries. Weighted lotteries have perhaps received the least support, having been criticized by Scanlon What We Owe to Each Other ( 1998 ) and Hirose ‘Fairness in Life and Death Cases’ ( 2007 ). This article considers these objections in turn, and argues that they do not succeed in refuting the fairness of a weighted lottery, which remains a potential solution to (...)
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  5. Fairness Between Competing Claims.Ben Saunders - 2010 - Res Publica 16 (1):41-55.
    Fairness is a central, but under-theorized, notion in moral and political philosophy. This paper makes two contributions. Firstly, it criticizes Broome’s seminal account of fairness in Proc Aristotelian Soc 91:87–101, showing that there are problems with restricting fairness to a matter of relative satisfaction and holding that it does not itself require the satisfaction of the claims in question. Secondly, it considers the justification of lotteries to resolve cases of ties between competing claims, which Broome claims as support for his (...)
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  6.  90
    Altruism or Solidarity? The Motives for Organ Donation and Two Proposals.Ben Saunders - 2012 - Bioethics 26 (7):376-381.
    Proposals for increasing organ donation are often rejected as incompatible with altruistic motivation on the part of donors. This paper questions, on conceptual grounds, whether most organ donors really are altruistic. If we distinguish between altruism and solidarity – a more restricted form of other-concern, limited to members of a particular group – then most organ donors exhibit solidarity, rather than altruism. If organ donation really must be altruistic, then we have reasons to worry about the motives of existing donors. (...)
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  7.  59
    The Equality of Lotteries.Ben Saunders - 2008 - Philosophy 83 (3):359-372.
    Lotteries have long been used to resolve competing claims, yet their recent implementation to allocate school places in Brighton and Hove, England led to considerable public outcry. This article argues that, given appropriate selection is impossible when parties have equal claims, a lottery is preferable to an auction because it excludes unjust influences. Three forms of contractualism are discussed and the fairness of lotteries is traced to the fact that they give each person an equal chance, as a surrogate for (...)
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  8.  99
    J. S. Mill's Conception of Utility.Ben Saunders - 2010 - Utilitas 22 (1):52-69.
    Mill's most famous departure from Bentham is his distinction between higher and lower pleasures. This article argues that quality and quantity are independent and irreducible properties of pleasures that may be traded off against each other higher pleasures’ lexically dominate lower ones, and that the distinction is compatible with hedonism. I show how this interpretation not only makes sense of Mill but allows him to respond to famous problems, such as Crisp's Haydn and the oyster and Nozick's experience machine.
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  9.  50
    Fairness and Aggregation.A. C. Paseau & Ben Saunders - 2015 - Utilitas 27 (4):460-469.
    Sometimes, two unfair distributions cancel out in aggregate. Paradoxically, two distributions each of which is fair in isolation may give rise to aggregate unfairness. When assessing the fairness of distributions, it therefore matters whether we assess transactions piecemeal or focus only on the overall result. This piece illustrates these difficulties for two leading theories of fairness before offering a formal proof that no non-trivial theory guarantees aggregativity. This is not intended as a criticism of any particular theory, but as a (...)
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  10.  53
    Sex Discrimination, Gender Balance, Justice and Publicity in Admissions.Ben Saunders - 2010 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 27 (1):59-71.
    This paper examines the problem of selecting a number of candidates to receive a good (admission) from a pool in which there are more qualified applicants than places. I observe that it is rarely possible to order all candidates according to some relevant criterion, such as academic merit, since these standards are inevitably somewhat vague. This means that we are often faced with the task of making selections between near-enough equal candidates. I survey one particular line of response, which says (...)
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  11.  28
    Procreative Beneficence, Intelligence, and the Optimization Problem.Ben Saunders - 2015 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 40 (6):653-668.
    According to the Principle of Procreative Beneficence, reproducers should choose the child, of those available to them, expected to have the best life. Savulescu argues reproducers are therefore morally obligated to select for nondisease traits, such as intelligence. Carter and Gordon recently challenged this implication, arguing that Savulescu fails to establish that intelligence promotes well-being. This paper develops two responses. First, I argue that higher intelligence is likely to contribute to well-being on most plausible accounts. Second, I argue that, even (...)
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  12.  21
    Why Procreative Preferences May Be Moral – And Why It May Not Matter If They Aren't.Ben Saunders - 2015 - Bioethics 29 (7):499-506.
    There has been much argument over whether procreative selection is obligatory or wrong. Rebecca Bennett has recently challenged the assumption that procreative choices are properly moral choices, arguing that these views express mere preferences. This article challenges Bennett's view on two fronts. First, I argue that the Non-Identity Problem does not show that there cannot be harmless wrongs – though this would require us to abandon the intuitively attractive ‘person-affecting principle’, that may be a lesser cost than abandoning some more (...)
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  13.  19
    J. S. Mill's Conception of Utility: Ben Saunders.Ben Saunders - 2010 - Utilitas 22 (1):52-69.
    Mill's most famous departure from Bentham is his distinction between higher and lower pleasures. This article argues that quality and quantity are independent and irreducible properties of pleasures that may be traded off against each other – as in the case of quality and quantity of wine. I argue that Mill is not committed to thinking that there are two distinct kinds of pleasure, or that ‘higher pleasures’ lexically dominate lower ones, and that the distinction is compatible with hedonism. I (...)
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  14.  40
    Reinterpreting the Qualitative Hedonism Advanced by J.S. Mill.Ben Saunders - 2011 - Journal of Value Inquiry 45 (2):187-201.
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  15.  57
    Why Majority Rule Cannot Be Based Only on Procedural Equality.Ben Saunders - 2010 - Ratio Juris 23 (1):113-122.
  16.  3
    Democracy-as-Fairness: Justice, Equal Chances and Lotteries.Ben Saunders - 2009 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 2 (1):154-156.
  17.  1
    The Constitution of Equality: Democratic Authority and its Limits – Thomas Christiano.Ben Saunders - 2009 - Philosophical Quarterly 59 (236):566-568.
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  18.  34
    Immigration, Rights and Democracy.Ben Saunders - 2011 - Theoria: A Journal of Social and Political Theory 58 (129):58-77.
    Arash Abizadeh has recently argued that political communities have no right to close their borders unilaterally, since by doing so they subject outsiders to coercion which lacks democratic justification. His conclusion is that any legitimate regime of border controls must be justified to outsiders. David Miller has sought to defend closed borders by distinguishing between coercion and prevention and arguing that the latter does not require democratic justification. This paper explores a different route, arguing firstly that the requirements of democracy (...)
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  19.  19
    First, Do No Harm: Generalized Procreative Non‐Maleficence.Ben Saunders - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (7):552-558.
    New reproductive technologies allow parents some choice over their children. Various moral principles have been suggested to regulate such choices. This article starts from a discussion of Julian Savulescu's Principle of Procreative Beneficence, according to which parents ought to choose the child expected to have the best quality of life, before combining two previously separate lines of attack against this principle. First, it is suggested that the appropriate moral principles of guiding reproductive choices ought to focus on general wellbeing rather (...)
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  20.  11
    The Ethics of Political Participation: Engagement and Democracy in the 21st Century.Phil Parvin & Ben Saunders - 2018 - Res Publica 24 (1):3-8.
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  21.  37
    Reformulating Mill’s Harm Principle.Ben Saunders - 2016 - Mind 125 (500):1005-1032.
    Mill’s harm principle is commonly supposed to rest on a distinction between self-regarding conduct, which is not liable to interference, and other-regarding conduct, which is. As critics have noted, this distinction is difficult to draw. Furthermore, some of Mill’s own applications of the principle, such as his forbidding of slavery contracts, do not appear to fit with it. This article proposes that the self-regarding/other-regarding distinction is not in fact fundamental to Mill’s harm principle. The sphere of protected liberty includes not (...)
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  22.  42
    Democracy After Deliberation.Ben Saunders - 2009 - Res Publica 15 (3):315-319.
  23.  1
    Sex Discrimination, Gender Balance, Justice and Publicity in Admissions.Ben Saunders - 2010 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 27 (1):59-71.
    abstractThis paper examines the problem of selecting a number of candidates to receive a good from a pool in which there are more qualified applicants than places. I observe that it is rarely possible to order all candidates according to some relevant criterion, such as academic merit, since these standards are inevitably somewhat vague. This means that we are often faced with the task of making selections between near‐enough equal candidates. I survey one particular line of response, which says that (...)
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  24.  1
    Who Are ‘We’ to Speak of Benefits and Harms? And to Whom Do We Speak? A Response to Woollard on Breast Feeding and Language.Ben Saunders - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2018-105122.
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  25.  4
    Accountability for Reasonableness or Equality of Resources?Ben Saunders - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (3):49-50.
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  26.  4
    Recent Critics of Mill's Qualitative Hedonism.Ben Saunders - 2016 - Philosophy 91 (4):503-521.
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  27.  67
    The Constitution of Equality: Democratic Authority and its Limits – Thomas Christiano.Ben Saunders - 2009 - Philosophical Quarterly 59 (236):566-568.
  28.  56
    Barbara Goodwin, Justice by Lottery.Ben Saunders - 2010 - Journal of Value Inquiry 44 (4):553-556.
  29.  24
    Taurek on Numbers Don't Count.Ben Saunders - 2011 - In Michael Bruce & Steven Barbone (eds.), Just the Arguments: 100 of the Most Important Arguments in Western Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell.
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  30.  35
    Democratic Legitimacy.Ben Saunders - 2011 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 8 (3):472-475.
  31.  6
    Immigration, Rights and Democracy.Ben Saunders - 2011 - Theoria: A Journal of Social and Political Theory 58:58-77.
    Arash Abizadeh has recently argued that political communities have no right to close their borders unilaterally, since by doing so they subject outsiders to coercion which lacks democratic justification. His conclusion is that any legitimate regime of border controls must be justified to outsiders. David Miller has sought to defend closed borders by distinguishing between coercion and prevention and arguing that the latter does not require democratic justification. This paper explores a different route, arguing firstly that the requirements of democracy (...)
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  32.  13
    Democracy and Future Generations.Ben Saunders - 2014 - Philosophy and Public Issues - Filosofia E Questioni Pubbliche.
  33.  9
    Book Review: Democracy and Disenfranchisement: The Morality of Electoral Exclusions, by Claudio López-Guerra. [REVIEW]Ben Saunders - 2015 - Political Theory 43 (6):858-862.
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  34.  11
    Normative Consent and Organ Donation: A Vindication.Ben Saunders - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (6):362-363.
    In an earlier article, I argued that David Estlund's notion of ‘normative consent’ could provide justification for an opt-out system of organ donation that does not involve presumptions about the deceased donor's consent. Where it would be wrong of someone to refuse their consent, then the fact that they have not actually given it is irrelevant, though an explicit denial of consent (as in opting out) may still be binding. My argument has recently been criticised by Potts et al, who (...)
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  35.  7
    Parfit's Leveling Down Argument Against Egalitarianism.Ben Saunders - 2011 - In Michael Bruce & Steven Barbone (eds.), Just the Arguments: 100 of the Most Important Arguments in Western Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell.
  36.  8
    Tooley on Abortion and Infanticide.Ben Saunders - 2011 - In Michael Bruce & Steven Barbone (eds.), Just the Arguments: 100 of the Most Important Arguments in Western Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell.
  37.  4
    C. L. Ten, Ed. , Mill's On Liberty: A Critical Guide . Reviewed By.Benjamin Saunders - 2010 - Philosophy in Review 30 (6):457-459.
  38.  5
    Wolff's Argument for the Rejection of State Authority.Ben Saunders - 2011 - In Michael Bruce & Steven Barbone (eds.), Just the Arguments: 100 of the Most Important Arguments in Western Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell.
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  39.  2
    Paper: Normative Consent and Organ Donation: A Vindication.Ben Saunders - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (6):362-363.
    In an earlier article, I argued that David Estlund's notion of ‘normative consent’ could provide justification for an opt-out system of organ donation that does not involve presumptions about the deceased donor's consent. Where it would be wrong of someone to refuse their consent, then the fact that they have not actually given it is irrelevant, though an explicit denial of consent may still be binding. My argument has recently been criticised by Potts et al, who argue that such a (...)
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  40.  1
    Book Review: Democracy and Disenfranchisement: The Morality of Electoral Exclusions, by Claudio López-GuerraDemocracy and Disenfranchisement: The Morality of Electoral Exclusions, by López-GuerraClaudio. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014. [REVIEW]Ben Saunders - 2015 - Political Theory 43 (6):858-862.
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  41. Circumcising Donne: The 1633 Poems and Readerly Desire.Ben Saunders - 2000 - Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 30:375-399.
    This essay reconsiders the haphazard arrangement of Donne's first printed collection of poems in relation to an elegy written for Donne by one Thomas Browne, published for the first and only time in that same volume. The earliest recorded response we have to Donne's verse considered as a complete body of work, Browne's elegy thematizes the readerly tendency to interpret this textual body in the light of "subjective" notions of "proper" desire. Through a close reading of Browne's poem, in which (...)
     
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  42. Mill: A Revised Version of Utilitarianism.Ben Saunders - 2011 - Philosophical Forum 42 (3):323-323.
     
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