Both of these traditional interpretations were seriously challenged by Vico and the romantic movement. Rather than viewing metaphor as an ornamental substitution for the proper word, or as a mere comparison, Vico, Croce and Collingwood insisted that metaphor historically or logically precedes the solidified meanings of conceptual language, and further performs a uniquely revelatory function. While the fixed meanings of literal and logical discourse might be practically or intellectually useful, only the fluidity of poetic metaphor can reveal the concrete physiognomy (...) of the experienced world. Still, by stressing the pre-conceptual character of metaphor, the traditional dichotomy between it and all intellectual pursuits was made even more pronounced. Moreover, on the basis of this theory, it became impossible to distinguish poetic metaphor from primitive myth, or even from the assertions of schizophrenics. Equally embarrassing is the fact that aphasiacs, who have actually lost the use of conceptual language, are also completely unable to understand metaphors of any sort. (shrink)
The paper outlines why and how political institutions, especially constitutional ones, matter for what decisions are made in the political process and thereby for how the economy functions. The main part contains a survey of empirical studies in this area. Among the things covered: the effects of political and economic freedom, not least property rights, on economic growth; how stricter budgetprocess rules affect tendencies for deficits; the role of electoral systems for shaping policies and affecting fiscal deficits; and the effects (...) of separation of powers e.g., federalism and referenda on government size.Ce papier retrace dans les grandes lignes pourquoi et comment les institutions politiques, notamment celles de nature constitutionnelle, importent pour les décisions prises au niveau politique et en conséquence sur la manière dont fonctionne léconomie. La majeure partie du papier consiste en un examen des études empiriques dans ce domaine. Parmi les choses analysées : les effets de la liberté politique et économique, en particulier les droits de propriété, sur la croissance économique ; comment des règles plus strictes lors de lélaboration du budget influent sur la tendance au déficit ; le rôle des systèmes électoraux dans lélaboration des politiques et dans la taille des déficits ; et les effets de la séparation des pouvoirs par exemple fédéralisme et referenda sur la taille du gouvernement. (shrink)
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of clinical supervision on nurse’ moral decision making. The sample consisted of 15 registered nurses who took part in clinical supervision sessions. Data were obtained from interviews and analysed by a hermeneutic transformative process. The hermeneutic interpretation revealed four themes: increased self-assurance, an increased ability to support the patient, an increased ability to be in a relationship with the patient, and an increased ability to take responsibility. In conclusion, it seems (...) that clinical supervision enhances nurse’ ability to provide care on the basis of their decision making. However, the qualitative and structural aspects of clinical supervision have to be investigated further in order to develop professional insight into the way that nurses think and react. (shrink)
Level statistics and nodal point distribution in a rectangular semiconductor quantum dot are studied for different degrees of spin-orbit coupling. The chaotic features occurring from the spin-orbit coupling have no classical counterpart. Using experimental values for GaSb/InAs/GaSb semiconductor quantum wells we find that level repulsion can lead to the semi-Poisson distribution for nearest level separations. Nodal lines and nodal points are also investigated. Comparison is made with nodal point distributions for fully chaotic states.
Scientific Models. On the most primitive level of scientific popularization, common sense analogies are omnipresent, and are indispensable to layman and popularizer alike. Reichenbach's discussion of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle--in terms of a police car's inevitable effect on the speed of traffic--is a nice example. "In our intercourse with electrons we cannot don civilian clothes; when we watch them we always disturb their traffic." In this or any other such use of metaphor, however, the purpose is merely illustrative, and in an (...) extremely naive or vague sense at that. The structural form A:B::C:D is clearly present, but the repeated ratios are of such a superficial, inexact and limited nature that no further inferences can be drawn from the one side of the proportion to the other. Only a familiarizing picture, helpful to the layman but fairly useless to the scientist, has been introduced. Still, it is also important to realize that the difference between the metaphorical popularization of science and the creative use of metaphor by scientists themselves is a difference in degree only, not of kind. (shrink)
Nowadays it is increasingly common that the patients in the end of life phase choose to be cared for in their own home. Therefore it is vital to identify significant factors in order to prevent unnecessary suffering for dying patients and their families in end-of-life homecare. This study aimed to describe 10 nurses’ perceptions of significant factors that contribute to good end-of-life care in the patients own home. The transcribed texts from the interviews’ were analyzed using phenomenological hermeneutical method, which (...) focuses on the life-world of human beings. The results demonstrate that good end-of-life care presupposes that the aim of the caring staff is to provide safety, autonomy and integrity for the patient and family in order to create the respect required for as good and dignified a death as possible. (shrink)
David A. King. In Synchrony with the Heavens: Studies in Astronomical Timekeeping and Instrumentation in Medieval Islamic Civilization. Volume 1: The Call of the Muezzin. 900 pp., index. Leiden/Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, 2004.; David A. King. In Synchrony with the Heavens: Studies in Astronomical Timekeeping and Instrumentation in Medieval Islamic Civilization. Volume 2: Instruments of Mass Calculation. lxxvi + 1,066 pp., figs., apps., index. Leiden/Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, 2005.