Free-variable semantic tableaux are a well-established technique for first-order theorem proving where free variables act as a meta-linguistic device for tracking the eigenvariables used during proof search. We present the theoretical foundations to extend this technique to propositional modal logics, including non-trivial rigorous proofs of soundness and completeness, and also present various techniques that improve the efficiency of the basic naive method for such tableaux.
There is limited research into the situations of people living with precarious status in Canada, which includes people whose legal status is in-process, undocumented, or unauthorized, many of whom entered the country with a temporary resident visa, through family sponsorship arrangements, or as refugee claimants. In 2005, a community-university alliance sought to carry out a research study of the lived experiences of people living with precarious status. In this paper, we describe our negotiation of the ethics review process at a (...) Canadian university and the ethical, legal, and methodological issues that emerged. Although being able to guarantee our participants complete confidentiality was essential to the viability of the project due to their vulnerability to detention or deportation, we discovered that the Canadian legal framework limited us to being able to offer them confidentiality “to the fullest extent possible by law.” One way to overcome this conflict would have been through the construction of a Wigmore defence, in which we would document that the research would not be possible without assurance of our participants’ confidentiality. Such a defence would be tested in court if our research records were subpoenaed by immigration enforcement authorities. Rather than take the risk that this defence would not be successful and would result in our participants being deported, we altered the research methods from using multiple interviews to establish trust (which would have required that we store participants’ contact information) to meeting participants only once to discuss their experiences of living with precarious legal status in Canada. Our encounter with the ‘myth of confidentiality’ raised questions about the policing of knowledge production. (shrink)
Under the influence of groundbreaking work by John Meyer and Brian Rowen, as well as Paul DiMaggio and Walter Powell, over the last 30 years research in the new sociological institutionalism has focused on processes of isomorphism. I argue that this is a one-sided focus that leaves out many insights from other institutional and macrosociological approaches and does not do justice to actual social change because it overlooks the role played by divergent institutional development. While the suggestion of divergent trends (...) is not new, there have been few attempts to integrate divergence into the theoretical premises of the new sociological institutionalism. Based on the typology proposed by DiMaggio and Powell, I show that the mechanisms identified by them as sources of isomorphic change can support processes of divergent change as well. The theoretical challenge is to identify conditions under which these mechanisms push institutional change toward homogenization or divergence. (shrink)
Solidarity is a complex theoretical and historical investigation of one of the most dynamic social movements in post-World War II Europe. For some time now, Touraine has attempted to develop a comprehensive theory of social movements. In Solidarity, he and fellow researchers François Dubet, Michel Wieviorka, and Jan Strezelecki, apply the theories of action, movement and sociological intervention elaborated in The Voice and The Eye to the situation in Poland 1980-1. Solidarity is one of many attempts by Touraine to combine (...) a comprehensive theory of social change and action with the history of a contemporary social movement. Here Touraine et al. attempt to explain “the nature, internal workings and the evolution of Solidarity.”. (shrink)
. In logic, diagrams have been used for a very long time. Nevertheless philosophers and logicians are not quite clear about the logical status of diagrammatical representations. Fact is that there is a close relationship between particular visual (resp. graphical) properties of diagrams and logical properties. This is why the representation of the four categorical propositions by different diagram systems allows a deeper insight into the relations of the logical square. In this paper I want to give some examples.
While markets are important mechanisms for coordination of social ex-change it has to be looked at their limits and preconditions as well. This paper advocates three claims: First, under conditions of externalities and asymmetric dis-tribution of information the efficient functioning of markets depends on non-market institutions. Second, social limitations of the expansion of markets reflect a value- realm in which society constitutes itself. These values, though they change, are nor-matively immune against efficiency consideration. Third, the rational-actor model of economies is (...) insufficient for the understanding of the non-rational preconditions of markets and the embeddedness of markets in social values. (shrink)
As an unnamed friend pieces together—literally, from thousands of slips of papers and one troubling manuscript—the puzzle of Rotheimer's breakdown, what emerges is the story of a genius ceaselessly compelled to correct and refine his ...
Twenty Years After Communism is concerned with the explosion of a politics of memory triggered by the fall of state socialism in Eastern Europe, and it takes a comparative look at the ways that communism and its demise have been commemorated by major political actors across the region.
El texto trata del acceso fenomenológico a la muerte. El punto de partida de la reflexión está constituido por la descripción de la muerte que hace Bernhard Welte como un momento en el cual el ser humano alcanza su totalidad. Así, cuando se considera a una persona fallecida, experimentamos una transfiguración en su imagen, de tal modo que el momento de la muerte puede ser calificado como un instante numinoso y sacro. Si se compara esta descripción con el análisis (...) que Martin Heidegger ofrece en Ser y tiempo, constatamos diferentes accesos. Heidegger intenta mostrar que la muerte no puede ser definida por la vía del trato con la muerte de otra persona, sino solo describiendo la relación individual con la propia muerte. Finalmente, el texto discute el concepto que Eugen Fink ofrece de la muerte, el cual tiene dos aspectos: la dimensión solitaria (la propia muerte) y su dimensión social (la muerte de los otros). Ambas dimensiones se complementan. The paper deals with the phenomenological approach to death. The starting point of the reflection is Bernhard Welte’s description of death as a moment in which a human being achieves his wholeness. Thus, when regarding a dead person, we experience a transfiguration in his/her image in such a way that the moment of death can be spoken about as a numinous and sacred instant. Comparing this description with Martin Heidegger’s analysis in Being and Time, we see a different approach. Heidegger attempts to show that death cannot be defined by dealing with the death of another person, but only by describing the individual’s relationship to his/her own death. Finally the text discusses Eugen Fink’s notion of death, which has two aspects: the solitary dimension (one’s own death) and its social dimension (the death of others). Both dimensions are complementary. (shrink)
Este artículo se centra en la noción de "comprension" de Bernhard Welte. Examinamos algunas de las lecciones de Welte sobre esta cuestión que aparecieron después en su libro Heilverständnis, publicado en 1966. En esta perspectiva, estudiamos la comprensión de la salvación, así como las diferencias respecto de esta noción por él propuestas, diferencias que surgen a partir de la experiencia concreta. Finalmente examinamos la comprensión que es dada por la muerte y proponemos que esto puede ofrecer una visión general (...) sobre la cercanía de lo sagrado. (shrink)
Guilt and forgiveness, with their attendant philosophical and religious ramifications, permeate writing on the Holocaust and can also be related to South Africa's recent history and present situation. Two controversial and provocative books (both possibly autobiographical) which tackle the question of guilt and forgiveness head on are Simon Wiesenthal's The Sunflower and Bernhard Schlink's The Reader, both of which have led to much debate. The central event in both texts is the slaughter of innocents, burned to death in a (...) building during World War II, while the perpetrators (an SS officer who tells his story in The Sun flower and a concentration camp warder who refuses to tell hers in The Reader) either kill those trying to escape or totally ignore the screams of the victims. The reader has to decide whether it is plausible that years later these murderers feel genuine guilt and, if so, whether they should be forgiven – and by whom. The Reader can be seen as the obverse of The Sun flower. The two should be read in conjunction for an intriguing view of the human psyche, the dichotomy in the soul of a person preceding and succeeding his/her horrific deeds, and the questions arising of whether death can be faced by the wicked with a clear conscience, whether the fear of meeting one's Maker engenders belated remorse, whether one changes if found out, and whether ignorance of mind betokens evil of soul which can be overcome with learning and insight. S. Afr. J. Philos. Vol.20(4) 2001: 73- 84. (shrink)
Guilt and forgiveness, with their attendant philosophical and religious ramifications, permeate writing on the Holocaust and can also be related to South Africa\'s recent history and present situation. Two controversial and provocative books which tackle the question of guilt and forgiveness head on are Simon Wiesenthal\'s The Sunflower and Bernhard Schlink\'s The Reader, both of which have led to much debate. The central event in both texts is the slaughter of innocents, burned to death in a building during World (...) War II, while the perpetrators either kill those trying to escape or totally ignore the screams of the victims. The reader has to decide whether it is plausible that years later these murderers feel genuine guilt and, if so, whether they should be forgiven – and by whom. The Reader can be seen as the obverse of The Sun flower. The two should be read in conjunction for an intriguing view of the human psyche, the dichotomy in the soul of a person preceding and succeeding his/her horrific deeds, and the questions arising of whether death can be faced by the wicked with a clear conscience, whether the fear of meeting one\'s Maker engenders belated remorse, whether one changes if found out, and whether ignorance of mind betokens evil of soul which can be overcome with learning and insight. (shrink)
Gargani's work aims at discovering the link connecting the multifarious aspects of contemporary Austrian culture in the connection between ethics and aesthetics. In Gargani's view this connection is responsible for the strong criticism of contemporary society, based on mechanization and automatic processes, as it is instanced by such authors as F. Kafka, L. Wittgenstein, R. Musil, I. Bachmann and above all Thomas Bernhard. According to Gargani's essay, starting from the rejection of the notion of a correspondence relation of language (...) to the world, T. Bernhard puts forward a sort of literature conceived no more as being a description of reality, but rather as being a critical analysis and a deconstruction of human existence. In substance, the core of Bernhard's literary work consists in revealing the truth content of the lie (der Wahrheitsgehalt der Lüge). If human existence on the whole is doomed to failure on the one hand, Bernhard acknowledges literature itself as the only possibility of safety for man on the other hand. On clarifying the peculiar structure of Bernhard's writing, Gargani shows how the indirect narration of events and thoughts carried out by Bernhard aims at an indirect truth, which is the only available one and which is preciselythe mediated truth of literature. (shrink)
Egoism and altruism are unequal contenders in the explanation of human behaviour. While egoism tends to be viewed as natural and unproblematic, altruism has always been treated with suspicion, and it has often been argued that apparent cases of altruistic behaviour might really just be some special form of egoism. The reason for this is that egoism fits into our usual theoretical views of human behaviour in a way that altruism does not. This is true on the biological level, where (...) an evolutionary account seems to favour egoism, as well as on the psychological level, where an account of self-interested motivation is deeply rooted in folk psychology and in the economic model of human behaviour. While altruism has started to receive increasing support in both biological and psychological debates over the last decades, this paper focuses on yet another level, where egoism is still widely taken for granted. Philosophical egoism is the view that, on the ultimate level of intentional explanation, all action is motivated by one of the agent's desires. This view is supported by the standard notion that for a complex of behaviour to be an action, there has to be a way to account for that behaviour in terms of the agent's own pro-attitudes. Psychological altruists, it is claimed, are philosophical egoists in that they are motivated by desires that have the other's benefit rather than the agent's own for its ultimate object. This paper casts doubt on this thesis, arguing that empathetic agents act on other people's pro-attitudes in very much the same way as agents usually act on their own, and that while other-directed desires do play an important role in many cases of psychologically altruistic action, they are not necessary in explanations of some of the most basic and most pervasive types of human altruistic behaviour. The paper concludes with the claim that philosophical egoism is really a cultural value rather than a conceptual feature of action. (shrink)
Der Dominikaner-Theologe Bernhard von Trilia , Zeitgenosse Heinrichs von Gent, ein Jahr vor diesem gestorben, wird zur frühen französischen Thomistenschule gerechnet. Seine Amtszeit als magister actu regens auf dem Pariser Lehrstuhl für die Dominikaner französischer Provenienz umfaßt die Jahre 1283-1286. Bernhard stand im Rufe, den Lehren des Aquinaten getreulich zu folgen. In der Dominikaner-Chronik des Bernhard Gui heißt es, daß er «vom Nektar der Lehre von Bruder Thomas durchtränkt war». Zwei Traktate nutzbringender Fragen habe er geschrieben, der (...) eine, vorzüglich und vollendet, handele von der Erkenntnis der mit dem Leibe verbundenen Seele, der andere behandele die Erkenntnis der vom Leibe getrennten Seele, sei aber des Todes wegen nicht gleich vollendet vom Verfasser hinterlassen worden. (shrink)
Este artículo examina la correspondencia entre Martin Heidegger y el teólogocristiano Bernhard Welte, correspondencia publicada en 2003. Se pregunta por larelación intelectual que Heidegger tuvo con Welte. Distinguimos tres niveles: elinterés de Heidegger por la Teología; la lectura, por parte de Heidegger, de algunosescritos de Welte; y un caso de discusión concerniente a la interpretación deautores de la tradición filosófica y su lugar en la historia de la filosofía.This article analizes the correspondence between Martin Heidegger and theChristian theologian (...) class='Hi'>Bernhard Welte, published in 2003. We inquire into theintelectual relation Heidegger had with Welte. Three levels are distinguished:Heidegger’s interest in Theology; Heidegger’s reading of some Welte’s texts; andone case of discussion regarding the interpretation of philosophers and theirplace in the history of philosophy. (shrink)