There is limited research into the situations of people living with precarious status in Canada, which includes people whose legal status is in-process, undocumented, or unauthorized, many of whom entered the country with a temporary resident visa, through family sponsorship arrangements, or as refugee claimants. In 2005, a community-university alliance sought to carry out a research study of the lived experiences of people living with precarious status. In this paper, we describe our negotiation of the ethics review process at a (...) Canadian university and the ethical, legal, and methodological issues that emerged. Although being able to guarantee our participants complete confidentiality was essential to the viability of the project due to their vulnerability to detention or deportation, we discovered that the Canadian legal framework limited us to being able to offer them confidentiality “to the fullest extent possible by law.” One way to overcome this conflict would have been through the construction of a Wigmore defence, in which we would document that the research would not be possible without assurance of our participants’ confidentiality. Such a defence would be tested in court if our research records were subpoenaed by immigration enforcement authorities. Rather than take the risk that this defence would not be successful and would result in our participants being deported, we altered the research methods from using multiple interviews to establish trust (which would have required that we store participants’ contact information) to meeting participants only once to discuss their experiences of living with precarious legal status in Canada. Our encounter with the ‘myth of confidentiality’ raised questions about the policing of knowledge production. (shrink)
. In logic, diagrams have been used for a very long time. Nevertheless philosophers and logicians are not quite clear about the logical status of diagrammatical representations. Fact is that there is a close relationship between particular visual (resp. graphical) properties of diagrams and logical properties. This is why the representation of the four categorical propositions by different diagram systems allows a deeper insight into the relations of the logical square. In this paper I want to give some examples.
We present a modal logic for the class of subset spaces based on discretely descending chains of sets. Apart from the usual modalities for knowledge and effort the standard temporal connectives are included in the underlying language. Our main objective is to prove completeness of a corresponding axiomatization. Furthermore, we show that the system satisfies a certain finite model property and is decidable thus.
Solidarity is a complex theoretical and historical investigation of one of the most dynamic social movements in post-World War II Europe. For some time now, Touraine has attempted to develop a comprehensive theory of social movements. In Solidarity, he and fellow researchers François Dubet, Michel Wieviorka, and Jan Strezelecki, apply the theories of action, movement and sociological intervention elaborated in The Voice and The Eye to the situation in Poland 1980-1. Solidarity is one of many attempts by Touraine to combine (...) a comprehensive theory of social change and action with the history of a contemporary social movement. Here Touraine et al. attempt to explain “the nature, internal workings and the evolution of Solidarity.”. (shrink)
Biodiversity sciences witness a double dynamic. Whereas the need for interdisciplinary approaches is increasingly appreciated, most disciplinary studies are still confined to developing operational, discipline-specific indices. We show that a reassessment of the general notion of biodiversity is needed to clarify this situation. We advocate a new approach, according to which the main usefulness of this notion is not to capture quantitatively biological objects or processes, but to organize meaningful and coherent interdisciplinary interactions by constructively criticizing disciplinary studies. We apply (...) this approach to ecological-economic models, in the hope of launching more fruitful critical dialogs between economists and biologists. (shrink)
What were the causes and consequences of the revolutions of 1989 in Eastern and Central Europe? The causes lie in the exhaustion of the model of Soviet-type economic organization, the failure of reform efforts in the USSR, and the persistence of opposition to Soviet-type rule in Central Europe. The ramifications of the events are examined through the prism of three questions: how do they change our evaluation of the past?; what was the significance of 1989 as a moment in time?; (...) and how have they shaped the present? (shrink)
As an unnamed friend pieces together—literally, from thousands of slips of papers and one troubling manuscript—the puzzle of Rotheimer's breakdown, what emerges is the story of a genius ceaselessly compelled to correct and refine his ...
Twenty Years After Communism is concerned with the explosion of a politics of memory triggered by the fall of state socialism in Eastern Europe, and it takes a comparative look at the ways that communism and its demise have been commemorated by major political actors across the region.
The paper discusses voice as a medium of human communication through the indirect approach of listening. After designating the multifaceted nature of the voice, the author dedicates attention to Bernhard Waldenfels’ theory of the voice as developed on the basis of the phenomenology of the alien. According to Waldenfels, the polyphony of the vocal, in which the own and the alien re-sound in mutual permeation, calls for the possibility of responsive listening. In the concluding portion of the article, the (...) author takes into consideration one of the poems from the cycle “Stimmen” that Paul Celan published in the collection Sprachgitter. With regard also to Celan’s auto-poetological writings, the ensuing interpretation attempts to briefly sketch the contours of the anti-politics of voice. (shrink)
Egoism and altruism are unequal contenders in the explanation of human behaviour. While egoism tends to be viewed as natural and unproblematic, altruism has always been treated with suspicion, and it has often been argued that apparent cases of altruistic behaviour might really just be some special form of egoism. The reason for this is that egoism fits into our usual theoretical views of human behaviour in a way that altruism does not. This is true on the biological level, where (...) an evolutionary account seems to favour egoism, as well as on the psychological level, where an account of self-interested motivation is deeply rooted in folk psychology and in the economic model of human behaviour. While altruism has started to receive increasing support in both biological and psychological debates over the last decades, this paper focuses on yet another level, where egoism is still widely taken for granted. Philosophical egoism is the view that, on the ultimate level of intentional explanation, all action is motivated by one of the agent's desires. This view is supported by the standard notion that for a complex of behaviour to be an action, there has to be a way to account for that behaviour in terms of the agent's own pro-attitudes. Psychological altruists, it is claimed, are philosophical egoists in that they are motivated by desires that have the other's benefit rather than the agent's own for its ultimate object. This paper casts doubt on this thesis, arguing that empathetic agents act on other people's pro-attitudes in very much the same way as agents usually act on their own, and that while other-directed desires do play an important role in many cases of psychologically altruistic action, they are not necessary in explanations of some of the most basic and most pervasive types of human altruistic behaviour. The paper concludes with the claim that philosophical egoism is really a cultural value rather than a conceptual feature of action. (shrink)
The interest of this paper is to discover the precondition of experience. It is suggested that Walter Benjamin's meditations on Proust, as well as on the origin of the novel, lead to the verge of that discovery. A la recherche du temps perdu is less a monumental work of fiction in this view than the limit of experience – the intransmissible fact of the transience of the present – made manifest in writing. While in Proust transience gives way to its (...) recuperation as image, Thomas Bernhard's post-Proustian masterpiece Extinction mobilizes the present's destructive potential with compelling effect, and turns it upon the work of historical experience itself. (shrink)
The author analyzes the politics of responsive interculturalism in Bernhard Waldenfels’ thought, starting from the assumption that after Husserl’s phenomenology only two fundamental concepts – body and the Other – should be considered. In contemporary German “post-phenomenology” the first concept was systematically articulated by Hermann Schmitz, while the latter theme has been advanced in Waldenfels’ works as the phenomenology of the alien, up until the end of Western metaphysics. In the two parts of the discussion, the author draws on (...) his fundamental hypothesis about aporias and paradoxes of interculturalism, since responsiveness and xenology cannot reach the positive definition of the concept of culture in the era of global entropy. The analysis, therefore, deals with the questions: what is the responsiveness of man in relation to the Other, including the different ways of his presence in the world; and whether the Other as alien and uncanny calls into question the basic assumption of phenomenology as such – the intentionality of consciousness? (shrink)
Este artículo se centra en la noción de "comprension" de Bernhard Welte. Examinamos algunas de las lecciones de Welte sobre esta cuestión que aparecieron después en su libro Heilverständnis, publicado en 1966. En esta perspectiva, estudiamos la comprensión de la salvación, así como las diferencias respecto de esta noción por él propuestas, diferencias que surgen a partir de la experiencia concreta. Finalmente examinamos la comprensión que es dada por la muerte y proponemos que esto puede ofrecer una visión general (...) sobre la cercanía de lo sagrado. (shrink)
Guilt and forgiveness, with their attendant philosophical and religious ramifications, permeate writing on the Holocaust and can also be related to South Africa\'s recent history and present situation. Two controversial and provocative books which tackle the question of guilt and forgiveness head on are Simon Wiesenthal\'s The Sunflower and Bernhard Schlink\'s The Reader, both of which have led to much debate. The central event in both texts is the slaughter of innocents, burned to death in a building during World (...) War II, while the perpetrators either kill those trying to escape or totally ignore the screams of the victims. The reader has to decide whether it is plausible that years later these murderers feel genuine guilt and, if so, whether they should be forgiven – and by whom. The Reader can be seen as the obverse of The Sun flower. The two should be read in conjunction for an intriguing view of the human psyche, the dichotomy in the soul of a person preceding and succeeding his/her horrific deeds, and the questions arising of whether death can be faced by the wicked with a clear conscience, whether the fear of meeting one\'s Maker engenders belated remorse, whether one changes if found out, and whether ignorance of mind betokens evil of soul which can be overcome with learning and insight. (shrink)
El artículo analiza desde una perspectiva fenomenológica preconfesional las nociones de instante, salvación y comunidad en el pensamiento de Bernhard Welte. Primero explicita la relación intrínseca existente entre instante como consumación de la temporalidad existencial y salvación como plenitud significativa de la existencia, por un lado, y el surgimiento y configuración de una comunidad auténtica, por otro. En segundo lugar, distingue la comunidad-asociación como forma histórica defectible de comunidad de la comunidad-hogar como la forma auténtica de comunidad, fundada en (...) la salvación vislumbrada en el instante. Finalmente, describe los rasgos esenciales de la comunidad-hogar y su significación religiosa pre-confesional. (shrink)
Resumen: En este trabajo me propongo exponer las relaciones entre racionalidad responsiva y extrañeza en la obra de Bernhard Waldenfels. Expondré esta relación a partir de seis tesis con el propósito de que ellas se complementen mutuamente y logren mostrar, de la manera más apropiada posible, la relación entre responsividad y la experiencia de lo extraño. Estos puntos son: 1. Una breve aclaración terminológica. Diferencia entre lo otro y lo extraño. 2. La relación entre discurso escrito y hablado. 3. (...) La concepción de orden, vinculada con mecanismos de inclusión y exclusión. 4. La relación entre pathos y respuesta, como los puntos focales de la racionalidad responsiva. 5. La relación entre el decir y lo dicho y la temporalidad que los vincula y separa. Y por último, 6. Me ocuparé del problema de cómo hablar sobre lo extraño y el problema del lenguaje indirecto.: The purpose of this paper is to show the relations between responsiveness and strangeness in the work of Bernhard Waldenfels. I will expose this relationship in six theses, so that they complement each other and show, in the most appropriate possible way, the relationship between responsiveness and the experience of the strange. These points are, 1. A brief clarification of terminology. Difference between the other and the strange. 2. The relationship between written and spoken speech. 3. The conception of order, linked to mechanisms of inclusion and exclusion. 4. The relationship between pathos and response, as focal points of responsive rationality. 5. The relationship between saying and what is said and the temporality that links and separates them. And finally, 6. I will deal with the problem of how to talk about the strange and the problem of indirect language. (shrink)
This comparative study of Max Scheler’s and Bernhard Waldenfels’ conceptions shows how they differ in their philosophical assumptions. Whereas Scheler’s strove to define the essence of suffering, which he saw in the objective situation of being a victim, Waldenfels emphasized the intentional aspect of suffering and its connections to activity. In this context Waldenfels introduced the distinction between suffering as a) that what happens to us, and b) that what we subjectively feel as “brutally” imposed upon us, ignoring all (...) eidetic questions related to suffering as well as the metaphysical threads which Scheler addressed. The author runs a detailed and critical analysis of Scheler’s position, to which he voices multiple objections, and concludes that it coincides conceptually with the axiological conception of tragedy he propounded in his work On the Tragic. In the section on Waldenfels the author reviews the polemical arguments against his views voiced by several contemporary German philosophers. (shrink)
El texto trata del acceso fenomenológico a la muerte. El punto de partida de la reflexión está constituido por la descripción de la muerte que hace Bernhard Welte como un momento en el cual el ser humano alcanza su totalidad. Así, cuando se considera a una persona fallecida, experimentamos una transfiguración en su imagen, de tal modo que el momento de la muerte puede ser calificado como un instante numinoso y sacro. Si se compara esta descripción con el análisis (...) que Martin Heidegger ofrece en Ser y tiempo, constatamos diferentes accesos. Heidegger intenta mostrar que la muerte no puede ser definida por la vía del trato con la muerte de otra persona, sino solo describiendo la relación individual con la propia muerte. Finalmente, el texto discute el concepto que Eugen Fink ofrece de la muerte, el cual tiene dos aspectos: la dimensión solitaria (la propia muerte) y su dimensión social (la muerte de los otros). Ambas dimensiones se complementan. The paper deals with the phenomenological approach to death. The starting point of the reflection is Bernhard Welte’s description of death as a moment in which a human being achieves his wholeness. Thus, when regarding a dead person, we experience a transfiguration in his/her image in such a way that the moment of death can be spoken about as a numinous and sacred instant. Comparing this description with Martin Heidegger’s analysis in Being and Time, we see a different approach. Heidegger attempts to show that death cannot be defined by dealing with the death of another person, but only by describing the individual’s relationship to his/her own death. Finally the text discusses Eugen Fink’s notion of death, which has two aspects: the solitary dimension (one’s own death) and its social dimension (the death of others). Both dimensions are complementary. (shrink)
Gargani's work aims at discovering the link connecting the multifarious aspects of contemporary Austrian culture in the connection between ethics and aesthetics. In Gargani's view this connection is responsible for the strong criticism of contemporary society, based on mechanization and automatic processes, as it is instanced by such authors as F. Kafka, L. Wittgenstein, R. Musil, I. Bachmann and above all Thomas Bernhard. According to Gargani's essay, starting from the rejection of the notion of a correspondence relation of language (...) to the world, T. Bernhard puts forward a sort of literature conceived no more as being a description of reality, but rather as being a critical analysis and a deconstruction of human existence. In substance, the core of Bernhard's literary work consists in revealing the truth content of the lie (der Wahrheitsgehalt der Lüge). If human existence on the whole is doomed to failure on the one hand, Bernhard acknowledges literature itself as the only possibility of safety for man on the other hand. On clarifying the peculiar structure of Bernhard's writing, Gargani shows how the indirect narration of events and thoughts carried out by Bernhard aims at an indirect truth, which is the only available one and which is preciselythe mediated truth of literature. (shrink)
Este artículo examina la correspondencia entre Martin Heidegger y el teólogocristiano Bernhard Welte, correspondencia publicada en 2003. Se pregunta por larelación intelectual que Heidegger tuvo con Welte. Distinguimos tres niveles: elinterés de Heidegger por la Teología; la lectura, por parte de Heidegger, de algunosescritos de Welte; y un caso de discusión concerniente a la interpretación deautores de la tradición filosófica y su lugar en la historia de la filosofía.This article analizes the correspondence between Martin Heidegger and theChristian theologian (...) class='Hi'>Bernhard Welte, published in 2003. We inquire into theintelectual relation Heidegger had with Welte. Three levels are distinguished:Heidegger’s interest in Theology; Heidegger’s reading of some Welte’s texts; andone case of discussion regarding the interpretation of philosophers and theirplace in the history of philosophy. (shrink)
This Paper addresses the problem of statelessness, a problem which remains despite treaties and judicial decisions elaborating distinct rules to protect stateless persons. I explain why this has been so. Drawing from the work of Bernhard Waldenfels, I argue that international and domestic courts have presupposed a territorial sense of space, a territorial knowledge and the founding date for the territorial structure of a state-centric international legal community. I then focus upon the idea that an impartial third party can (...) resolve a dispute involving stateless persons by deferring to a universal rule. I call the third party the ‘rule of law third’. Such a rule, I argue, presupposes a presupposed knowledge over stateless persons. The Third takes for granted the territorial boundary of a legal structure, a boundary which excludes the recognition of outsiders to the boundary. (shrink)
Cet article étudie l’édition des œuvres de mathématiciens au xixe siècle Je me concentre sur une étude de cas : l’édition des œuvres du mathématicien allemand B. Riemann, par R. Dedekind et H. Weber, publiées pour la première fois en 1876, puis republiées en 1892 et en 1902, par Teubner, et partiellement traduites en français en 1898 chez Gauthier-Villars. Pour l’édition des textes de mathématiciens au xixe siècle, les éditeurs ne sont plus historiens ou philologues, mais eux-mêmes des mathématiciens de (...) premier plan. Le mathématicien éditeur devient celui qui à la fois lit et fabrique le texte à publier. Le cas des œuvres de Riemann est particulièrement intéressant, car une large majorité du travail éditorial s’est effectué par lettres. Ces lettres, ainsi que les Nachlässe de Riemann et Dedekind fournissent une documentation exceptionnellement riche. Il est possible d’obtenir une vision détaillée du processus d’édition. Après avoir replacé l’édition des œuvres de Riemann et ses rééditions dans leur contexte, j’étudierai certains choix faits par les éditeurs dans la sélection des textes à publier. Enfin, je considérerai la question des modifications et adaptations des textes de Riemann par les éditeurs. (shrink)