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Bert Heinrichs
Universität Bonn
  1.  53
    Working with Research Integrity—Guidance for Research Performing Organisations: The Bonn PRINTEGER Statement.Mira Zöller, Hub Zwart, Knut Vie, Krista Varantola, Marta Tazewell, Margit Sutrop, Thomas Saretzki, Sarah Rijcke, Barend Meulen, Inge Lerouge, Matthias Kaiser, Jacques Janssen, Ingrid Jacobsen, Serge Horbach, Bert Heinrichs, Gloria Fuster, Carlo Casonato, Henriette Bout, Giles Birchley, Sharon Bailey, Frank Anthun & Ellen-Marie Forsberg - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (4):1023-1034.
    This document presents the Bonn PRINTEGER Consensus Statement: Working with Research Integrity—Guidance for research performing organisations. The aim of the statement is to complement existing instruments by focusing specifically on institutional responsibilities for strengthening integrity. It takes into account the daily challenges and organisational contexts of most researchers. The statement intends to make research integrity challenges recognisable from the work-floor perspective, providing concrete advice on organisational measures to strengthen integrity. The statement, which was concluded February 7th 2018, provides guidance on (...)
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  2.  91
    Working with Research Integrity—Guidance for Research Performing Organisations: The Bonn PRINTEGER Statement.Ellen-Marie Forsberg, Frank O. Anthun, Sharon Bailey, Giles Birchley, Henriette Bout, Carlo Casonato, Gloria González Fuster, Bert Heinrichs, Serge Horbach, Ingrid Skjæggestad Jacobsen, Jacques Janssen, Matthias Kaiser, Inge Lerouge, Barend van der Meulen, Sarah de Rijcke, Thomas Saretzki, Margit Sutrop, Marta Tazewell, Krista Varantola, Knut Jørgen Vie, Hub Zwart & Mira Zöller - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (4):1023-1034.
    This document presents the Bonn PRINTEGER Consensus Statement: Working with Research Integrity—Guidance for research performing organisations. The aim of the statement is to complement existing instruments by focusing specifically on institutional responsibilities for strengthening integrity. It takes into account the daily challenges and organisational contexts of most researchers. The statement intends to make research integrity challenges recognisable from the work-floor perspective, providing concrete advice on organisational measures to strengthen integrity. The statement, which was concluded February 7th 2018, provides guidance on (...)
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  3.  34
    Discrimination in the age of artificial intelligence.Bert Heinrichs - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):143-154.
    In this paper, I examine whether the use of artificial intelligence (AI) and automated decision-making (ADM) aggravates issues of discrimination as has been argued by several authors. For this purpose, I first take up the lively philosophical debate on discrimination and present my own definition of the concept. Equipped with this account, I subsequently review some of the recent literature on the use AI/ADM and discrimination. I explain how my account of discrimination helps to understand that the general claim in (...)
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  4.  17
    Myth or Magic? Towards a Revised Theory of Informed Consent in Medical Research.Bert Heinrichs - 2019 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 44 (1):33-49.
    Although the principle of informed consent is well established and its importance widely acknowledged, it has met with criticism for decades. Doubts have been raised for a number of different reasons. In particular, empirical data show that people regularly fail to reproduce the information provided to them. Many critics agree, therefore, that the received concept of informed consent is no more than a myth. Strategies to overcome this problem often rest on a flawed concept of informed consent. In this paper, (...)
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  5.  21
    Informierte Einwilligung in der Demenzforschung. Eine qualitative Studie zum Informationsverständnis von Probanden.Holger Schütz, Bert Heinrichs, Michael Fuchs & Andreas Bauer - 2016 - Ethik in der Medizin 28 (2):91-106.
    Background: Informed consent is a legal as well as ethical prerequisite in clinical research. For dementia research, informed consent can be a problem if subjects with dementia, whose capacity for understanding and thus also decision making might be limited, are to be exam- ined. This might result in exclusion of dementia patients from research, as capacity for understanding and decision making are often equated with the ability for rational decision making. However, this valuation has been criticized at times for attaching (...)
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  6. Advance research directives: avoiding double standards.Bert Heinrichs - 2021 - BMC Medical Ethics 22 (1):1-8.
    BackgroundAdvance research directives have been suggested as a means by which to facilitate research with incapacitated subjects, in particular in the context of dementia research. However, established disclosure requirements for study participation raise an ethical problem for the application of ARDs: While regular consent procedures call for detailed information on a specific study, ARDs can typically only include generic information. The introduction of ARDs could thus establish a double standard in the sense that within the context of ARDs, type disclosure (...)
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  7.  6
    Aliens in the Space of Reasons? On the Interaction Between Humans and Artificial Intelligent Agents.Bert Heinrichs & Sebastian Knell - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (4):1569-1580.
    In this paper, we use some elements of the philosophical theories of Wilfrid Sellars and Robert Brandom for examining the interactions between humans and machines. In particular, we adopt the concept of the space of reasons for analyzing the status of artificial intelligent agents. One could argue that AIAs, like the widely used recommendation systems, have already entered the space of reasons, since they seem to make knowledge claims that we use as premises for further claims. This, in turn, can (...)
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  8.  62
    Delimiting the concept of research: An ethical perspective.Lisa Bortolotti & Bert Heinrichs - 2007 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 28 (3):157-179.
    It is important to be able to offer an account of which activities count as scientific research, given our current interest in promoting research as a means to benefit humankind and in ethically regulating it. We attempt to offer such an account, arguing that we need to consider both the procedural and functional dimensions of an activity before we can establish whether it is a genuine instance of scientific research. By placing research in a broader schema of activities, the similarities (...)
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  9.  31
    What Is Discrimination and When Is It Morally Wrong?Bert Heinrichs - 2007 - Jahrbuch für Wissenschaft Und Ethik 12 (1):97-114.
    In this paper I propose to examine the concept of discrimination from an ethical viewpoint. In a preliminary part, I will point out which aspects of the subject matter I will focus on and which I will leave aside (II). On the basis of the Aristotelian principle “treat like cases alike”, I will continue with a very formal definition, according to which discrimination can be understood as acting in a way that implies that like cases are not treated alike. This (...)
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  10. Der „kontrollierte individuelle Heilversuch“ als neues Instrument bei der klinischen Erstanwendung risikoreicher Therapieformen – Ethische Analyse einer somatischen Gentherapie für das Wiskott-Aldrich-Syndrom.Thomas Heinemann, Bert Heinrichs, Christoph Klein, Michael Fuchs & Dietmar Hübner - 2006 - Jahrbuch für Wissenschaft Und Ethik 11 (1):153-199.
    Das Wiskott-Aldrich-Syndrom (WAS), ein genetisch bedingter Immundefekt mit klinischer Manifestation im Kleinkindalter, wird voraussichtlich in näherer Zukunft erstmals versuchsweise durch eine somatische Gentherapie behandelt werden. Im vor- liegenden Beitrag werden die wichtigsten medizinisch-naturwissenschaftlichen Fakten dieses Krankheitsbildes sowie die bisherigen Erfahrungen mit somatischen Gentherapien bei anderen Immunmangelsyndromen ausführlich dargestellt. Sodann erfolgt eine ethische Analyse eines möglichen gentherapeutischen Eingriffs bei WAS-Patienten, bei der die spezifischen Aspekte des Wiskott-Aldrich-Syndroms – insbesondere die fast ausschließliche Betroffenheit von Kindern sowie die unterschiedlich aussichtsreiche Alter- nativoption einer (...)
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  11.  12
    Forschungsethik als integrativer Bestandteil der medizinisch-naturwissenschaftlichen Ausbildung. Zur interdisziplinären Entwicklung eines „Curriculums Forschungsethik“.Bert Heinrichs - 2005 - Ethik in der Medizin 17 (1):39-43.
  12.  17
    Lebensform – zweite Natur – Person.Bert Heinrichs - 2015 - Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 63 (2).
    For a couple of years, “Aristotelian Naturalism” has been the subject of intensive debates. Among the most prominent proponents of this type of ethical theory are Philippa Foot and John McDowell. At first sight, these approaches are quite attractive for they seem to combine a number of advantages. The central thesis of the present paper is, however, that they do not succeed in developing a convincing ethical theory. To substantiate this claim, Foot’s approach will be presented in a first step. (...)
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  13.  4
    Single‐Principle Versus Multi‐Principles Approaches in Bioethics.Bert Heinrichs - 2010 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 27 (1):72-83.
    abstractThe so‐called Principlism of Beauchamp and Childress is one of the most prominent approaches in bioethics. It has, nevertheless, given rise to an ongoing debate on methodology in bioethics. At the bottom of this debate lies the question whether a multi‐principles approach or a single‐principle approach is more convincing in bioethics. In this paper I shall propose a ‘third way’ of bioethical reasoning that is committed neither to a multi‐principles nor to a single‐principle approach. In contrast, I will take up (...)
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  14. Kants angewandte Ethik. Zur Architektonik der Moralphilosophie Kants und ihrer Bedeutung für die zeitgenössische angewandte Ethik.Bert Heinrichs - 2012 - Philosophisches Jahrbuch 119 (2):260-282.
    The fission of ethics into two systematically distinct parts has its roots in the architectonics that Kant has developed in his moral philosophy. Despite noticeable differences between “Kant’s applied moral philosophy” (M. Gregor) and contemporary applied ethics this architectonics provides important insights which can contribute to a systematically rigorous and historically mindful self-assurance of contemporary applied ethics.
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  15.  76
    A New Challenge for Research Ethics: Incidental Findings in Neuroimaging.Bert Heinrichs - 2011 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 8 (1):59-65.
    It has become evident that neuroimaging raises new normative questions that cannot be addressed adequately within the (in this regard unspecific) frameworks of existing research ethics. Questions that are especially troubling are, among others, provoked by incidental findings. Two questions are particularly intricate in view of incidental findings: (1) How can the research subject’s right not to know be guaranteed? And (2) should a diagnostic check of scans by a neuroradiologist become an obligatory part of neuroscientific research protocols? The present (...)
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  16.  14
    What should we want to know about our future? A Kantian view on predictive genetic testing.Bert Heinrichs - 2005 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 8 (1):29-37.
    Recent advances in genomic research have led to the development of new diagnostic tools, including tests which make it possible to predict the future occurrence of monogenetic diseases (e.g. Chorea Huntington) or to determine increased susceptibilities to the future development of more complex diseases (e.g. breast cancer). The use of such tests raises a number of ethical, legal and social issues which are usually discussed in terms of rights. However, in the context of predictive genetic tests a key question arises (...)
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  17. Das Ende des Menschen. [REVIEW]Bert Heinrichs - 2003 - Allgemeine Zeitschrift für Philosophie 28 (1):99-105.
     
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  18. Die Entstehung der angewandten Ethik aus dem Geist des amerikanischen Pragmatismus.Bert Heinrichs - 2018 - Philosophisches Jahrbuch 125 (2):199-219.
    It is generally assumed that applied ethics originated in the United States in the 1960s as a reaction to new social challenges (particularly in the field of medicine), to some extent superseding the metaethical analyses of moral language dominant at that time. This widespread portrayal of applied ethics as an unforeseen reaction of philosophy to new social challenges is inaccurate. In this article, I seek to show that applied ethics should be regarded as a philosophical innovation whose origins can be (...)
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  19. For example. On the methodological status of case studies in applied ethics.Bert Heinrichs - 2008 - Ethik in der Medizin 20 (1):40-52.
    Definition of the problem Case studies, both with a view to didactical and argumentative purposes, are widely used in applied ethics. However, case studies are often used without methodological considerations concerning the premises and limi- tations of these kind of studies as methodologi- cal tools within ethics. Conclusion The present paper critically examines the recourse to – real or fictitious – case studies. Important suggesti- ons will be taken from Kant’s philosophy. Kant himself occasionally uses case studies in his ethical (...)
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  20. Gibt es ein Recht auf medizinische Forschung?Bert Heinrichs - 2005 - Allgemeine Zeitschrift für Philosophie 30 (1):27-46.
    As a negative protective right, freedom of science is – within the limits marked by other fundamental liberty rights – widely accepted. This also applies, pars pro toto, to the field of medical research. It is far less clear, however, whether a positive claim to medical research can be justified as well. Research of this kind could be articu- lated by potential beneficiaries of its applications as a welfare right. If one bases pub- lic obligations on the concept of fostering (...)
     
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  21. Kant's Applied Ethnics On the Architecture of the Moral Philosophy of Kant and its Importance for contemporary applied Ethics.Bert Heinrichs - 2012 - Philosophisches Jahrbuch 119 (2).
    The fission of ethics into two systematically distinct parts has its roots in the architectonics that Kant has developed in his moral philosophy. Despite noticeable differences between “Kant’s applied moral philosophy” (M. Gregor) and contemporary applied ethics this architectonics provides important insights which can contribute to a systematically rigorous and historically mindful self-assurance of con- temporary applied ethics.
     
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  22. Künstliche Intelligenz.Bert Heinrichs, Jan-Hendrik Heinrichs & Markus Rüther - 2022 - De Gruyter.
    Unterschiedlichste Anwendungsformen künstlicher Intelligenz bestimmen schon heute den Alltag vieler Menschen – von Einsatz von KI-Systeme in Finanzgeschäften über die Vergabe von Studienplätzen bis hin zur Steuerung von Pflegerobotern, Autos und Waffensystemen. Diese vielfältigen neuen Möglichkeiten und Visionen wecken einerseits Hoffnungen auf persönlichen und gesellschaftlichen Nutzen und Fortschritt; andererseits rufen sie aber auch Bedenken, Ängste und gelegentlich auch grundsätzliche Ablehnung hervor. Angesichts dieser Ambivalenz sind ethische Analysen gefordert, die ausloten, wie ein verantwortungsvoller Umgang mit KI gestaltet werden sollte. Der Band (...)
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  23. Moralische Intuition und ethische Rechtfertigung: eine Untersuchung zum ethischen Intuitionismus.Bert Heinrichs - 2013 - Münster: Mentis.
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  24. Handbuch Bioethik.Dieter Sturma & Bert Heinrichs (eds.) - 2015 - Stuttgart: Verlag J.B. Metzler.
  25.  31
    Single-principle versus multi-principles approaches in bioethics.Bert Heinrichs - 2010 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 27 (1):72-83.
    The so-called Principlism of Beauchamp and Childress is one of the most prominent approaches in bioethics. It has, nevertheless, given rise to an ongoing debate on methodology in bioethics. At the bottom of this debate lies the question whether a multi-principles approach or a single-principle approach is more convincing in bioethics. In this paper I shall propose a 'third way' of bioethical reasoning that is committed neither to a multi-principles nor to a single-principle approach. In contrast, I will take up (...)
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  26.  1
    AI, Suicide Prevention and the Limits of Beneficence.Bert Heinrichs & Aurélie Halsband - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (4):1-18.
    AbstractIn this paper, we address the question of whether AI should be used for suicide prevention on social media data. We focus on algorithms that can identify persons with suicidal ideation based on their postings on social media platforms and investigate whether private companies like Facebook are justified in using these. To find out if that is the case, we start with providing two examples for AI-based means of suicide prevention in social media. Subsequently, we frame suicide prevention as an (...)
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  27.  14
    Verteidigung oder Verabschiedung des Intuitionismus? [REVIEW]Bert Heinrichs - 2014 - Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 62 (5).
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  28.  11
    Ethische Aspekte des Off-Label-Use.Bert Heinrichs, Christina Pinsdorf & Thea Staab - 2017 - Jahrbuch für Wissenschaft Und Ethik 21 (1):47-68..
    Unter Off-Label-Use versteht man den zulassungsüberschreitenden Einsatz eines Arzneimittels außerhalb der von Zulassungsbehörden genehmigten Anwendungsgebiete. Er ist in der medizinischen Praxis weit verbreitet und fächerübergreifend zu beobachten. Der Beitrag gibt eine Einschätzung der Off-Label-Anwendung aus ethischer Sicht. Dazu wird die Off- Label-Anwendung zunächst von anderen, sachlich verwandten Anwendungsweisen abgegrenzt. Danach wird über die aktuelle Verbreitung des Off-Label- Use informiert. Sodann wird gezeigt, dass sich bekannte Problemlagen aus der Medizinethik bei der Off-Label-Anwendung in spezifischer Weise verschärfen. Schließlich wird diskutiert, wie eine (...)
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  29.  9
    Politik – Recht – Ethik.Bert Heinrichs - 2016 - Jahrbuch für Wissenschaft Und Ethik 20 (1):115-126.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Jahrbuch für Wissenschaft und Ethik Jahrgang: 20 Heft: 1 Seiten: 115-126.
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  30.  9
    Research Involving Minors−A Duty of Solidarity?Joerg Loeschke & Bert Heinrichs - 2015 - Ethics in Biology, Engineering and Medicine 6 (1-2):67-80.
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  31.  14
    Zum Beispiel. Über den methodologischen Stellenwert von Fallbeispielen in der Angewandten Ethik.Bert Heinrichs - 2007 - Ethik in der Medizin 20 (1):40-52.
    Case studies, both with a view to didactical and argumentative purposes, are widely used in applied ethics. However, case studies are often used without methodological considerations concerning the premises and limitations of these kind of studies as methodological tools within ethics. The present paper critically examines the recourse to – real or fictitious – case studies. Important suggestions will be taken from Kant’s philosophy. Kant himself occasionally uses case studies in his ethical writings. Yet, he also discusses the relevance as (...)
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  32.  1
    Realism, Constructivism, and Intuitionism. Outline of an Unorthodox Hybrid Theory.Bert Heinrichs - 2018 - Zeitschrift Für Ethik Und Moralphilosophie 1 (2):263-277.
    In this paper, I will suggest an unorthodox hybrid theory of ethical justification that combines, on an ontological level, a realist approach with constructivist elements. On an epistemological level, the realist part of the theory will be squared with an intuitionist account. Eventually, the suggested hybrid theory will take the form of an intuitionist ethics of persons. I will start with briefly sketching the ontological shape of the relevant concept of person whereby I will extensively draw on Kant and endorse (...)
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  33. Ethical Culture.Bert Heinrichs - 2018 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 35 (4):371-388.
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  34.  1
    Can we read minds by imaging brains?Charles Rathkopf, Jan Hendrik Heinrichs & Bert Heinrichs - 2023 - Philosophical Psychology 36 (2):221-246.
    Will brain imaging technology soon enable neuroscientists to read minds? We cannot answer this question without some understanding of the state of the art in neuroimaging. But neither can we answer this question without some understanding of the concept invoked by the term “mind reading.” This article is an attempt to develop such understanding. Our analysis proceeds in two stages. In the first stage, we provide a categorical explication of mind reading. The categorical explication articulates empirical conditions that must be (...)
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  35.  1
    Learning to Live with Strange Error: Beyond Trustworthiness in Artificial Intelligence Ethics.Charles Rathkopf & Bert Heinrichs - forthcoming - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics:1-13.
    Position papers on artificial intelligence (AI) ethics are often framed as attempts to work out technical and regulatory strategies for attaining what is commonly called trustworthy AI. In such papers, the technical and regulatory strategies are frequently analyzed in detail, but the concept of trustworthy AI is not. As a result, it remains unclear. This paper lays out a variety of possible interpretations of the concept and concludes that none of them is appropriate. The central problem is that, by framing (...)
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