Results for 'Bev Sauer'

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  1.  1
    Bernadette Longo. Spurious Coin: A History of Science, Management, and Technical Writing. Xviii + 204 Pp., Bibl., Index. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2000. $19.95. [REVIEW]Bev Sauer - 2005 - Isis 96 (2):292-293.
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  2.  19
    An Investigation of the Components of Moral Intensity.Bev Marshall & Philip Dewe - 1997 - Journal of Business Ethics 16 (5):521-529.
    While there is considerable interest in the topic of business ethics, much of the research moves towards measuring components with a view to predicting ethical behaviour. To date there has not been a satisfactory definition of business ethics, nor has there been any real attempt to understand the components of a situation that may influence an individual's assessment of that situation as ethical or otherwise. Using Jones's (1991) construct of moral intensity as a basis for investigation, this paper presents some (...)
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  3.  28
    Mr. Sauer Replies.James L. Sauer - 1986 - The Chesterton Review 12 (3):413-416.
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  4.  9
    Sauer, W., Grundlagen des Prozeßrechts.Wilhelm Sauer - 1920 - Kant-Studien 24 (1).
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  5.  17
    The Sheffield School and Discourse Theory: Divergences and Similarities in Legal Idealism/Anti-Positivism.Bev Clucas - 2006 - Ratio Juris 19 (2):230-244.
  6. Ikonische Grenzverläufe, Ed. By Martina Sauer.Martina Sauer (ed.) - 07/2018 - Tuebingen, Germany: IMAGE, Zeitschrift für interdisziplinäre Bildwissenschaft, Themenheft, 28.
    The task of the congress of the German Society for Semiotics in Passau / Germany in September 2017 was to explore and describe "boundaries". A total of 12 sections of the society wrote a call for paper for this purpose. With the present anthology it has to be made evident, how concretely also the boundaries of the own, the other and the foreign can be negotiated via pictures. -/- -------------- Papers: -/- - Martina Sauer: Ikonische Grenzverläufe. Szenarien des Eigenen, (...)
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  7. Debunking Arguments in Ethics.Hanno Sauer - 2018 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this crisply written book, Hanno Sauer offers the first book-length treatment of debunking arguments in ethics, developing an empirically informed and philosophically sophisticated account of genealogical arguments and their significance for the reliability of moral cognition. He breaks new ground by introducing a series of novel distinctions into the current debate, which allows him to develop a framework for assessing the prospects of debunking or vindicating our moral intuitions. He also challenges the justification of some of our moral (...)
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  8. Moral Judgments as Educated Intuitions.Hanno Sauer - 2017 - Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Rationalists about the psychology of moral judgment argue that moral cognition has a rational foundation. Recent challenges to this account, based on findings in the empirical psychology of moral judgment, contend that moral thinking has no rational basis. In this book, Hanno Sauer argues that moral reasoning does play a role in moral judgment—but not, as is commonly supposed, because conscious reasoning produces moral judgments directly. Moral reasoning figures in the acquisition, formation, maintenance, and reflective correction of moral intuitions. (...)
     
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  9.  6
    Politisk bevægelse i Europa og Mellemøsten.André Sonnichsen, Allan Dreyer Hansen & Carsten Jensen - 2015 - Slagmark - Tidsskrift for Idéhistorie 71:213-224.
    Chantal Mouffe har altid sat spørgsmålet om sociale bevægelser i relation til spørgsmålet om demokratisering. Hendes ideer om agonistisk og radikalt demokrati har fået gennemslag i den europæiske samfundsmæssige debat, men i den sammenhæng glemmer man måske, at hun først og fremmest er engageret i en radikalisering af det liberale demokrati. I hendes nuancerede debatstil kan de mange begreber, nogle af hvilke hun selv er ophavet til, godt få læseren til at fokusere på enkelte træer, som for eksempel netop agonistisk (...)
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  10. Educated Intuitions. Automaticity and Rationality in Moral Judgement.Hanno Sauer - 2012 - Philosophical Explorations 15 (3):255-275.
    Moral judgements are based on automatic processes. Moral judgements are based on reason. In this paper, I argue that both of these claims are true, and show how they can be reconciled. Neither the automaticity of moral judgement nor the post hoc nature of conscious moral reasoning pose a threat to rationalist models of moral cognition. The relation moral reasoning bears to our moral judgements is not primarily mediated by episodes of conscious reasoning, but by the acquisition, formation and maintenance (...)
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  11. Psychopaths and Filthy Desks: Are Emotions Necessary and Sufficient for Moral Judgment?Hanno Sauer - 2012 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (1):95-115.
    Philosophical and empirical moral psychologists claim that emotions are both necessary and sufficient for moral judgment. The aim of this paper is to assess the evidence in favor of both claims and to show how a moderate rationalist position about moral judgment can be defended nonetheless. The experimental evidence for both the necessity- and the sufficiency-thesis concerning the connection between emotional reactions and moral judgment is presented. I argue that a rationalist about moral judgment can be happy to accept the (...)
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  12.  76
    The Argument From Agreement: How Universal Values Undermine Moral Realism.Hanno Sauer - 2019 - Ratio 32 (4):339-352.
    The most popular argument against moral realism is the argument from disagreement: if there are mind‐independent moral facts, then we would not expect to find as much moral disagreement as we in fact do; therefore, moral realism is false. In this paper, I develop the flipside of this argument. According to this argument from agreement, we would expect to find lots of moral disagreement if there were mind‐independent moral facts. But we do not, in fact, find much moral disagreement; therefore, (...)
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  13. Moral Thinking, Fast and Slow.Hanno Sauer - 2018 - New York: Routledge.
    In recent research, dual-process theories of cognition have been the primary model for explaining moral judgment and reasoning. These theories understand moral thinking in terms of two separate domains: one deliberate and analytic, the other quick and instinctive. -/- This book presents a new theory of the philosophy and cognitive science of moral judgment. Hanno Sauer develops and defends an account of "triple-process" moral psychology, arguing that moral thinking and reasoning are only insufficiently understood when described in terms of (...)
     
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  14. Faszination - Schrecken. Zur Handlungsrelevanz Ästhetischer Erfahrung Anhand Anselm Kiefers Deutschlandbilder.Martina Sauer - 2018 - Heidelberg, Germany: arthistoricum.
    Special commendation from the Hans-und-Lea-Grundig Prize by the Rosa-Luxemburg-Foundation 2015 - - I - - How do we perceive the world and pictures? The book is based around the hypothesis that we initially perceive the world as well as pictures by feelings and that there is a direct connection between the two. By debating fascination and horror, such as can be triggered by Anselm Kiefer´s Deutschlandbilder, the author discusses their consequences and conclusions for our cultural self-perception. The author develops a (...)
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  15.  14
    Letter to the Editor.Bev Sterk - 1993 - Journal of Business Ethics 12 (6):483 - 484.
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  16.  7
    Big Battles for Small Gains: A Cautionary Note for Teaching Reflective Processes in Nursing and Midwifery Practice.Bev Taylor - 1997 - Nursing Inquiry 4 (1):19-26.
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  17. Aesthetik Und Pragmatismus. Zur Funktionalen Relevanz Einer Nicht-Diskursiven Formauffassung Bei Cassirer, Langer Und Krois.Martina Sauer - 2014 - Image. Zeitschrift für Interdisziplinäre Bildwissenschaft 20 (2):49-69.
    To what extend is there a relevance of aesthetics for life? By postulating a non-discursive and emotional relevance of forms Cassirer, Langer and Krois open the door for this idea. -/- Inwieweit spielt die Ästhetik im Leben eine Rolle? Indem sowohl Cassirer, Langer und Krois eine nicht-diskursive und emotionale Relevanz von Formen unterstellen, öffnen sie die Türen für diese Idee.
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  18. Morally Irrelevant Factors: What's Left of the Dual Process-Model of Moral Cognition?Hanno Sauer - 2012 - Philosophical Psychology 25 (6):783-811.
    Current developments in empirical moral psychology have spawned a new perspective on the traditional metaethical question of whether moral judgment is based on reason or emotion. Psychologists and cognitive neuroscientists such as Joshua Greene argue that there is empirical evidence that emotion is essential for one particularly important subclass of moral judgments: so-called ?deontological judgments.? In this paper, I scrutinize this claim and argue that neither the empirical evidence for Greene's dual process-theory of moral judgment nor the normative conclusions it (...)
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  19. It’s the Knobe Effect, Stupid!: How to Explain the Side-Effect Effect.Hanno Sauer - 2014 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 5 (4):485-503.
    People asymmetrically attribute various agential features such as intentionality, knowledge, or causal impact to other agents when something of normative significance is at stake. I will argue that three questions are of primary interest in the debate about this effect. A methodological question about how to explain it at all; a substantive question about how to explain it correctly: and a normative question about whether to explain it in terms of an error or a legitimate judgmental pattern. The problem, I (...)
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  20. Social Intuitionism and the Psychology of Moral Reasoning.Hanno Sauer - 2011 - Philosophy Compass 6 (10):708-721.
    Rationalism about the psychology of moral judgment holds, among other things, that the justifying moral reasons we have for our judgments are also the causally effective reasons for why we make those judgments. This can be called the ‘effectiveness’-thesis regarding moral reasoning. The theory that best exemplifies the thesis is the traditional conscious reasoning-paradigm. Current empirical moral psychology, however, poses a serious challenge to this thesis: it argues that in fact, emotional reactions are necessary and sufficient to account for moral (...)
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  21.  13
    The Marginal Cost of Public Funds: Theory and Applications.Bev Dahlby - 2008 - MIT Press.
    The marginal cost of public funds measures the loss incurred by society in raising additional revenues to finance government spending. The MCF has emerged as one of the most important concepts in public economics; it is a key component in evaluations of tax reforms, public expenditure programs, and other public policies. The Marginal Cost of Public Funds provides a unified treatment of the MCF, carefully developing its theoretical foundations in a variety of contexts and describing its application to a wide (...)
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  22.  51
    Die Einheit der Intentionalitätskonzeption Bei Brentano.Werner Sauer - 2006 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 73 (1):1-26.
    The objective of this paper is to refute the widely held view that in the wake of his so-called reistic turn Brentano subjected his notion of intentionality to a deep-going revision, viz., that he turned from an ontological account of the intentional object by way of identifying it with the thought-of-thing, i.e., the intentional correlate, or by way of attributing to it a peculiar sort of existence, to a non-ontological account thereof. It will be shown that neither the pre-reistic Brentano (...)
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  23.  65
    Chairmen, Cocaine, and Car Crashes: The Knobe Effect as an Attribution Error.Hanno Sauer & Tom Bates - 2013 - The Journal of Ethics 17 (4):305-330.
    In this paper, we argue that the so-called Knobe-Effect constitutes an error. There is now a wealth of data confirming that people are highly prone to what has also come to be known as the ‘side-effect effect’. That is, when attributing psychological states—such as intentionality, foreknowledge, and desiring—as well as other agential features—such as causal control—people typically do so to a greater extent when the action under consideration is evaluated negatively. There are a plethora of models attempting to account for (...)
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  24.  83
    Visualität Und Geschichte. Bilder Als Historische Akteure Im Anschluss an Verkörperungstheorien.Martina Sauer - 2015 - In Claus Oberhauser Niels Grüne (ed.), Jenseits des Illustrativen : visuelle Medien und Strategien politischer Kommunikation. Göttingen, Germany: V&R uni press Göttingen. pp. 39-60.
    Special commendation from the Hans-und-Lea-Grundig Prize by the Rosa-Luxemburg-Foundation 2015 -- I -- Do have pictures an impact on future? Yes, say theories of embodiment by making perceptual foundations in place of representational arrangements responsible for it. -- I -- Wirken sich Bildern auf die Zukunft aus? Ja sagen Verkörperungstheorien und machen dafür weniger Repräsentationsmodelle als Wahrnehmungsweisen verantwortlich.
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  25.  82
    On the Kantian Background of Neopositivism.Werner Sauer - 1989 - Topoi 8 (2):111-119.
  26.  78
    Can’T We All Disagree More Constructively? Moral Foundations, Moral Reasoning, and Political Disagreement.Hanno Sauer - 2015 - Neuroethics 8 (2):153-169.
    Can’t we all disagree more constructively? Recent years have seen a dramatic increase in political partisanship: the 2013 shutdown of the US government as well as an ever more divided political landscape in Europe illustrate that citizens and representatives of developed nations fundamentally disagree over virtually every significant issue of public policy, from immigration to health care, from the regulation of financial markets to climate change, from drug policies to medical procedures. The emerging field of political psychology brings the tools (...)
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  27.  31
    Einstein's Unified Field Theory Program.Tilman Sauer - unknown
    This contribution gives an overview of Einstein's work on unified field theory. It characterizes this work from four perspectives, by looking at its conceptual, representational, biographical, and philosophical dimensions.
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  28.  1
    Winner of the Philosophical Explorations Essay Prize 2012 Educated Intuitions. Automaticity and Rationality in Moral Judgement.Hanno Sauer - 2012 - Philosophical Explorations 15 (3):96-96.
    Moral judgements are based on automatic processes. Moral judgements are based on reason. In this paper, I argue that both of these claims are true, and show how they can be reconciled. Neither the automaticity of moral judgement nor the post hoc nature of conscious moral reasoning pose a threat to rationalist models of moral cognition. The relation moral reasoning bears to our moral judgements is not primarily mediated by episodes of conscious reasoning, but by the acquisition, formation and maintenance (...)
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  29.  1
    The Relativity of Discovery: Hilberts First Note on the Foundations of Physics.Tilman Sauer - 1999 - Archive for History of Exact Sciences 53 (6):529-575.
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  30.  16
    Providing Fertility Care to Those with HIV: Time to Re-Examine Healthcare Policy.Mark V. Sauer - 2003 - American Journal of Bioethics 3 (1):33 – 40.
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  31.  68
    The Appropriateness of Emotions. Moral Judgment, Moral Emotions, and the Conflation Problem.Hanno Sauer - 2011 - Ethical Perspectives 18 (1):107-140.
    What is the connection between emotions and moral judgments? Neo-sentimentalism maintains that to say that something is morally wrong is to think it appropriate to resent other people for doing it or to feel guilty upon doing it oneself. But intuitively, it seems that there is no way to characterize the content of guilt and resentment independent from the fact that these emotions respond to morally wrong actions. In response to this problem of circularity, modern forms of sentimentalism have favoured (...)
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  32.  35
    No Excuses for Moral Realism.Hanno Sauer - 2018 - Philosophical Studies 175 (3):553-578.
    Many believe that there is at least some asymmetry between the extent to which moral and non-moral ignorance excuse. I argue that the exculpatory force of moral ignorance—or lack thereof—poses a thus far overlooked challenge to moral realism. I show, firstly, that if there were any mind-independent moral truths, we would not expect there to be an asymmetry in exculpatory force between moral and ordinary ignorance at all. I then consider several attempts the realist might make to deny or accommodate (...)
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  33. Reviewer Training to Assess Knowledge Translation in Funding Applications is Long Overdue.Bev J. Holmes, Donna Angus & Gayle Scarrow - 2017 - Research Integrity and Peer Review 2 (1).
    BackgroundHealth research funding agencies are placing a growing focus on knowledge translation plans, also known as dissemination and implementation plans, in grant applications to decrease the gap between what we know from research and what we do in practice, policy, and further research. Historically, review panels have focused on the scientific excellence of applications to determine which should be funded; however, relevance to societal health priorities, the facilitation of evidence-informed practice and policy, or realizing commercialization opportunities all require a different (...)
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  34.  1
    Einstein's Washington Manuscript on Unified Field Theory*.Tilman Sauer & Tobias Schütz - forthcoming - Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte.
    Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte, EarlyView.
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  35.  16
    Ethics in the Intensive Care Unit: A Need for Research.Kevin Kendrick & Bev Cubbin - 1996 - Nursing Ethics 3 (2):157-164.
    Intensive care units are challenging and technologically advanced environments. Dealing with situations that have an ethical dimension is an intrinsic part of working in such a milieu. When a moral dilemma emerges, it can cause anxiety and unease for all staff involved with it. Theoretical and abstract papers reveal that having to confront situations of ethical difficulty is a contributory factor to levels of poor morale and burnout among critical care staff. Despite this, there is a surprising dearth of published (...)
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  36.  36
    Dialectics of Mindfulness: Implications for Western Medicine.Sebastian Sauer, Siobhan Lynch, Harald Walach & Niko Kohls - 2011 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 6:1-7.
    Mindfulness as a clinical and nonclinical intervention for a variety of symptoms has recently received a substantial amount of interest. Although the application of mindfulness appears straightforward and its effectiveness is well supported, the concept may easily be misunderstood. This misunderstanding may severely limit the benefit of mindfulness-based interventions. It is therefore necessary to understand that the characteristics of mindfulness are based on a set of seemingly paradoxical structures. This article discusses the underlying paradox by disentangling it into five dialectical (...)
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  37.  27
    Implicit and Explicit Emotional Behavior and Mindfulness.Sebastian Sauer, Harald Walach, Stefan Schmidt, Thilo Hinterberger, Majella Horan & Niko Kohls - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1558-1569.
    The objective of this study was to examine whether the “step back and watch” attitude of mindfulness manifests in less emotional behavior. We hypothesized that the “acceptance” facet of mindfulness, but not the “presence” facet, is negatively associated with the magnitude of emotional behavior in four tests, i.e., rating of words, rating of aversive and neutral pictures, and evaluative conditioning . Additionally, we hypothesized that the acceptance facet is associated with increased reaction time in an emotional Stroop test, and that (...)
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  38.  9
    The Role of Institutional Uncertainty for Social Sustainability of Companies and Supply Chains.Nikolas K. Kelling, Philipp C. Sauer, Stefan Gold & Stefan Seuring - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-21.
    Global sourcing largely occurs from so-called emerging markets and developing economies. In these contexts, substantial leverage effects for sustainability in supply chains can be expected by reducing adverse impacts on society and minimising related risks. For this ethical end, an adequate understanding of the respective sourcing contexts is fundamental. This case study of South Africa’s mining sector uses institutional theory and the notion of institutional uncertainty to empirically analyse the challenges associated with establishing social sustainability. The case study research is (...)
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  39. Metamorality without Moral Truth.Steven R. Kraaijeveld & Hanno Sauer - 2018 - Neuroethics 12 (2):119-131.
    Recently, Joshua Greene has argued that we need a metamorality to solve moral problems for which evolution has not prepared us. The metamorality that he proposes is a utilitarian account that he calls deep pragmatism. Deep pragmatism is supposed to arbitrate when the values espoused by different groups clash. To date, no systematic appraisal of this argument for a metamorality exists. We reconstruct Greene’s case for deep pragmatism as a metamorality and consider three lines of objection to it. We argue (...)
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  40. An Einstein Manuscript on the EPR Paradox for Spin Observables.Tilman Sauer - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 38 (4):879-887.
    A formulation by Einstein of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen incompleteness argument found in his scientific manuscripts is presented and briefly commented on. It is the only known version in which Einstein discussed the argument for spin observables. The manuscript dates, in all probability, from late 1954 or early 1955 and hence also represents Einstein's latest version of the incompleteness argument and one of his last statements on quantum theory in general. A puzzling formulation raises the question of Einstein's interpretation of space quantization (...)
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  41.  20
    Carnaps 'Aufbau' in kantianischer Sicht.Werner Sauer - 1985 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 23 (1):19-35.
    Es wird versucht, einige Aspekte von Carnaps Werk Der logische Auflyau der Welt vor dem Hintergrund des Kantianismus zu betrachten, insbesondere die Strukturalismusthese, das Verhältnis von Gegebenem und Konstruiertem und den Wirklichkeitsbegriff; das Ergebnis geht dahin, daß sich mehr Gemeinsamkeiten mit der kantianischen Tradition zeigen als es von einem klassischen Werk des Neopositivismus zu erwarten wäre.
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  42.  11
    Österreichische Philosophie Zwischen Aufklärung Und Restauration: Beiträge Zur Geschichte des Frühkantianismus in der Donaumonarchie.Werner Sauer (ed.) - 1982 - Rodopi.
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  43.  5
    Carnaps 'Aufbau' in kantianischer Sicht.Werner Sauer - 1985 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 23 (1):19-35.
    Es wird versucht, einige Aspekte von Carnaps Werk Der logische Auflyau der Welt vor dem Hintergrund des Kantianismus zu betrachten, insbesondere die Strukturalismusthese, das Verhältnis von Gegebenem und Konstruiertem und den Wirklichkeitsbegriff; das Ergebnis geht dahin, daß sich mehr Gemeinsamkeiten mit der kantianischen Tradition zeigen als es von einem klassischen Werk des Neopositivismus zu erwarten wäre.
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  44.  1
    Einstein Equations and Hilbert Action: What is Missing on Page 8 of the Proofs for Hilbert's First Communication on the Foundations of Physics?Tilman Sauer - 2005 - Archive for History of Exact Sciences 59 (6):577-590.
    The history of the publication of the gravitational field equations of general relativity in November 1915 by Einstein and Hilbert is briefly reviewed. An analysis of the internal structure and logic of Hilbert's theory as expounded in extant proofs and in the published version of his relevant paper is given with respect to the specific question what information would have been found on a missing piece of Hilbert's proofs. The existing texts suggest that the missing piece contained the explicit form (...)
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  45.  6
    Just Results: Ethical Foundations for Policy Analysis.James B. Sauer - 1999 - Journal of Value Inquiry 33 (4):565-569.
  46.  2
    Einstein’s Quantum Theory of the Monatomic Ideal Gas: Non-Statistical Arguments for a New Statistics.Tilman Sauer & Enric Pérez - 2010 - Archive for History of Exact Sciences 64 (5):561-612.
    In this article, we analyze the third of three papers, in which Einstein presented his quantum theory of the ideal gas of 1924–1925. Although it failed to attract the attention of Einstein’s contemporaries and although also today very few commentators refer to it, we argue for its significance in the context of Einstein’s quantum researches. It contains an attempt to extend and exhaust the characterization of the monatomic ideal gas without appealing to combinatorics. Its ambiguities illustrate Einstein’s confusion with his (...)
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  47.  14
    Zur Perspektivität der Wahrnehmung von Pflegenden Und Ärzten Bei Ethischen FragestellungenOn the Different Perspectives of Perception by Nurses and Physicians.Timo Sauer - 2015 - Ethik in der Medizin 27 (2):123-140.
    ZusammenfassungPflegende und Ärzte haben in der beruflichen Alltagspraxis unterschiedliche Perspektiven. Dies zeigt sich insbesondere in ethisch relevanten Entscheidungssituationen, in denen sie oft zu grundlegend unterschiedlichen Urteilen kommen. Aus dieser „Unterschiedlichkeit der Perspektiven“ können in der beruflichen Alltagspraxis mitunter erhebliche Dissonanzen entstehen, die einer konstruktiven Zusammenarbeit im Wege stehen. Die vorliegende Arbeit will zum einen den in der Praxis der klinischen Ethik gewonnenen Eindruck und die daraus formulierte These einer „perspektivischen Differenz“ empirisch nachweisen. Um dies zu leisten, wurde am Universitätsklinikum Frankfurt (...)
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  48.  2
    Westorientierung Im Deutschen Protestantismus?: Vorstellungen Und Tätigkeit des Kronberger Kreises.Thomas Sauer - 1999 - De Gruyter.
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  49.  22
    Hopes and Disappointments in Hilbert’s Axiomatic “Foundations of Physics”.Tilman Sauer - 2002 - Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 9:225-237.
    Sixteen years after his “Foundations of Geometry,” Hilbert published a communication that bears a similar and, by use of the definite article, even less mistakable title: “The Foundations of Physics.” In the opening paragraph of this article, Hilbert announced his intention self-confidently:In the following, I should like to set up — following the axiomatic method — a new system of fundamental equations of physics, constructed essentially from two simple axioms; equations that are of ideal beauty and in which, as I (...)
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  50.  1
    Einstein and the Early Theory of Superconductivity, 1919–1922.Tilman Sauer - 2007 - Archive for History of Exact Sciences 61 (2):159-211.
    Einstein's early thoughts about superconductivity are discussed as a case study of how theoretical physics reacts to experimental findings that are incompatible with established theoretical notions. One such notion that is discussed is the model of electric conductivity implied by Drude's electron theory of metals, and the derivation of the Wiedemann-Franz law within this framework. After summarizing the experimental knowledge on superconductivity around 1920, the topic is then discussed both on a phenomenological level in terms of implications of Maxwell's equations (...)
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