Legal restrictions of the right to self-determination increasingly pretend to be compatible with the liberal concept of autonomy: they act upon a ‘soft’ or autonomy-orientated paternalistic rationale. Conventional liberal critique of paternalism turns out to be insensitive to the intricate normative problems following from ‘soft’ or ‘libertarian’ paternalism. In fact, these autonomy-oriented forms of paternalism could actually be even more problematic and may infringe liberty rights even more intensely than hard paternalistic regulation. This paper contributes to the systematic differentiation of (...) soft and hard paternalism by discussing the (legal) concept of autonomy and elaborates the moral and legal limits of autonomy-orientated paternalism. (shrink)
Nous avons cherch dcle sur le Livre V des ments d'Euclide, m; et notamment de traduire en anglais les passages que nous avons jug d'expliquer pourquoi certains maths lfinition des grandeurs proportionnelles que l'on trouve au dléments.
Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan was a foremost singer of qawwâlî. This Muslim devotional music, which is prominent in South Asia, has been developed since the fourteenth century by the Sufi circles of the Chishti brotherhood in order to preach and communicate the teachings of the saints. Inspired by mystic spirituality, Nusrat's music travelled through the East and the West, absorbing some of the features of the musical cultures with which it came in contact. It also travelled through time, transforming (...) the traditional style of the ancient chanted poetry into new forms of musical expression. Nusrat's life and his artistic vicissitudes show the postmodern destiny of qawwâlî as a religious kind of music that apparently went through a process of desacralization and profanation as a result of multiple interpretations by different audiences. In order to discern the conditions of significance, semiotics reconstructs the relation between text and context of interpretation on the ground of structural pertinences. In this way, semiotics offers an analytical standpoint alternative to the postmodernist approach to postmodern cultural phenomena. By surveying the forms of listening that are structurally provided by the textual discourse, semiotics investigates the destiny of the musical and religious meanings of qawwâlî in relation to the process of intercultural translation. (shrink)
Euclid's definition of proportional magnitudes in the Fifth Book of the Elements gave rise to many commentaries. We examine closely two of these commentaries, one by al-Jayy and the other by Saunderson. Both al-Jayy and Saunderson attempted to defend Euclid's definition by making explicit what Euclid had only implied. We show that the two authors explain Euclid's position in a virtually identical manner.
The sociology of revolution has produced a prodigious body of scholarship that is nonetheless deficient in one area: attention to gender in the unfolding of revolutions and in the building of new states. Feminist scholars, however, have been attentive to women's participation in revolutions, the effects of revolutions on gender systems and women's positions, and how gender shapes revolutionary processes, including patterns of mobilization, revolutionary programs, and the policies of revolutionary states. This article discusses the literature on revolutions, presents a (...) theoretical framework for the study of revolutions based on gender outcomes, and examines two cases of revolutionary transformation that conform to what I call the patriarchal model of revolution: Iran in 1979 and the 1989 revolutions in East Central Europe. (shrink)
Gender inequality exists in Pakistan as a phenomenon that does not allow women equality of opportunity in the public and private sphere and also keeps women in very subjugated roles within the public and in private relationships. These factors can affect women’s access to education, employment, to career advancement and to their possibilities of holding positions of political power and roles of social and cultural esteem. Although gender equality may have progressed somewhat in the modern world but it is still (...) an issue of great urgency in other parts of the world as well as in Pakistan, that is the focus of this study. This research investigates the types and consequences of gender discrimination that exist. The findings from the study suggest that the urban women in the sample of the present study still struggle for gender equality with men in Pakistan. The results show that in a number of areas, in both family and public life, they are still seen by many as second class citizens; and see their own autonomy and opportunities as limited. The social class of urban women in Pakistan is strongly related to their opportunities. Urban women from upper and middle class backgrounds enjoy more autonomy and equality in their lives as compare to women from poor backgrounds. These findings tend to support historical data in relation to women in Pakistan. (shrink)
The present study “Promotion of Primary Health Care in Pakistan: A Case Study of the Role of Non-Governmental Organizations in Promoting Primary Health Care in Karachi” is aimed at determining the role of NGOs in the promotion of primary health Care sector in Pakistan with special reference to Karachi. The primary objective of this research is to evaluate the role and performance of relevant NGOs working in Karachi in the health sector. It is a quantitative research. A questionnaire based to (...) obtain the opinions of respondents. The health care is the basic responsibility of the state. However, the NGOs play their role in promoting the health care facilities. It was noted that the primary health care system is still not working properly. NGO sector was given a wide room and finances but unfortunately they did not make the required contribution. Their lack of technical knowledge and accountability was a factor in their failure. The prevailing attitude towards health care among the masses has not changed despite the efforts of the NGO sector. Therefore the basic health conditions of the masses at the grass roots level continue to be poor. The stake holders in the health care sector should rethink about their strategies to improve health care facilities in Karachi. (shrink)
This article addresses the question which structures occur as fixed structures of stable structures with a generic automorphism. In particular we give a Galois theoretic characterization. Furthermore, we prove that any pseudofinite field is the fixed field of some model ofACFA, any one-free pseudo-differentially closed field of characteristic zero is the fixed field of some model ofDCFA, and that any one-free PAC field of finite degree of imperfection is the fixed field of some model ofSCFA.
Neonatal brain monitoring in the neonatal intensive care units requires a continuous review of the spontaneous cortical activity, i.e., the electroencephalograph background activity. This needs development of bedside methods for an automated assessment of the EEG background activity. In this paper, we present development of the key components of a neonatal EEG background classifier, starting from the visual background scoring to classifier design, and finally to possible bedside visualization of the classifier results. A dataset with 13,200 5-minute EEG epochs from (...) 27 infants with birth asphyxia was used for classifier training after scoring by two independent experts. We tested three classifier designs based on 98 computational features, and their performance was assessed with respect to scoring system, pre- and post-processing of labels and outputs, choice of channels, and visualization in monitor displays. The optimal solution achieved an overall classification accuracy of 97% with a range across subjects of 81–100%. We identified a set of 23 features that make the classifier highly robust to the choice of channels and missing data due to artefact rejection. Our results showed that an automated bedside classifier of EEG background is achievable, and we publish the full classifier algorithm to allow further clinical replication and validation studies. (shrink)
Informed by sociological standpoint, intersectional, and gender regime theories, we examine perceptions of a diverse sample of Iranian Kurdish women in the city of Sanandaj about their legal status and social positions. We find perceptions of injustice, oppression, male control, and lack of opportunity associated with both the family and broader society. Kurdish women are socially located in structures and institutions of both private and public patriarchy. At the same time, their growing educational attainment and knowledge of possibilities for change (...) enable them not only to articulate grievances but also to aspire to, and sometimes engage in, collective action for women’s rights. By focusing on an under-studied region, this article contributes to the wider literature on Kurdish women, underscores the continued salience of intersectional and standpoint approaches, and expands gender regime theorizing beyond Western cases. (shrink)
This study is aimed to investigate the gender portrayals in Pakistani television commercials that run on Pakistani television channels. The research is mainly a content analysis, intends to examine the gender representation of male and female in Pakistani television commercials. For this purpose the commercials have been closely investigated considering the male and female role portrayals, demographic focus and main voice over/ narrators. Twenty-five commercials were randomly selected from four broad categories of household products, beauty products, telecommunications and edibles. These (...) four product categories represent those television advertisements that have been given greater exposure on Pakistani television channels and also enlist in top ten product category in the year 2008. The aforementioned top ten product category list was prepared by Gallup Pakistan and accessed from the Aurora purple book published by Dawn group of newspapers in 2008. The research framework attempts to familiarize the readers with the gender representation in Pakistani television commercials, their similarities and differences in comparison with the existing literature from various countries. (shrink)
Several theories link consciousness to complex cortical dynamics, as suggested by comparison of brain signal diversity between conscious states and states where consciousness is lost or reduced. In particular, Lempel-Ziv complexity, amplitude coalition entropy and synchrony coalition entropy distinguish wakefulness and REM sleep from deep sleep and anesthesia, and are elevated in psychedelic states, reported to increase the range and vividness of conscious contents. Some studies have even found correlations between complexity measures and facets of self-reported experience. As suggested by (...) integrated information theory and the entropic brain hypothesis, measures of differentiation and signal diversity may therefore be measurable correlates of consciousness and phenomenological richness. Inspired by these ideas, we tested three hypotheses about EEG signal diversity related to sleep and dreaming. First, diversity should decrease with successively deeper stages of non-REM sleep. Second, signal diversity within the same sleep stage should be higher for periods of dreaming vs. non-dreaming. Third, specific aspects of dream contents should correlate with signal diversity in corresponding cortical regions. We employed a repeated awakening paradigm in sleep deprived healthy volunteers, with immediate dream report and rating of dream content along a thought-perceptual axis, from exclusively thought-like to exclusively perceptual. Generalized linear mixed models were used to assess how signal diversity varied with sleep stage, dreaming and thought-perceptual rating. Signal diversity decreased with sleep depth, but was not significantly different between dreaming and non-dreaming, even though there was a significant positive correlation between Lempel-Ziv complexity of EEG recorded over the posterior cortex and thought-perceptual ratings of dream contents. (shrink)
Organised crime is chameleonic in nature. It is transnational, dynamic, overlapped criminal activities and pervasive in nature. In the same way, money laundering is the predicate offence and it is naturally linked to other organised crimes. After the cold war, this nexus culminated during the occurrence of 9/11 in particular which was a lethal combination of money laundering and terrorist financing. This combination is currently being experienced by Pakistan; where various terrorist groups are involved with direct and indirect support of (...) proceeds from drug trafficking, assassination, land grabbing, arms smuggling and various other organised crimes routing through the abusage of financial and non-financial channels and support to terrorism. This has left serious socio-politico and economic consequences in the south Asian region and global as well. The researcher found very limited evidence of money laundering characteristics in the existing research literature on Pakistan. Thus to carry out research work on the subject was need of the hour in Pakistan. This led the researcher to find out root causes and existing weaknesses at the regime’s end in countering financial crime and financing of terrorism. (shrink)
Shyness affects and influences the performance of the learners at school and college level. There are different correlates and reasons of shyness. Zimbardo states that Shyness is a vague concept which has many interpretations and definitions. One definition which is very renowned is that “The person, male or female, who is nervous, worried, and uncomfortable in the gathering or presence of others, is called shy”. The objectives of this research study were as: to investigate the relationship of schooling system with (...) shyness to investigate the relationship of residential locality with shyness to check relationship of Socio- Economic status with shyness To rank the correlates of shyness. Overall 252 students from graduation of Indus group of Colleges from Rawalpindi and Islamabad were the population of the study and 42 students were selected through simple random sampling technique as a sample for the study. The researcher got the data with the help of personal visits to the colleges. Questionnaire for measuring shyness was used by the researcher for this research study1. Another self developed questionnaire or instrument was used to know the correlates of shyness. Chisquare test of independence was used for data analysis. The results of the study showed that shyness depended upon these correlates of shyness as residential locality Schooling system socio-economic status of the learners. Shyness depends upon above mentioned correlates. In order to remove this problem of shyness, some steps should be taken as learners or students may not be blamed or punished without any reason. Learners should be encouraged and motivated. (shrink)
Internationalization of higher education is a concept that is currently making its way to every corner of the globe. An Introduction to the Internationalization of Higher Education aims to provide the reader with an introduction to this subject and explore three of its most fundamental aspects; namely, internationalization at home, internationalization abroad, and internationalization of curriculum. This publication delves into the underlying rationale for internationalization of higher education and discusses the opportunities and challenges brought about by this concept. Current practices (...) regarding the internationalization of higher education are discussed, and the requirements for the realization of these activities are laid out. This book can act as a basis for future research endeavors as it clearly and comprehensively introduces the internationalization of higher education and answers various questions about this topic. (shrink)
Despite growing concern about medical ghostwriting, pharmaceutical companies, universities, medical journals, and communication companies employing ghostwriters have thus far failed to adequately stem the problem. As a result, some commentators have proposed that legal remedies could be sought by patients harmed by drugs publicized in ghostwritten papers. In this Essay, we build on a recent analysis by Stern and Lemmens in PLoS Medicine to outline specific areas of legal liability.
This research was carried out to explore the gender differences in resilience, coping and quality of life of oncology nurses. It is evidenced through the literature that oncology nurses face different stressors because of complexity involved in their profession. This research attempts to investigate the impact of resilience and coping strategies on quality of life of nurses along with identifying nature of gender differences in each domain. A total of 300 oncology nurses participated in cross sectional survey based study. Trait (...) and State Resilience Checklist, Brief Cope Scale and WHO Quality of Life scale were used to assess resilience, coping strategies and quality of life respectively. Results indicated significant gender differences in terms of coping strategies and quality of life. Moreover, resilience came out to be a strong predictor of quality of life in nurses. Findings of the study are discussed in terms of policy towards nursing stress management and coping intervention. (shrink)
Sheki is one of the most important Moslem provinces of the Southern Caucasia. A series of local histories have emerged in this region the first of which is A Brief History of the Sheki Khans by Karim Agha Fateh. For years, this work had existed in manuscript form and when it was introduced to the world of historiography science, inadequate and erroneous information were produced about it. Using analytic-descriptive method and relying on library sources, this study attempts to fully (...) introduce this work as well as to analyze its content and writing style. (shrink)