This cross-sectional study was carried out to investigate the frequency of consanguineous marriage in a group of army conscripts in Ankara and the factors affecting this. Of 4153 soldiers, 387 were married. The rate of marriage between first cousins was found to be 19·1%, and the overall rate of consanguineous marriage was 24·1%. Consanguineous marriage was found to be significantly prevalent among soldiers who were born in and still living in the Eastern region; among those who lived in villages; among (...) those whose parents as well as themselves had low educational levels; and among those whose marriages were arranged by their families. Neither the payment of bride-price nor the presence of consanguinity between parents was a significant factor for consanguineous marriage. In addition, the age of the soldier and the age at marriage were significantly lower among soldiers married to first cousins than among soldiers whose marriages were not consanguineous. (shrink)
The children’s market has become significantly more important to marketers in recent years. They have been spending increasing amounts on advertising, particularly of food and beverages, to reach this segment. At the same time, there is a critical debate among parents, government agencies, and industry experts as to the ethics of food advertising practices aimed toward children. The␣present study examines parents’ ethical views of food advertising targeting children. Findings indicate that parents’ beliefs concerning at least some dimensions of moral intensity (...) are significantly related to their ethical judgments and behavioral intentions of food advertising targeting children as well as the perceived moral intensity of the situation. (shrink)
In this timely and outstanding contribution, Andreas Lammer tackles central concepts and problems in Avicenna's Physics of the Healing. The analysis provides a wide-ranging but cohesive study of Avicenna's approach and ideas. The philological and philosophical analysis of the historical context of Avicenna's arguments pays dividends. Avicenna's—often radical—reworking of Aristotle's approach in the Physics critically engages a long tradition of Peripatetic and Neoplatonic philosophy in Greek and Arabic. Lammer's contribution, based on his doctoral dissertation, lays fertile ground for future work. (...) Given the limitations of this review, I focus in the following on the results and fruitful questions raised by chapters... (shrink)
This paper attempts to explore the philosophical argument regarding an account of the development of management orientations and attributes a historical succession of these orientations to a human hereditary. It is hard to find such a consolidate and plausible theory which may provide deep insight into the history and theory of management. This paper is theoretical, based on literature and philosophical analysis. It argues that human behaviours become a force and its treatment cause the variance in human management. The management (...) with respect to human has periodically recognised these forces and acquired the tools for treatment of such forces. In this paper, theoretically through deductive-partial inductive approach, human forces are classified into six dimensions (gender, attain, social, relational, metaphysical and heredity force) and subsequently in four orientations of management (demo, socio, psycho-socio and meta-oriented management). Demo and socio-oriented management are explored with historical context, while the psycho-socio oriented management is argued with theoretical considerations, i.e., theories related to human work behaviour, performance, need and satisfaction. In last, a plausible argument is presented for meta-oriented management by considering its application in existing corporate structure management. (shrink)
This paper contributes to the evolving body of literature diagnosing the ‘business-like’ transformation of American medicine by historicising and recuperating the concepts of medical leadership and the corporation. In an analysis of the evolving uses of ‘leadership’ in medical literature, we argue that the term’s appeal derives from its ability to productively articulate the inevitable conflicts that arise between competing values in corporations, and so should be understood as a response to the neoliberal corporation’s false resolutions of conflict according to (...) the single value of profit. Drawing on mid-century theories of the corporation to reframe dominant social histories of medical corporatisation, we go on to argue that large medical institutions are productive sites for deliberation over the medical profession’s social contract. Our primary case study for this longer historical and broader theoretical argument is the MD Anderson Cancer Center, the world’s foremost treatment hospital for patients with cancer. We hold that the historical trajectory that led to MD Anderson’s exceptional but exemplary place in the evolution of American corporate medicine is reflective of historical trends in the practice. (shrink)
The Cuckoo search algorithm is an efficient evolutionary algorithm inspired by the nesting and parasitic reproduction behaviors of some cuckoo species. Mutation is an operator used in evolutionary algorithms to maintain the diversity of the population from one generation to the next. The original CS algorithm uses the Lévy flight method, which is a special mutation operator, for efficient exploration of the search space. The major goal of the current paper is to experimentally evaluate the performance of the CS algorithm (...) after replacing the Lévy flight method in the original CS algorithm with seven different mutation methods. The proposed variations of CS were evaluated using 14 standard benchmark functions in terms of the accuracy and reliability of the obtained results over multiple simulations. The experimental results suggest that the CS with polynomial mutation provides more accurate results and is more reliable than the other CS variations. (shrink)
This study focuses on determining the number of children considered ideal by Pakistani husbands and identifying the factors associated with this, with a special emphasis on family type. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among married males residing in four areas of Khairpur district. An equal number of study participants were selected systematically from each field site to achieve the required sample size of 500. Interviews were conducted by trained fieldworkers using a structured questionnaire to obtain information on background socioeconomic characteristics, (...) family structure and reproductive health knowledge and practices, in particular family planning. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the hypothesis that family type has an independent association with husbands opinions regarding ideal number of children can help strengthen population control efforts in Pakistan. (shrink)
ABSTRACTDuring the second Intifada which started in 2000 and ended sometime in mid 2000s, Palestinian male and female martyrs used video testimonies, records and documents of death, using the first person pronoun so as to articulate their missions and justifications for carrying out their acts of martyrdom. This study, which focuses on Palestinian female martyrs’ video-testimonies, investigates the elusive relationship between martyrdom and witness. I contend that the female martyr is a witness to the Israeli occupation of Palestine and to (...) the oppression and dehumanisation to which Palestinians are subject. Palestinian female martyrs are also witnesses to Arab leaders’ weakness and their inability to defend Palestine. The act of martyrdom is a collective one, involving the martyr, the agent of narration and the audience. The audience, who bears witness to the martyr, is necessary for martyrdom to be recognised and to take place. I argue that the end of the martyr’s speech marks out her silence and her tra... (shrink)
En la historia del pensamiento político musulmán ŷihād e iŷtihād siempre van unidos. Pero es en el pensamiento combativo donde más se manifiesta esa unión de un modo transcendente. El objetivo del presente trabajo es plantear el aspecto transhistórico del iŷtihād y del ŷihād, y con ello, exponer de manifiesto el siempre fracasado proceso de emancipación histórica y teológica del proyecto ŷihadístico basado sobre la mistificación de lo sustancialmente humano.
The thesis examines the origins and function of legal theory within the context of the development of early Islamic law. I argue against the depiction of the development of law as a series of compromises between traditionalism and rationalism. Rather, by evading the demands of traditionalism, law evolved into a complex doctrinal entity rooted in the social structures of third-century Abbasid society. This revision of the development of law provides a context to evaluate early works of legal theory. Moreover, in (...) context of my analysis of the development of law, I attempt to explain the emergence of legal theory as an independent discipline and its function within the greater structure of law. (shrink)
Con la publicación de al-�Aqida al-burhaniyya al-as,ariyya, una joya más del legado as,ari marroquí ha visto la luz. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la importancia de esa edición científica y aportar algunas reflexiones acerca de su contenido y forma.
Health care ethics is a sensitive domain, which if ignored, can lead to patient dissatisfaction, weakened doctor–patient interaction and episodes of violence. Little importance has been paid to medical ethics within undergraduate medical education in developing countries such as Pakistan. Three doctors in Pakistan are currently facing an official police complaint and arrest charges, following the death of a sanitary worker, who fell unconscious while cleaning a drain and was allegedly refused treatment as he was covered in sewage filth. The (...) medical license of the doctors in question should be cancelled, if found guilty following a thorough investigation into the case. The ‘right to life’ has been universally assured by all moral, cultural and legal codes and no society can ever argue against the sacredness of a human life. It is quite clear that the aforesaid doctors’ actions are not only against the core principles of the physicians’ code, but also go against the doctrine of human rights. If serious efforts on an urgent basis are not made by the regulatory and governing bodies, one can definitely expect similar incidents for at least a few more decades before any noticeable change is seen. (shrink)
La presente seleccion de textos, contiene los principales aspectos de la tesis del pensador egipcio Ali Sami Nash.r destacado miembro de la escuela "fundamentalista" defensora de la "originalidad de la filosofia islamica" en la historia del pensamiento arabe moderno. En estos textos, se llega a afirmar que la filosofia islamica tuvo su propia y especial estructura y por consiguiente, su peculiar personalidad, y que los filosofos dichos "islamicos" no eran nada mas que filosofos peripateticos seguidores de Aristoteles mientras que los (...) verdaderos filosofos del Islam eran los mutakallim.n, autenticos representantes del espiritu musulman. Con esta seleccion de textos traducidos directamente del arabe, se pretende realizar una reflexion sobre el destino que tomo una de las aproximaciones mas especificas sobre la filosofia peripatetica en el mundo islamico, que, por razones desconocidos, permanecio desconocida en Occidente y parte del mundo islamico. (shrink)